In J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional universe of Middle-earth, Hithlum is the region north of Beleriand near the Helcaraxë. Hithlum was separated from Beleriand proper by the Ered Wethrin mountain chain, was named after the sea mists which formed there at times: Hithlum is Sindarin for "Mist-shadow". Hithlum was subdivided in Mithrim, where the High Kings of the Noldor had their halls, Dor-lómin, which became a fief of the House of Hador; the Ered Wethrin formed the southern and eastern wall, had only a few passes. The western wall was formed by the Ered Lómin or "Echoing Mountains", which curved north-westward to the Helcaraxë; the land of Lammoth was not part of Beleriand or Hithlum. The land of Nevrast was separated from Hithlum by the southern part of the Ered Lómin range. Nevrast was seen as part of Hithlum, but its climate was that of Beleriand. Hithlum was quite fertile; the Noldor first camped at the shores of Lake Mithrim. In the First Age, Hithlum was continually under attack by Morgoth being lost after the Nírnaeth Arnoediad.
The Hadorians were scattered, killed, or enslaved, the Noldor were enslaved in Morgoth's mines if they could not flee in time, Morgoth trapped the Easterlings there. Hithlum was destroyed during the War of Wrath. Mithrim formed a part of Hithlum, was the south-eastern corner of it, bordering Dor-lómin to the west, from which it was divided by the Mountains of Mithrim. Mithrim's climate was the same as Hithlum's, the air was cool and the winters were cold but it was a fair land; the area was home to a great lake, the Lake of Mithrim, the body of water north of Beleriand where the Noldor first dwelt in Middle-earth: the Sons of Fëanor on the northern shore and Fingolfin's host on the southern shore. The Noldor dwelt here for a while until their feud was healed, they removed to other lands. Mithrim was home to Sindarin Elves, who soon mingled with the Noldor after they had learned Sindarin. In the First Age Mithrim was ruled by Fingolfin, as it formed the most densely populated part of Hithlum; the Mithrim Montes on Titan, the great moon of Saturn, are named after Tolkien's Mountains of Mithrim.
Dor-lómin, "Land of Echoes", was the south-western part of Hithlum, bordered in the east by the Mountains of Mithrim, in the north by the river which formed the Rainbow Cleft known as Annon-in-Gelydh, or "Gate of the Noldor". It was first colonized by the Noldor shortly after they arrived in Middle-earth, for a long time was ruled by Fingon son of Fingolfin, before he took over as High King of the Noldor after his father was killed. By this time the Edain who became known as the House of Hador had entered Beleriand, Fingon granted them the land of Dor-lómin as a fief, he gave them the Dragon-helm of Dor-lómin, it was thereafter their chief heirloom. Húrin son of Galdor, the last Edain lord of Dor-lómin dwelt in its south-western corner, near the mountain known as Amon Darthir, where the river Nen Lalaith began. After the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, when the House of Hador was destroyed or scattered, Easterlings dwelt in Dor-lómin, Tuor — Húrin's orphaned nephew — was fostered by the Elves of Androth in the nearby Mountains of Mithrim.
Like the rest of Hithlum Dor-lómin was destroyed during the War of Wrath. Dagor Bragollach Hithlum at the Tolkien Gateway
The Children of Húrin
The Children of Húrin is an epic fantasy novel which forms the completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien, he wrote the original version of the story in the late 1910s, revised it several times but did not complete it before his death in 1973. His son, Christopher Tolkien, edited the manuscripts to form a consistent narrative, published it in 2007 as an independent work; the book contains 33 illustrations in colour. The history and descent of the main characters are given as the leading paragraphs of the book, the back story is elaborated upon in The Silmarillion, it begins five hundred years before the action of the book, when Morgoth, a Vala and the prime evil power, escapes from the Blessed Realm of Valinor to the north-west of Middle-earth. From his fortress of Angband he endeavours to gain control of the whole of Middle-earth, unleashing a war with the Elves that dwell in the land of Beleriand to the south. However, the Elves manage to stay his assault, most of their realms remain unconquered.
In addition, after some time the Noldorin Elves forsake Valinor and pursue Morgoth to Middle-earth in order to take vengeance upon him. Together with the Sindar of Beleriand, they proceed to lay siege to Angband, establish new strongholds and realms in Middle-earth, including Hithlum ruled by Fingon, Nargothrond by Finrod Felagund and Gondolin by Turgon. Three centuries pass, during; these are the Edain, descendants of those Men who have rebelled against the rule of Morgoth's servants and journeyed westward. Most of the Elves welcome them, they are given fiefs throughout Beleriand; the House of Bëor rules over the land of Ladros, the Folk of Haleth retreat to the forest of Brethil, the lordship of Dor-lómin is granted to the House of Hador. Other Men enter Beleriand, the Easterlings, many of whom are in secret league with Morgoth. Morgoth manages to break the Siege of Angband in the Battle of Sudden Flame; the House of Bëor is destroyed and the Elves and Edain suffer heavy losses. Túrin, son of Húrin of the race of Men, lived in Dor-lómin with his father, his mother Morwen, his sister Urwen.
Urwen died as a child from a plague. Túrin's father was taken prisoner by Morgoth after the Battle of Unnumbered Tears. During Húrin's imprisonment Túrin was sent by his mother to live in the Elf-realm Doriath for protection. In his absence Morwen gave birth to her third child, a girl. Morgoth had placed a curse upon Húrin and all his family whereby evil would befall them for their whole lives. King Thingol of Doriath takes Túrin as a foster-son. During his time in Doriath Túrin befriends an Elf named Beleg, the two become close companions. Túrin accidentally causes the death of the Elf Saeros, who attempts to jump a ravine while fleeing but falls and is killed. Túrin refuses becoming an outlaw. Thingol tries Túrin in absentia and pardons him, he gives Beleg leave to bring him back to Doriath. Túrin meanwhile joins a band of outlaws in the wild, he renames himself Neithan, "the wronged" and becomes their captain. Beleg locates the band while Túrin is absent, the outlaws leave him tied to a tree until he agrees to give them information.
Túrin returns in time to cut Beleg free and, horrified by the outlaws' actions, resolves to forsake the cruel habits he has fallen into. Beleg delivers the message of the king's pardon but Túrin refuses to return to Doriath. Beleg returns to aid Doriath's defence. Túrin and his men capture a Petty-dwarf, who leads them to the caves at Amon Rûdh. Beleg decides to return to Túrin; the outlaws resent disliking Elves, grows to hate him. Mîm betrays the outlaws to orcs, leading the orcs to the caves where Túrin's company is taken unawares; the entire band is killed, save for Túrin. They take Túrin off towards Angband. Mîm is about to kill Beleg after the orcs depart when one of the outlaws, mortally wounded, rouses himself before dying to drive Mîm away and release Beleg. Beleg follows the orcs. Beleg happens across a mutilated elf, Gwindor of Nargothrond, sleeping in the forest of Taur-nu-Fuin, they enter the orc camp at night and carry Túrin, from the camp. Beleg begins to cut Túrin's bonds with his sword Anglachel, but the sword slips in his hand and cuts Túrin.
Túrin, mistaking Beleg for an orc, kills Beleg with his own sword. When a flash of lightning reveals Beleg's face, Túrin falls into a frenzy, he refuses to leave Beleg's body until morning. Túrin remains witless with grief. Túrin and Gwindor proceed to Nargothrond. There Túrin gains the favour of King Orodreth, after leading the Elves to considerable victories, he becomes Orodreth's chief counsellor and commander of his forces. Against all counsel Túrin refuses to hide Nargothrond from Morgoth or to retract his plans for full-scale battle. Morgoth sends an orc-army under the command of the dragon and Nargothrond is defeated; the orcs, crossing over the bridge that Túrin had built, sack Nargothrond and capture its citizens. Túrin returns as the prisoners are to be led away by the orcs, encounters Glaurung; the dragon enchants and tricks him into returning to Dor-lómin to seek out Morwen and Niënor instead of rescuing the prisoners—among whom is Finduilas, Orodreth’s daughter, who loved him. In Dor-lómin Túrin learns that Morwen and Niënor
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social and political elements. Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food and shelter; the threshold at which absolute poverty is defined is considered to be about the same, independent of the person's permanent location or era. On the other hand, relative poverty occurs when a person who lives in a given country does not enjoy a certain minimum level of "living standards" as compared to the rest of the population of that country. Therefore, the threshold at which relative poverty is defined varies from country to another, or from one society to another. Providing basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government's ability to deliver services, such as corruption, tax avoidance and loan conditionalities and by the brain drain of health care and educational professionals.
Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable include welfare, economic freedoms and providing financial services. Poverty reduction is still a major issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Bank, United States Agency for International Development, Oxfam, CARE, World Vision International, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Red Cross among a plethora of others. In 2012 it was estimated that, using a poverty line of $1.25 a day, 1.2 billion people lived in poverty. Given the current economic model, built on GDP, it would take 100 years to bring the world's poorest up to the poverty line of $1.25 a day. UNICEF estimates; the World Bank forecasted in 2015 that 702.1 million people were living in extreme poverty, down from 1.75 billion in 1990. Extreme poverty is observed in all parts including developed economies. Of the 2015 population, about 347.1 million people lived in Sub-Saharan Africa and 231.3 million lived in South Asia.
According to the World Bank, between 1990 and 2015, the percentage of the world's population living in extreme poverty fell from 37.1% to 9.6%, falling below 10% for the first time. The People's Republic of China accounts for over three quarters of global poverty reduction from 1990 to 2005. Though, as noted, China accounted for nearly half of all extreme poverty in 1990. In public opinion around the world people surveyed tend to incorrectly think extreme poverty hasn't decreased. During the 2013 to 2015 period The World Bank reported that extreme poverty fell from 11% to 10%, however they noted that the rate of decline had slowed by nearly half from the 25 year average with parts of sub-saharan Africa returning to early 2000 levels; the World Bank attributed this to increasing violence following the Arab Spring, population increases in Sub-Saharan Africa, general African inflationary pressures and economic malaise were the primary drivers for this slow down. There is disagreement among experts as to what would be considered a realistic poverty rate with one considering it "an inaccurately measured and arbitrary cut off".
Some contend that a higher poverty line is needed, such as a minimum of $7.40 or $10 to $15 a day. They argue that these levels would better reflect the cost of basic needs and normal life expectancy. One estimate places the true scale of poverty much higher than the World Bank, with an estimated 4.3 billion people living with less than $5 a day and unable to meet basic needs adequately. It has been argued by some academics that the neoliberal policies promoted by global financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank are exacerbating both inequality and poverty. Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money; the word poverty comes from Latin paupertās from pauper. There are several definitions of poverty depending on the context of the situation it is placed in, the views of the person giving the definition. Income Poverty: a family's income fails to meet a federally established threshold that differs across countries. United Nations: Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity.
It means lack of basic capacity to participate in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one's food or a job to earn one's living, not having access to credit, it means insecurity and exclusion of individuals and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, it implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation. World Bank: Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, comprises many dimensions, it includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one's life. Poverty is measured as either absolute or relative. In the United Kingdom, the second Cameron ministry came under attack for their redefinition of poverty.
Considering that two-thirds of people who found work were accepting wages that are below the living wage t
In J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional Middle-earth, Doriath is a forest realm of the Sindar in Beleriand ruled by King Thingol and his queen Melian, it serves as a principal stage for the stories of the First Age, such as The Tale of Beren and Lúthien from The Lays of Beleriand, parts of The Children of Húrin and The Silmarillion. It is called the "Fenced Land" because of a girdle of enchantment Melian put about it, allowing none to enter the kingdom without her leave or Thingol's. Doriath was a land of forests located in central Beleriand adjoining the great River Sirion and its eastern tributaries: Mindeb, Esgalduin and Aros, it contained the forests the northern beech forest. Additionally, the forests of Brethil and Nan Elmoth were considered part of Doriath, though these last two lay outside the Girdle of Melian. Elu Thingol, lord of the Sindar, had claimed all of Beleriand from the Gelion to Belegaer as his realm, but after the return of the Noldor to Middle-Earth Doriath was the centre of his power.
It is said that of all rulers of Beleriand in the legends "the most mighty and the longest free was Thingol of the Woods."In the middle of Doriath was a natural feature, a vast hill with many caves, located on the south banks of the Esgalduin. Toward the end of the Ages of Melkor's captivity, Melian counselled Thingol that the peace of his realm would not long endure, so he turned these caves into a citadel called Menegroth, the Thousand Caves, which became his capital city and principal fortress. Thingol commissioned the Dwarves of Nogrod to build the halls of Menegroth, its gates were carved into a rocky hill beside the Esgalduin, the vast caverns beneath were considered one of the finest works of the Elves of the Elder Days in either Middle-earth or Valinor. Dwarves were employed in its construction, its halls were carved to look like a beech forest, complete with animals. A great stone bridge across the Esgalduin provided the only access to the gates. Just across the Esgalduin from Menegroth, the great tree Hírilorn stood in the forest of Neldoreth.
Hírilorn had a tree-house, wherein Lúthien was confined by Thingol to prevent her from meeting Beren. Long before Doriath was founded, during the march of the Elves from Cuiviénen, the Vanyar and the Noldor passed through its woods on the Great Journey. Finwë and the Noldor dwelt there for a time before they were ferried across the Great Sea on Tol Eressëa. Treebeard the Ent wandered through the woods in an early era, although it's not clear whether this was before or after any Elves. Shortly after the third kindred of Elves, the Teleri, arrived in Beleriand their lord Elwë became enamoured with the Maia Melian and was lost in the forest of Nan Elmoth; when Ulmo returned to take the Teleri to Valinor, a part of that people remained behind to continue the search for their lord. Those Teleri who did journey to Valinor were led by Elwë's brother Olwë, became the Sea-elves or Falmari of Alqualondë; those who remained in Beleriand called themselves "the forsaken", called Doriath Eglador, meaning "Land of the Forsaken".
For them, Elwë returned, revealed as a lord of great reverence, accompanied by his queen Melian. He became known as Elu Thingol, the king of the Teleri of Middle-earth, ruled his people throughout Beleriand from Doriath, his people became known as the Sindar, Elves of the Twilight, or Grey Elves, enjoyed thousands of years of peace. However, in the last years before the Noldor returned to Middle-earth the Orcs assailed the Sindar of Beleriand. After that Battle, the first of many in the Wars of Beleriand, Melian fenced the forests of Neldoreth and Nivrim with unseen walls of shadow that would prevent any from entering without her consent or Thingol's. Thingol defended his realm with companies of archers, called March Wardens, who guarded the borders. With the help of the Dwarves, he armed the Elves with axes, long spears and swords, armoured coats of scale-mail, shields. Thingol summoned all the wandering Sindar to Doriath, but many remained in the wild or at the havens of Falas under the lordship of Cirdan.
After the first battle, many Laiquendi as well as some Avari removed to Doriath, establishing themselves as "Guest Elves" of Arthórien. When the Noldor returned to Middle-earth at the beginning of the First Age, they were welcomed in Doriath, but Thingol was outraged upon learning of the first Kinslaying at Alqualondë, the victims of which were the people of his brother Olwë. Thingol forbade the Noldorin language of the kinslayers to be spoken by or to the Sindar, leading many Noldor to adopt Sindarin. Furthermore, he barred the Noldor, he allowed entry to the Houses of Finarfin. He judged that the former had atoned for their part in the Kinslaying through their crossing the ice of the Helcaraxë, while the latter had taken no part in the slaying, their lords were his kin through their maternal grandfather Olwë. Finarfin's daughter Galadriel came to live in Doriath, there married the noble Sinda Celeborn; when Men arrived in Beleriand, they were refused entry to Doriath, for Thingol felt foreboding at their arrival.
But at Finrod's request the Haladin were allowed to live in Brethil as vassals to Thingol, charged with the protection of the Crossings of Teiglin. Despite the ban on Men, Melian foretold that a Man would indeed break her defences and enter Doriath, being driven by a doom g
Minor places in Middle-earth
The stories of J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium contain references to numerous places; some of these fictional places are described below. Aldburg is a hill fort and settlement in Rohan, in the region known as the Folde, some miles to the southeast of Edoras. Aldburg was the capital of the realm, where Eorl the Young, the first King of Rohan, founded his hall in T. A. 2510. Though his son, King Brego, moved to Edoras early in Rohan's history, Aldburg remained the residence of the descendants of Éofor, Brego's third son. One of these descendants was Éomer, a nephew of King Théoden. At the time of the War of the Ring, Éomer was the Third Marshal of the Mark and became heir to the king; the All-welcome Inn was an inn located at the junction of the Northway and the East Road on the Hobbiton side of Frogmorton. It was much used by travellers Dwarves from the Ered Luin. Amon Hen is a hill located on the western bank of the river Anduin, at the southern end of Nen Hithoel, the lake above the Falls of Rauros.
It was one of the three peaks at the Falls of Rauros at the southern end of the Emyn Muil, the others being Amon Lhaw, the Hill of the Ear, Tol Brandir, an island located between the two hills. The Seat of Seeing was built at the summit of Amon Hen, serving as a watchtower for the northern borders of Gondor, it was constructed in the early days of Gondor. In The Fellowship of the Ring, the Fellowship travelled down the Anduin from Lothlórien to Parth Galen, the lake-side lawn at the feet of Amon Hen, but here the Fellowship was broken: Boromir attempted to take the One Ring by force from Frodo Baggins, who fled. After Frodo escaped from Boromir, he sat upon the Seat of Seeing while still wearing the Ring, was able to see events hundreds of miles distant. From Amon Hen and Samwise Gamgee crossed the Anduin on their way east to Mordor, while Merry and Pippin were carried by Saruman's Orcs in the direction of his hold at Isengard, the rest of the Fellowship set out in pursuit of the Orcs. Tolkien's aerial view of the Emyn Muil shows Tol Brandir to be much taller than Amon Hen and Amon Lhaw.
The sketch is published in J. R. R. Tolkien: Illustrator; the bulletin of The Tolkien Society has been named Amon Hen since December 1972. Amon Lhaw is one of the three peaks above the Falls of Rauros which drained the lake known as Nen Hithoel, it towered amongst the Emyn Muil on the eastern banks of the Anduin, its twin, Amon Hen, lay upon the western bank. Between them, at the centre of the stream above Rauros, was the island peak Tol Brandir upon which none had set foot. Although at one time Amon Lhaw had been on the northern boundary of Gondor and a high seat was built there, this was no longer the case at the time of the War of the Ring. Called the Hill of Hearing and Hill of the Ear in Westron. Tolkien's aerial view of the Emyn Muil shows Tol Brandir to be much taller than Amon Lhaw and Amon Hen; the sketch is published in J. R. R. Tolkien: Illustrator. See: Hill of Guard Andrath is a narrow pass through which the North-South Road passed between the Barrow-downs on the west and the South Downs on the east.
To the north of Andrath the road met the Great East Road, just west of the gates of Bree. When the Nazgûl came north from Mordor to seek the Ring in the Shire at the end of the Third Age, their leader, the Witch-king of Angmar, camped in Andrath, it is mentioned in the appendices of The Return of the King that it is that the Witch-king aroused the Barrow-wights in the nearby Barrow-downs while camped at Andrath. Two separate areas in Middle-earth were known as the Angle, each defined by the angle between two converging rivers; the Angle in Lothlórien lay between the Silverlode. It was more referred to as Egladil; the Angle in Eriador was a much larger area. It lay between the Mitheithel on the Bruinen on the east; this Angle was part of the province of Rhudaur in the kingdom of Arnor. Many Stoors, a tribe of Hobbits, settled in the Angle circa T. A. 1150, but left about T. A. 1356. Tom Shippey notes a number of similarities between the migration history of Hobbits and that of the Anglo-Saxons; the Argonath is a monument comprising two enormous pillars carved in the likenesses of Isildur and Anárion, standing upon either side of the River Anduin at the northern approach to Nen Hithoel.
The figures were constructed about T. A. 1240 at the order of King Rómendacil II to mark the northern border of Gondor. However the effective border had receded southwards by the time of the War of the Ring. A. 3019. Each of the two figures was shown wearing a crown and a helm, with an axe in its right hand and its left hand raised in a gesture of defiance to the enemies of Gondor. It's that the figure on the east bank, which technically stood in the province of Ithilien, represented Isildur, while the western figure, standing in the province of Anórien, represented Anárion. Known as the Pillars of the Kings or the Gate of Kings. See Ered Lithui see Dimrill Dale Bamfurlong is the farmland of Farmer Maggot, located in the Marish of the eastern part of the Shire; the boggy nature of the land makes fo
Elu Thingol is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, he appears in The Silmarillion, The Lays of Beleriand and Children of Húrin as well as in numerous stories in the many volumes of The History of Middle-earth. He is notably a major character in many of the stories about the First Age of Tolkien's Middle-earth and he is an essential part of the ancestral backgrounding of the romance between Aragorn and Arwen in The Lord of the Rings. Thingol is introduced as the King of King of the Sindar, High-king and Lord of Beleriand, he is said to be "the tallest of all the Children of Ilúvatar" and the "mightiest of the Eldar save Fëanor only". In The Silmarillion as Elwë, he is introduced as one of the three chieftains of the Elves who depart from Cuiviénen with Oromë as ambassadors of Valinor and become Kings. Upon his return, he persuades many of the Nelyar, to follow him back to that country; this host becomes known as the Teleri. On the Great Journey to the West the Teleri lag behind, loving Middle-earth and having mixed feelings about leaving it for Valinor, do not arrive at the coast until after the departure of the moving island of Tol Eressëa.
Thus, they stay in Beleriand for many years. During this time Elwë encounters Melian the Maia in the woods of Nan Elmoth and, enchanted by her, he falls in love with her, they remain entranced together for some 200 years. Many of the Teleri would not leave without him. After Thingol awoke from the trance, many of the Teleri had grown to like Beleriand and decided to stay there. Thingol and Melian become queen of the Sindar, the Teleri who stay in Beleriand. Thingol's brother Olwë becomes the King of Alqualondë and High King of the Teleri who do journey to Aman. Thingol visited Valinor as an ambassador and is, both of the Sindar and of the Calaquendi, his and Melian's daughter, Lúthien, is said to be the fairest of the Children of Ilúvatar to live. Thingol's heir is son of Beren and Lúthien. Other kin of Thingol, stated by Tolkien, for which the family relation is unrecorded or unexplained in the tales are Círdan, Celeborn, Eöl, he is the ancestor of many prominent characters and Men, including Elros, Elrond and Arwen.
He is family to Galadriel, as she is the child of his niece, Eärwen. When the War of the Jewels began Thingol fought the First Battle of Beleriand defeating Morgoth's invading east host. After that battle Thingol realised that he could not match Morgoth in open battle and adopted a defensive strategy for his kingdom by closing the borders with a military March Ward and Melian's magical Girdle, a maze of mists and shadows. Sensing unspoken, dire causes for the arrival of the Noldor, he denied entry to Doriath without his leave to all except the house of Finarfin, for they were descended from Olwë; the lords of the Noldor concealed from Thingol the Kinslaying at Alqualondë, where Thingol's Telerin kinsmen in Valinor were slaughtered and their ships stolen by Fëanor's followers. Those Noldor who bore no direct responsibility for the crime felt the shame of it, they grew angry at the sons of Fëanor for their pride. Círdan the Shipwright heard rumour of the Kinslaying, sent word to Thingol. Outraged, Thingol confronted Finrod Felagund with this news, but Finrod made no reply rather than accuse his kinsmen.
His brother Angrod could not bear the blame any longer. In great anger, he revealed Fëanor and Fëanor's sons' responsibility for the Kinslaying, for the misery of the long passage of the Helcaraxë which Finarfin's and Fingolfin's kin suffered. Thingol forgave the houses of Fingolfin and Finarfin, but he decreed that their language would never again be heard or spoken in Beleriand and still bore hatred for the Fëanorian Noldor. Following the Dagor Bragollach, a Man named Beren fled to Doriath, driven by a destiny that thwarted Melian's power, Lúthien, Thingol's daughter, fell in love with him. Thingol did not wish them to marry, he demanded as a bride-price a Silmaril, which jewels were at that time set in Morgoth's crown, thinking it would be death to make the attempt to recover them. Though intended by Thingol as a way to get rid of this presumptuous mortal, as the quest was deemed impossible, the quest he laid on Beren had the effect of placing Doriath under the sway of the Oath of Fëanor, since against all odds, Beren succeeded in retrieving the Silmaril after many difficult adventures and married Lúthien.
As was required by their oath, the sons of Fëanor demanded. In spite of Melian's counsel to the contrary, he refused, remembering the sacrifices that his daughter and son-in-law had to endure to retrieve it, being enamoured of its beauty. Maedhros remained silent, since he was attempting to build an alliance to assault Angband, but his brothers Celegorm and Curufin vowed to slay Thingol and lay waste to Doriath should they return from battle victorious. Thingol thus fortified his borders and sent no aid to the Union of Maedhros, but gave permission to his marchwardens Beleg Cúthalion and Mablung to participate, under the condition that they not serve the sons of Fëanor. After the disastrous defeat of the Eldar at the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, Beleg returned to Doriath with the young Túrin Turambar, a grand-nephew of Beren, sent by his mother Morwen Eledhwen from Dor-lómin, soon to be overrun by Morgoth's forces, Thingol received him gladly. Túrin caused the death of the Nandorin elf Saeros, after the latter gave him a mortal insult.
Thingol was at first outraged, but pardoned Túrin after hearing the whole story. However, Túr
J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English writer, poet and academic, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, from 1945 to 1959, he was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and Middle-earth within it.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor