Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
The rondalla is an ensemble of stringed instruments played with the plectrum or pick and known as plectrum instruments. It originated in Medieval Spain in Catalonia, Aragon and Valencia; the tradition was taken to Spanish America and the Philippines. The word rondalla is from the Spanish ronda, meaning "serenade." The rondallah has its origins in the folk playing bands from Spain that were forerunners of the present-day rondallah and included four types: groups of young men who played and sang in front of homes, bands of musicians known as murza or murga who begged for alms, a group of musicians known as comparza who played on stage, groups of university musicians known as estudiantina, dubbed “tuna”. The usual musical instruments used by estudiantina members were mandolins, guitars, cellos, tambourines and triangles. Estudiantina musicians in Spain and Mexico and during the age of musical romanticism, wore 16th century attire such as "short velvet breeches, ornate shirts and a short cape with multicolored ribbons".
Some instruments used for the early rondalla were influenced by the Mozarab musical instruments of the time, including the guitars and vihuelas. Mandolins and tambourines were used and today a full range of instruments can be heard, such as the Mexican vihuela and cellos, xylophones and timbales. Today, rondallas are more modern and expressive, using lyrics that are vibrant, yet still keep with the traditional theme of melancholy love and evening serenades. There are many groups in Spain, Mexico and United States that carry on the tradition The rondalla was introduced into the Philippines when it was part of the Spanish East Indies. In the early Philippines, certain styles were adopted by the natives guitar and banduria used in the Pandanggo, the Jota, the Polka; the use of the term comparza was common, during the American period in the Philippines, the term rondalla became more used. The introduction of a Filipino rondalla song is similar to the introductory tunes from Aragon. Presently, the term in Filipino culture refers to any group of stringed instruments that are played using the plectrum or pick.
The Filipino instruments are made from indigenous Philippine wood and the plectrum, or picks, are made from tortoise-shell. Other stringed instruments composing the standard Filipino rondalla are the bandurria, the laúd, the octavina, the Twelve-string guitar, the Ukulele, the bajo de uñas or double bass, the Guitarrón mexicano, other Filipino-made instruments modeled and developed after the violin; the Philippine rondalla’s repertoire include folk songs such as the collar de sampaguita, la bella filipina, No te vayas a Zamboanga, the Kundiman, the "Zarzuela", the "Subli", the "Harana", the "Tinikling", the "Cariñosa". Bandurria Laúd Octavina Rondalla
Mirza is a name of Persian origin. It is used as a prefix to identify patriarchal lineage, it is derived from a historical title of Persian origin, denoting the rank of a royal prince, high nobleman, distinguished military commander, or a scholar. It was used as a title by and today signifies patriarchal lineage to the various Persian Empires, the Shirvanshahs and Circassians of the Caucasus, the Mughals / Moguls or Muslim Rajputs of the Indian Subcontinent, it was a title bestowed upon members of the highest aristocracies in Tatar states, such as the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan and the Nogai Horde. The word Mīrzā is derived from the Persian term Amīrzādeh which means child of the Amīr or child of the ruler. Amīrzādeh in turn consists of the Arabic title Amīr, meaning "commander" and the Persian suffix zādeh, meaning "son of" or "lineage of". Due to vowel harmony in Turkic languages, the alternative pronunciation Morza is used. Variant spellings in English include mirzya, mirize, mosey, murse, mirzey, murze, mirza, meerza.
The titles themselves were given by the Kings and Emperors to their sons and grandsons, or distant kins. Noblemen loyal to the kings received this Title; the title itself is derived from the title Emir. Emir, meaning "commander" or "Prince", is derived from the Semitic root "Amr", meaning "command", it meant "commander" or "leader" in reference to a group of people. It came to be used as a title of governors or rulers in smaller states, renders the English word "prince"; the word entered English in 1595, from the French émir. Padeshah Ali Mirza Prince Alqas Mirza Prince Mohammad Baqer Mirza Vizier Mirza Shokrollah Isfahani Vizier Mirza Salman Jaberi Vizier Mirza Shah Hossein Prince Reza Qoli Mirza Prince Shahrokh Mirza Prince Ebrahim Mirza Statesman Mirza Mehdi Khan Prince Nader Mirza His Highness Prince Iraj Mirza His Highness Prince Malek Mansur Mirza Shao es-Saltaneh His Highness Prince Bahram Mirza Sardar Mass'oud His Highness Prince Abbas Mirza His Highness Prince Abdol Majid Mirza Highness Prince Ali-Mohammad Mirza His Highness Prince Bahram Mirza His Highness Prince Djahangir Mirza His Highness Prince Eskandar Mirza His Highness Prince Hamid Mirza His Highness Prince Khanlar Mirza His Highness Prince Khosrow Mirza His Highness Prince Muhammad Mirza His Highness Prince Mahmoud Mirza His Highness Prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza His Highness Prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza II His Highness Prince Ahmad Shah Qajar His Highness Prince Nosrat-od-Dowleh Firouz Mirza His Highness Prince Firouz Mirza Nosrat-ed-Dowleh Farman Farmaian III His Highness Prince Ali Mirza Qajar His Highness Prince Nosrat al-Din Mirza Salar es-Saltaneh His Highness Prince Abdol-samad Mirza Ezz ed-Dowleh Saloor His Highness Prince Mass'oud Mirza Zell-e Soltan His Highness Prince Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah His Highness Prince Mohammad Taqi Mirza His Highness Prince Kamran Mirza Nayeb es-Saltaneh Three consecutive titular kings of Shirvan, of the Shirvanshah Dynasty, adopted the title as well following the death of Gurban Ali.
Gasim Mirza Kavus Mirza Abu Bakr Mirza The hereditary title of Mirza was adopted by the nobility class of the Circassians. Idar of Kabardia known as "Mirza Haydar Temruk Bey", was the great-grandson of Prince Inal - Sultan of Egypt the founder of the "Temruk dynasty" of the Kabardian princes, known in Russia as the "Cherkassky" a Circassian princely family. Circassian nobility with the name Mirza include: Mirza Haydar Temruk Bey Princely Issues: Temruk Mirza Kambulat Mirza Zhelegot Mirza Under Catherine the Great, empress of Russia, the Mirzas gained equal rights with the Russian nobility due to their extreme wealth. Abdul Mirza was given the title Prince Yusupov, his descendant Prince Felix Yusupov married Princess Irina Alexandrovna of Russia, the only niece of Tsar Nicholas II. In the Indian Subcontinent, the title Mirza was borne by an imperial prince, it was adopted as part of ones name, implying relationship to the Turk dynasties like the Mughal Dynasty. In the traditional naming sequence of the Indian royal families, the title can be placed both before the name and after it, such as Prince Mirza Mughal or Prince Kamran Mirza.
Prince Khusrau Mirza was the grandson of Emperor Babur, son of Emperor Jahangir and a brother of Emperor Shah Jahan. Emperor Akbar Shah II was known as Prince Mirza Akbar before his coronation. Emperor Babur took the imperial title of Padishah on 6 March 1508, before which he used the title Mirza. Mirza Zahiruddin 1523–1530, first Mughal Emperor. Mirza Nasiruddin 1530–1539 & 1554–1555, second Mughal Emperor. Mirza Jalaluddin 1555–1605, third Mughal Emperor. Mirza Nuruddin 1605–1627, fourth Mughal Emperor. Mirza Khurram 1627–1658, fifth Mughal Emperor. Mirza Muhiuddin 1658–1707, sixth Mughal Emperor. Mirza Azam 1707, seventh Mughal Emperor. Mirza Mu'Azzam 1707–1712, eighth Mughal Emperor. Sultan Muizuddin Mirza 1712–1713, ninth Mughal Emperor. Mouinudd'in Muhammad Mirza 1712–1719, tenth Mughal Emperor. Sultan Shamsuddin Mirza 1719, eleventh Mughal Emperor. Sultan Rafiuddin Mirza 1719, twelfth Mughal Emperor. Sultan Nekusiyar Mirza 1719, thirteenth Mughal Emperor. Sultan Akhtar Mirza, fourteenth Mughal Emperor.
Ahmad Shah Mirza 1720–1748, fifteenth Mughal Emperor. Aziz'ud-Din Beg Mirza 1754–1759, sixteenth Mughal Emperor. Jalal'ud-Din Mirza 1759–1760, seventeenth Mughal Emperor. Muhi-ul-millat Mirza 1788–1806, eighteenth Mugha
A prince is a male ruler ranked below a king and above a duke or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is a title of nobility hereditary, in some European states; the feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus and capio, meaning "the chief, most distinguished, prince"; the Latin word prīnceps, became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire, the princeps senatus. Emperor Augustus established the formal position of monarch on the basis of principate, not dominion, he tasked his grandsons as summer rulers of the city when most of the government were on holiday in the country or attending religious rituals, for that task, granted them the title of princeps. The title has generic and substantive meanings: generically, prince refers to a member of a family that ruled by hereditary right, the title referring either to sovereigns or to cadets of a sovereign's family.
The term may be broadly used of persons in various continents or eras. In Europe, it is the title borne by dynastic cadets in monarchies, borne by courtesy by members of reigning dynasties. as a substantive title, a prince was a monarch of the lowest rank in post-Napoleonic Europe, e.g. Princes of Andorra, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Monaco and Pyrmont, etc. substantively, the title was granted by popes and secular monarchs to specific individuals and to the heads of some high-ranking European families who, never exercised dynastic sovereignty and whose cadets are not entitled to share the princely title, viz the Princes de Beauvau-Craon, von Bismarck, von Dohna-Schlobitten, von Eulenburg, de Faucigny-Lucinge, von Lichnowsky, von Pless, Ruffo di Calabria, von Sagan, van Ursel, etc. generically, cadets of some non-sovereign families whose head bears the non-dynastic title of prince were sometimes authorized to use the princely title, e.g. von Carolath-Beuthen, de Broglie, Demidoff di San Donato, Lieven, de Merode, Radziwill, von Wrede, etc. substantively, the heirs apparent in some monarchies use a specific princely title associated with a territory within the monarch's realm, e.g. the Princes of Asturias, Grão Pará, Viana, etc. substantively, it became the fashion from the 17th century for the heirs apparent of the leading ducal families to assume a princely title, associated with a seigneurie in the family's possession.
These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, e.g. the princes de Bidache, Tonnay-Charente, Poix, Léon, The original, but now less common use of the word, originated in the application of the Latin word princeps, from late Roman law, the classical system of government that gave way to the European feudal society. In this sense, a prince is a ruler of a territory, sovereign, or quasi-sovereign, i.e. exercising substantial prerogatives associated with monarchs of independent nations, such as the immediate states within the historical boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories in Italy and Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, "prince" is used of all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank; this is the Renaissance use of the term found in Il Principe. As a title, by the end of the medieval era, prince was borne by rulers of territories that were either smaller than or exercised fewer of the rights of sovereignty than did emperors and kings.
A lord of a quite small territory might come to be referred to as a prince before the 13th century, either from translations of a native title into the Latin princeps, or when the lord's territory was allodial. The lord of an allodium owned his lands and exercised prerogatives over the subjects in his territory owing no feudal homage or duty as a vassal to a liege lord, nor being subject to any higher jurisdiction. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the Princedom of Dombes. Lords who exercised lawful authority over territories and people within a feudal hierarchy were sometimes regarded as princes in the general sense if they held the rank of count or higher; this is attested in some surviving styles for e.g. British earls and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high and noble princes. In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles.
While this meant that offices, such as emperor and elector could only be occupied by one dynast at a time, holders of such other titles as duke, landgrave, count palatine, prince could only differentiate themselves by adding the name of their appanage to the family's original title. Not only did this tend to proliferate unwieldy titles, but as agnatic primogeniture became the norm in the Holy Roman Empire by the end of the 18th century, another me
The October Revolution known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin, instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917, it followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, the younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs.
This initiated the establishment of the Russian Soviet Republic. On 17 July 1918, his family were executed; the revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917; the following day, the Winter Palace was captured. The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October 1917 to March 1918; the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.
As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 3rd, as seen in contemporary documents. In Russian, however, "переворот" has a similar meaning to "revolution" and means "upheaval" or "overturn", so "coup" is not the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use, it is known as the "November Revolution" having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was riven by internal dissension, it continued to wage World War I, which became unpopular. A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased.
Gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, other industrial centers, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913. Russia's national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles; the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. Throughout June and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence and misgivings with those in power in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food and other materials, they blamed their own managers or foremen and would attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals, such as elites in positions of power, for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions.
Workers labelled these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, called them words such as "bourgeois and imperialist."In September and October 1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd workers, miners in Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution. Workers were able to organize these strikes through factory committees; the factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions and hours. Though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families.
By October 1917, peasant uprisings were common. By autumn the peasant movement ag
Khanate of Kazan
The Khanate of Kazan was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552. Its khans were the patrilineal descendants of Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, the thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan; the khanate covered contemporary Tatarstan, Mari El, Chuvashia and parts of Udmurtia and Bashkortostan. It was one of the successor states of the Golden Horde, it came to an end when it was conquered by the Tsardom of Russia; the territory of the khanate comprised the Muslim Bolgar-populated lands of the Bolğar, Cükätäw, Qaşan duchies and other regions that belonged to Volga Bulgaria. The Volga and Vyatka were the main rivers of the khanate, as well as the major trade ways; the majority of the population were Kazan Tatars. Their self-identity was not restricted to Tatars. Islam was the state religion; the local feudal nobility consisted of ethnic Bolgars, but the court and body guard of the Kazan khans were composed of steppe Tatar that lived in Kazan.
According to the Ginghizide tradition, the local Turkic tribes were called Tatars by the steppe nobility and by the Russian elite. Part of the higher nobility hailed from the Golden Horde, it included members of four leading noble families: Arghin, Barin and Shirin. Peoples subject to the khan included the Chuvash, Mordva, Mishar Tatars and Bashkir; the Permians and some of the Komi tribes were incorporated into the Khanate. The Mishars had arrived during the period of the Golden Horde and assimilated the resident Finnic Mordvins and Burtas, their territory was governed by former steppe Tatars. Some Mishar duchies were never controlled from Kazan and instead gravitated towards the Qasim Khanate or Muscovite Russia. Most of the khanate territory was covered by forests, only the southern part adjoined the steppe; the main population of the steppes were the nomadic Manghites known as Nogais, who sometimes recognized the rule of the Kazan khan, but more raided agricultural Tatars and Chuvash, as they had done in the Golden Horde period.
Nogais were transplanted and replaced with Kalmyks. More this area was settled by Tatars and Russians, who erected defensive walls to guard the southern border. Since the khanate was established, Tatar Cossack troops defended the khanate from the Nogais. Russian sources indicate; the first and foremost was the Tatar language, including the Middle dialect of the Kazan Tatars and the Western dialect of the Mishars. Its written form was the favoured language of the state; the Chuvash language was a descendant of the Bolgar language, spoken by the pagan Chuvash people. The Bolgar language strongly influenced the Middle dialect of Tatar language; the other three were the Mari language, the Mordvin languages and the Bashkir language developed from the Bolgar and Kipchak languages. The former territories of Volga Bulgaria may have regained a degree of independence within the disintegrating Golden Horde by the turn of the 15th century; the principality was maintained a dynasty of Bolgar rulers. Whatever the status of this proto-state, the founder of the khanate was Ulugh Muhammad, who assumed the title of khan and usurped the throne of Kazan with some help from local nobility in 1437 or 1438.
It has been suggested that the transfer of power from the local Bolgar dynasty to Muhammad was finalized by his son Maxmud in 1445. Throughout its history, the khanate struggles for the throne; the khans were replaced 19 times in 115 years. There were a total of some ascending the throne multiple times; the Khan was elected from the Gengizides by vernacular nobility and by the citizens themselves. When discussing the history of the khanate, we should take into account the scarcity of sources. Not only no single document of the khanate survived the Russian conquest, but the documents of early Russian colonial administration were all destroyed during the Time of Troubles. During the reign of Ulugh Muhammad and his son Maxmud, Kazan forces raided Muscovy and its subject lands several times. Vasily II of Moscow engaged in the Great Feudal War against his cousins, was defeated in a battle near Suzdal, was forced to pay ransom to the Kazan khan. In July 1487, Grand Duke Ivan III of Moscow occupied Kazan and seated a puppet leader, Möxämmädämin, on the Kazan throne.
After that, the Kazan Khanate became a protectorate of Moscow, Russian merchants were allowed to trade throughout its territory. Supporters of a union between the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate tried to exploit the population's grievances to provoke revolts, but with negligible results. In 1521, Kazan emerged from the dominance of Moscow, concluding a mutual aid treaty with the Astrakhan Khanate, the Crimean Khanate and the Nogay Horde; the combined forces of khan Muhamed Giray and his Crimean allies attacked Muscovy. The reinforcement of Crimea displeased the pro-Moscow elements of the Kazan Khanate, some of these noblemen provoked a revolt in 1545; the result was the deposition of Safa Giray. A Moscow supporter, Şahğäli, occupied the throne. Following that year, Moscow organized several campaigns to impose control over Kazan, but the attempts were unsuccessful. With the help of the Nogays, Safa Giray returned to the throne, he executed 75 noblemen, the re
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur