The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Christopher Jarvis Haley Hogwood was an English conductor, harpsichordist and musicologist. Founder of the early music ensemble the Academy of Ancient Music, he was an authority on informed performance and a leading figure in the early music revival of the late 20th century. Born in Nottingham, Hogwood studied music and classical literature at Cambridge, he went on to study conducting under Raymond Leppard, Mary Potts and Thurston Dart. He studied in Prague with Zuzana Ruzickova for a year, under a British Council scholarship. In 1967, Hogwood co-founded the Early Music Consort with David Munrow. In 1973 he founded the Academy of Ancient Music, which specializes in performances of Baroque and early Classical music using period instruments; the Early Music Consort was disbanded following Munrow's death in 1976, but Hogwood continued to perform and record with the Academy of Ancient Music. From 1981, Hogwood conducted in the United States, he was Artistic Director of Boston's Handel and Haydn Society from 1986 to 2001, for the remainder of his life held the title of Conductor Laureate.
From 1983 to 1985 he was artistic director of the Mostly Mozart Festival in the Barbican Centre in London. From 1988 to 1992, he was musical director of the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra in Minnesota. In 1994 he conducted the Handel and Haydn Society in a recreation of the concert that premiered Beethoven's Sixth and Fifth symphonies for the Historic Keyboard Society of Milwaukee. Hogwood conducted a considerable amount of opera, he made his operatic debut in 1983, conducting Don Giovanni in Missouri. He worked with Berlin State Opera. With Opera Australia, he performed Idomeneo in 1994 and La Clemenza di Tito in 1997. In 2009, he returned to the Royal Opera House to conduct the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment in Purcell's Dido and Aeneas, Handel's Acis and Galatea. 2009 saw him conducting Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress at the Teatro Real in Madrid, in a production directed by Robert Lepage. In late 2010 and early 2011, he conducted a series of performances of Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro at Zurich Opera House.
On 1 September 2006, harpsichordist Richard Egarr succeeded Hogwood as Music Director of the Academy of Ancient Music and Hogwood assumed the title of Emeritus Director. Hogwood said, he conducted the Academy in a series of concert performances of Handel operas which began in 2007 with Amadigi. 2008 saw performances of Flavio, the series concluded in May 2009, the Handel anniversary, with Arianna in Creta. In 2013 he conducted the Academy in Imeneo. Although Hogwood was best known for the baroque and early classical repertoire, he performed nineteenth century and contemporary music, with a particular affinity for the neo-baroque and neoclassical schools including many works by Stravinsky, Martinů and Hindemith, he made many solo recordings of harpsichord works, did much to promote the clavichord in the Secret Bach/Handel/Mozart series of recordings, which puts in historical context the most common domestic instrument of that epoch. He owned a collection of historical keyboard instruments. In July 2010, he was appointed Professor of Music at Gresham College, London, a position held by John Bull.
In this role he delivered four series of free public lectures on Aspects of Authenticity, The Making of a Masterpiece, European Capitals of Music and Music in Context. He was unable to deliver all of his lectures during his final year of appointment due to illness and it was only seven months after his final lecture at the College that he died. In 2011, Hogwood was a juror for the Westfield International Fortepiano Competition hosted at Cornell University; this was the first fortepiano competition in the United States and only the second competition of its kind in the world. In 2012, he was appointed Andrew D. White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University, for a six-year term of office, he was a member of Lowell House Senior Common Room in Harvard University. Hogwood's editing work included music by composers as diverse as Felix Mendelssohn, he was the chairman of the new edition Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach: The Complete Works, which aimed to publish a complete edition of C. P. E. Bach's music in 2014.
He was involved with The Wranitzky Project, dedicated to the study and publishing of the music of Moravian composer Paul Wranitzky. His last editing project was complete critical edition of piano sonatas by the Czech composer Leopold Koželuh. In 2012 Hogwood's musicological activities came to the attention of a wider public when the BBC and the Guardian newspaper announced his discovery of a "previously unknown" piano piece by Johannes Brahms. However, it emerged that the work in question, was known; the manuscript had been sold at public auction in April 2011, where it was described as "unpublished" and "of great importance," and the manuscript was reproduced in full in the catalogue. The work had been given its premiere by Craig Sheppard on 28 April 2011. Sheppard described the newspaper claim as "fatuous"; the first edition of the piece was published in January 2012 on the Pianostreet website. Hogwood's edition of the piece was published by Bärenreiter in February 2012 along with the Horn Trio in E-flat major, Op. 40, thematically related.
Hogwood died in Cambridge on 24 September 2014, fourteen days after
Albert Christoph Dies
Albert Christoph Dies was a German painter and biographer most noted for his biography of Joseph Haydn, although it is now considered sentimental and not accurate. As an artist, he is not well-regarded. Dies was born in Hanover, began his studies there. For one year he studied in the academy of Düsseldorf, he started at the age of twenty with thirty ducats in his pocket for Rome, studying on the way in Mannheim and Basel. In Rome he lived a frugal life till 1796. Copying pictures, chiefly by Salvator Rosa, for a livelihood, his taste led him to draw and paint from nature in Tivoli and other picturesque places in the vicinity of Rome. Naples, the birthplace of his favorite master, he visited more than once for the same reasons. Goethe visited him in 1787; the poet, interested in the theory of color, reported in his Zweiter römischer Aufenthalt, "At the moment I am engaged in something from which I learn a great deal. At one point, Jacques-Louis David composing his Oath of the Horatii at Rome, wished to take him to Paris.
But Dies had reasons for not accepting the offer. He was courting a young Roman. Meanwhile, he had made the acquaintance of the engraver Giovanni Volpato, for whom he executed numerous drawings, this no doubt suggested the plan, which he afterwards carried out, of publishing, in partnership with Jacob Wilhelm Mechau, Johann Christian Reinhart and Johann Friedrich Frauenholz, the series of plates known as the Collection de vues pittoresques de l'Italie, published in seventy-two sheets at Nuremberg in 1799. According to Gotwals, "In May, 1796, Dies eloped with a young girl to Salzburg." The following year he moved to Vienna, lived there on the produce of his brush as a landscape painter, on that of his pencil or graver as a draughtsman and etcher. He taught landscape painting at the Imperial and Royal Academy, in his final post, was gallery director to Prince Nikolaus Esterházy II. During this time his physical condition grew worse, he lost the use of one of his hands. Dies was a great admirer of the music of Joseph Haydn and during his Vienna years he undertook to meet the composer and write his biography.
He obtained an introduction from his fellow artist Anton Grassi, who had made a number of busts of Haydn. Over the course of three years during Haydn's old age, Dies made a series of 30 visits to the frail and ailing composer though Haydn was convinced no one would be interested in his life story. On a number of occasions Haydn was unable to see him, but Dies was admitted and was able to interview him. In 1810, one year after Haydn's death, Dies published a biography based on what he learned in his visits; this work is organized around the sequence of visits. It continues to serve as a substantial source of information on the composer's life. Compared with another biography written at the same time by Georg August Griesinger, Dies's work is certainly less accurate and is more to have been sentimentalized and embellished, which he himself alludes to in the introduction of his book: In order not to leave out of the picture the most interesting phase of Haydn's life, I meanwhile made unhesitating use of several articles from the Leipzig Musikalische Zeitung, without suppressing my own untutored opinions.
For instances of probable embellishment, see Mathias Haydn and Haydn and Mozart. Dies's translator Vernon Gotwals, comparing Dies to Griesinger, concludes: It is now clear that for facts about Haydn one will turn first to the Biographische Notizen of Griesinger, but that reliance upon that source alone would deprive Haydn's portrait of many authentic details, mixed inescapably with some imaginary ones. Dies's Biographische Nachrichten is the work of a sentimental artist who fancied himself a "universal man" but whose approach to the problem of biography was that of his time and place. In 1787, he accidentally swallowed three-quarters of an ounce of lead acetate, he never recovered from the ensuing lead poisoning, which caused the loss of one of his hands, died in Vienna on 28 December 1822. Dies is better known today from his acquaintanceship than from his own merits as an artist or writer; the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition gives harsh opinions of Dies's work as an artist: " he became a bold executant in water-colours and in oil, though he failed to acquire any originality of his own."
"Lord Bristol, who encouraged him as a copyist, predicted. However, Dies did not have the creativity necessary to become a great artist." "With so many irons in the fire Dies lost the power of concentration." "From two pictures now in the Belvedere gallery, from numerous engraved drawings from the neighborhood of Tivoli, we gather that Dies was never destined to rise above a respectable mediocrity. He followed Salvator Rosa's example in imitating the manner of Claude Lorraine, but Salvator adapted the style of Claude, whilst Dies did no more than copy it."Gotwals writes, "Friedrich Noack in his article in the Thieme and Becker Allgemeines Lexicon der bildenden Künstler
Morzin Palace is a baroque palace in Malá Strana, named after the Morzin family for whom it was built. The previous town houses on the site were sold by Maximilian von Wallenstein to the Morzin family in 1668. In 1713 Václav Morzin commissioned Jan Blažej Santini-Aichel to create one palace on the site, building work was completed the following year, it remained in the Morzin family until 1881. The Embassy of Romania in Prague is located at Morzin Palace, opposite the Italian Embassy, its facade features two columns in the shape of a pun on the name of the building. The Morzin palace in Dolní Lukavice Romanian diplomatic missions
The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806; the Kingdom of Hungary – as Regnum Independens – was administered by its own institutions separately from the rest of the empire. After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary; the power of nationalism to create new states was irresistible in the 19th century, the process could lead to collapse in the absence of a strong nationalism.
The Austrian Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities and languages that served as the bases for separatist nationalism, it had a large army with good forts. Its naval resources were so minimal, it typified by Metternich. They employed a grand strategy for survival that balanced out different forces, set up buffer zones, kept the Habsburg empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War; the Empire overnight disintegrated into multiple states based on nationalism. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt and Regensburg. On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6; this measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire.
Taking this significant change into consideration, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors. In 1804, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria, in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a composite monarchy for about three hundred years, he did so because he foresaw either the end of the Holy Roman Empire, or the eventual accession as Holy Roman Emperor of Napoleon, who had earlier that year adopted the title of an Emperor of the French. To safeguard his dynasty's imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Apart from now being included in a new "Kaiserthum", the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands at first stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804.
This was demonstrated by the status of the Kingdom of Hungary, a country that had never been a part of the Holy Roman Empire and which had always been considered a separate realm—a status, affirmed by Article X, added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy and described the state as a Regnum Independens. Hungary's affairs remained administered by its own institutions, thus no Imperial institutions were involved in its government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805. On 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by General Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm; the French victory resulted in the capture of many cannons. Napoleon's army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, which concluded with an armistice on 6 December 1805; the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to ally themselves with the French and assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, Maximilian IV Joseph, the prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria, proclaimed himself King, followed by the Duke of Württemberg Frederick III on 11 December. Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden, was given the title of Grand Duke on 12 December; each of these new states became French allies. The Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleon's German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Francis II agreed to the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg, which in practice meant the dissolution of the long-lived Holy Roman Empire and a reorganization under a Napoleonic imprint of the German territories lost in the process into a precursor state of what became modern Germany, those possessions nominally having been part of the Holy Roman Empire within the present boundaries of Germany, as well as other measures weakening Austria and the Habsburgs in other ways. Certain Austrian holdings in
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Published under the title A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is used. In recent years it has been made available as an electronic resource called Grove Music Online, now an important part of Oxford Music Online. A Dictionary of Music and Musicians was first published in four volumes edited by George Grove with an Appendix edited by J. A. Fuller Maitland in the fourth volume. An Index edited by Mrs. E. Wodehouse was issued as a separate volume in 1890. In 1900, minor corrections were made to the plates and the entire series was reissued in four volumes, with the index added to volume 4; the original edition and the reprint are now available online. Grove limited the chronological span of his work to begin at 1450 while continuing up to the present day.
The second edition, in five volumes, was edited by Fuller Maitland and published from 1904 to 1910, this time as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The individual volumes of the second edition were reprinted many times. An American Supplement edited by Waldo Selden Pratt and Charles N. Boyd was added in 1920; this edition removed the first edition's beginning date of 1450, though important earlier composers and theorists are still missing from this edition. These volumes are now available online; the third edition in five volumes, was an extensive revision of the 2nd edition. Colles and published in 1927; the fourth edition edited by Colles, was published in 1940 in five volumes. In addition to the American Supplement, Macmillan published a Supplementary Volume edited by Colles; the fifth edition, in nine volumes, was edited by Eric Blom and published in 1954. This was the most thoroughgoing revision of the work since its inception, with many articles rewritten in a more modern style and a large number of new articles.
Many of the articles were written by Blom or translated by him. An additional Supplementary Volume, prepared for the most part by Eric Blom, followed in 1961. Blom died in 1959, the Supplementary Volume was completed by Denis Stevens; the fifth edition was reprinted in 1966, 1968, 1970, 1973, 1975. The next edition was published in 1980 under the name The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and was expanded to 20 volumes with 22,500 articles and 16,500 biographies, its senior editor was Stanley Sadie with Nigel Fortune serving as one of the main editors for the publication. It was reprinted with minor corrections each subsequent year until 1995, except 1982 and 1983. In the mid-1990s, the hardback set sold for about $2,300. A paperback edition was reprinted in 1995 which sold for $500. ISBN 0-333-23111-2 – hardback ISBN 1-56159-174-2 – paperback ISBN 0-333-73250-2 – British special edition ISBN 1-56159-229-3 – American special edition Some sections of The New Grove were issued as small sets and individual books on particular topics.
These were enhanced with expanded and updated material and included individual and grouped composer biographies, a four-volume dictionary of American music, a three-volume dictionary of musical instruments, a four-volume dictionary of opera. The second edition under this title was published in 29 volumes, it was made available by subscription on the internet in a service called Grove Music Online. It was again edited by Stanley Sadie, the executive editor was John Tyrrell, it was to be released on CD-ROM as well, but this plan was dropped. As Sadie writes in the preface, "The biggest single expansion in the present edition has been in the coverage of 20th-century composers"; this edition has been subject to negative criticism owing to the significant number of typographical and factual errors that it contains. Two volumes were re-issued in corrected versions, after production errors caused the omission of sections of Igor Stravinsky's worklist and Richard Wagner's bibliography. ISBN 0-333-60800-3 – British ISBN 1-56159-239-0 – American Publication of the second edition of The New Grove was accompanied by a Web-based version, Grove Music Online.
It too, attracted some initial criticism, for example for the way in which images were not incorporated into the text but kept separate. The complete text of The New Grove is available to subscribers to the online service Grove Music Online. Grove Music Online includes a large number of additions of new articles. In addition to the 29 volumes of The New Grove second edition, Grove Music Online incorporates the four-volume New Grove Dictionary of Opera and the three-volume New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, second edition, The Grove Dictionary of American Music and The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, comprising a total of more than 50,000 articles; the current editor-in-chief of Grove Music, the name given to the complete slate of print and online resources that encompass the Grove brand, is University of Pittsburgh professor Deane Root. He assumed the editorship in 2009; the dictionary published by Macmillan, was sold in 2004 to Oxford University Press. Since 2008 Grove Music Online has served as a cornerstone of Oxford University Press's larger online
Dolní Lukavice is a village and municipality in Plzeň-South District in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic. The municipality covers an area of 18.73 square kilometres, has a population of 815. Dolní Lukavice lies 17 kilometres south of Plzeň and 95 km south-west of Prague; the village was the seat of the aristocratic Morzin family, headed by a count. The handsome Morzin palace is not in good condition. In 1988 it was reported as being used as a mental hospital; the current owners have begun restoration work and seek additional funding to accelerate the process. During the mid-18th century the Morzin family was musical, in 1759 they hired the young composer Joseph Haydn to serve as their Kapellmeister, leading the family's small orchestra. Haydn followed the Morzins back and forth in their annual migrations: summers in Dolní Lukavice, winters in the imperial capital of Vienna, it was Haydn's first professional position, as Kapellmeister he composed and premiered his first 15 or so symphonies.
Financial trouble forced the Morzins to disband their musical establishment in 1761, Haydn changed jobs to work for the Esterházy family. Czech Statistical Office: Municipalities of Plzeň-South District Geiringer, Karl Haydn: A Creative Life in Music. Berkeley: University of California Press. Robbins Landon, H. C. and David Wyn Jones Haydn: His Life and Music and Hudson. Webster and Georg Feder, "Joseph Haydn", article in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Published separately as a book: The New Grove Haydn. English-language version of the village web site