James H. Clark
James Henry Clark is an American entrepreneur and computer scientist. He founded several notable Silicon Valley technology companies, including Inc.. Netscape Communications Corporation, myCFO, Healtheon, his research work in computer graphics led to the development of systems for the fast rendering of three-dimensional computer images. Clark was born in Plainview and endured a difficult childhood, he dropped out of high school after being suspended, spent four years in the Navy where he was introduced to electronics. Clark began taking night courses at Tulane University's University College where, despite his lack of a high school diploma, he was able to earn enough credits to be admitted to the University of New Orleans. There, Clark earned his bachelor's and a master's degrees in physics, followed by a PhD in computer science from the University of Utah in 1974. After completing his PhD, Clark worked at NYIT's Computer Graphics Lab, serving as an assistant professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz, from 1974 to 1978, as an associate professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University from 1979 to 1982.
Clark's research work concerned geometry pipelines, specialized software or hardware that accelerates the display of three dimensional images. The zenith of his group's advancements was the Geometry Engine, an early hardware accelerator for rendering computer images based on geometric models which he developed in 1979 with his students at Stanford. In 1982, James Clark along with several Stanford graduate students founded Silicon Graphics, Inc.. The earliest Silicon Graphics graphical workstations were terminals, but they were soon followed by stand-alone graphical Unix workstations with fast graphics rendering hardware. In the mid-1980s, Silicon Graphics began to use the MIPS CPU as the foundation of their newest workstations, replacing the Motorola 68000. By 1991, Silicon Graphics became the world leader in the production of Hollywood movie visual effects and 3-D imaging. Silicon Graphics focused on the high-end market where they could charge a premium for their special hardware and graphics software.
Clark had differences of opinion with Silicon Graphics management regarding the future direction of the company, departed in late January 1994. In February 1994, Clark sought out Marc Andreessen who had led the development of Mosaic, the first distributed and easy-to-use software for browsing the World Wide Web, while employed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. Clark and Andreessen founded Netscape, developed the Netscape Navigator web browser; the founding of Netscape and its IPO in August 1995 launched the Internet boom on Wall Street during the mid-to-late 1990s. Clark's initial investment in Netscape was $4 million in 1994. In 1995, Clark became interested in streamlining the paperwork associated with the health-care industry; the resulting start-up, was founded in early 1996 with backing from Kleiner Perkins and New Enterprise Associates. Although Clark's original idea of eliminating the paperwork and bureaucracy associated with medical care was ambitious, it did lead to successes in administrative streamlining of medical records technology.
However, an Atlanta, Georgia startup company, WebMD focused on medical content was making similar in-roads. Knowing WebMD had financial backing from Microsoft, Clark decided to merge Healtheon with the original WebMD to form the WebMD Corporation. WebMD is a leader in health information on the Internet. In 1999, Jim Clark launched myCFO, a company formed to help wealthy Silicon Valley individuals manage their fortunes. In late 2002, while Clark served on the board of directors, most of myCFO's operations were sold to Harris Bank and now operate as Harris myCFO. Clark was chairman and financial backer of network-security startup Neoteris, founded in 2000, acquired by NetScreen in 2003 and subsequently by Juniper Networks. Clark was a founding director and investor in the biotechnology company DNA Sciences, founded in 1998 to unravel the genetics of common disease using volunteers recruited from the Internet launched August 1, 2000. In 2003, the company was acquired by Genaissance Pharmaceuticals Inc. Clark was the subject of the 1999 bestseller The New New Thing: A Silicon Valley Story by U.
S. author Michael Lewis. Clark was a notable investor in Kibu.com, an Internet website for teens, which received $22 million in funding. The website shut down in 2000. Clark coproduced the 2009 movie The Cove, his funding made possible the purchase and covert installation of some high-tech camera and sound-recording equipment required to capture the film's climactic dolphin slaughter. The film addresses the problem of whale and dolphin killing in Taiji, Japan. Clark sits on the board and is one of the primary investors in the consumer facing mobile technology company Ibotta. Clark sits on the board of IEX: The Investors Exchange IEX. In 2017, Clark announced the launch of CommandScape, a cyber secure building management and automation platform. Clark received the ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics Achievement Award in 1984, he was a recipient of the 1997 Kilby International Awards, which honored him for his computer graphics vision and for enabling networked information exchange. In 1988, Clark was an Award Recipient of the EY Entrepreneur of the Year Award in the Northern California Region.
Clark has four children. In 2000, his daughter Kathy married a co-founder of YouTube; the divorce from his third wife of 15 years, Nancy Rutter, a Forbes journalist, is r
Quarterdeck Office Systems
Quarterdeck Office Systems Quarterdeck Corporation, was an American computer software company. It was founded by Therese Myers and Gary Pope in 1981 and incorporated in 1982, their offices were located at 150 Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, California and at 13160 Mindanao Way in Marina del Rey, California, as well as a sales and technical support unit located in Clearwater, Florida. In the 1990s, they had a European office in Ireland, their most famous products were the Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager, DESQview, CleanSweep, DESQview/X, Quarterdeck Mosaic and Partition-It. On April 18, 1989, Quarterdeck was awarded a US software patent that allowed multiple windowed PC applications under MS-DOS. After sales and its stock plummeted in 1995, interim CEO King R. Lee hired Gaston Bastiaens as CEO. In order to diversify the company's product offerings, Bastiaens began an unsuccessful acquisition spree. In 1995, the company acquired Landmark Research International Corp. for 3.5 million shares of Quarterdeck and Inset Systems, Inc. of Brookfield, Connecticut in September of that year for 933,000 shares of Quarterdeck.
In March 1996, Quarterdeck acquired Datastorm Technologies, Inc. publishers of PROCOMM and PROCOMM PLUS, relocated its technical support and development operations from California and Florida, to Datastorm's Columbia, Missouri headquarters. In July 1996, Quarterdeck acquired Vertisoft Systems, publishers of the DoubleDisk and Fix-It utilities for 3.5 million shares of Quarterdeck. Both Landmark and Vertisoft had extensive revenues from direct-marketing of third party products through telemarketing and direct mail. Bastiaens resigned in August 1996, Quarterdeck continued under acting Co-CEOs King R. Lee, Anatoly Tikhman, the former CEO of Vertisoft; the company announced a restructuring and a loss, in January 1997, Quarterdeck hired Curtis Hessler to run the company. In 1998, with its DOS utilities market all but collapsed, Quarterdeck was acquired for $0.52 per share by Symantec, which discontinued support of some Quarterdeck products, e.g. Mosaic, integrated others into larger offerings, e.g. CleanSweep, which became part of Norton SystemWorks.
CleanSweep DESQ, predecessor to DESQview DESQview DESQview 386 DESQview/X GameRunner GlobalChat IRC client GlobalStage IRC server HiJaak Graphics Suite MagnaRAM Manifest Partition-It! Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager QEMM 386 Quarterdeck InternetSuite Quarterdeck Message Center Quarterdeck Mosaic Quarterdeck Sidebar QRAM, an Intel 80286-based expanded memory manager TotalWeb ViruSweep Quarterdeck WebAuthor for Word WebCompass, an early metasearch tool WebStar WebTalk Files.com "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 30, 1997. Retrieved July 1, 2016. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title CS1 maint: Unfit url Merger announcement Usenet group for DESQview SEC 10-K form for 9/30/96 Floor plan and Pictures of the Quarterdeck Building located in Columbia, Missouri, purchased by the University of Missouri
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th vice president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate in their successful campaign in 1992, the pair was re-elected in 1996. Near the end of Clinton's second term, Gore was selected as the Democratic nominee for the 2000 presidential election but lost the election in a close race after a Florida recount. After his term as vice-president ended in 2001, Gore remained prominent as an author and environmental activist, whose work in climate change activism earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. Gore was an elected official for 24 years, he was a representative from 1985 to 1993 served as one of the state's senators. He served as vice president during the Clinton administration from 1993 to 2001; the 2000 presidential election was one of the closest presidential races in history. Gore won the popular vote, but after a controversial election dispute over a Florida recount, he lost the election to Republican opponent George W. Bush in the Electoral College.
Gore is the founder and current chair of the Alliance for Climate Protection, the co-founder and chair of Generation Investment Management and the now-defunct Current TV network, a member of the Board of Directors of Apple Inc. and a senior adviser to Google. Gore is a partner in the venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, heading its climate change solutions group, he has served as a visiting professor at Middle Tennessee State University, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Fisk University, the University of California, Los Angeles. He served on the Board of Directors of World Resources Institute. Gore has received a number of awards that include the Nobel Peace Prize, a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his book An Inconvenient Truth, a Primetime Emmy Award for Current TV, a Webby Award. Gore was the subject of the Academy Award-winning documentary An Inconvenient Truth in 2006. In 2007, he was named a runner-up for Time's 2007 Person of the Year. Gore was born on March 31, 1948, in Washington, D.
C. the second of two children of Albert Gore Sr. a U. S. Representative who served for 18 years as a U. S. Senator from Tennessee, Pauline Gore, one of the first women to graduate from Vanderbilt University Law School. Gore is a descendant of Scots-Irish immigrants who first settled in Virginia in the mid-17th-century and moved to Tennessee after the Revolutionary War, his older sister Nancy LaFon Gore died of lung cancer. During the school year he lived with his family in The Fairfax Hotel in the Embassy Row section in Washington D. C. During the summer months, he worked on the family farm in Carthage, where the Gores grew tobacco and hay and raised cattle. Gore attended St. Albans School, an independent college preparatory day and boarding school for boys in Washington, D. C. from 1956 to 1965, a prestigious feeder school for the Ivy League. He was the captain of the football team, threw discus for the track and field team, participated in basketball and government, he applied to Harvard and was accepted.
Gore met Mary Elizabeth "Tipper" Aitcheson at his St. Albans senior prom in 1965, she was from the nearby St. Agnes School. Tipper followed Gore to Boston to attend college, they married at the Washington National Cathedral on May 19, 1970, they have four children—Karenna Gore, Kristin Carlson Gore, Sarah LaFon Gore, Albert Arnold Gore III. In June 2010, the Gores announced in an e-mail to friends that after "long and careful consideration", they had made a mutual decision to separate. In May 2012, it was reported. Gore enrolled in Harvard College in 1965. On his second day on campus, he began campaigning for the freshman student government council and was elected its president. Gore was an avid reader who fell in love with scientific and mathematical theories, but he did not do well in science classes and avoided taking math. During his first two years, his grades placed him in the lower one-fifth of his class. During his sophomore year, he spent much of his time watching television, shooting pool, smoking marijuana.
In his junior and senior years, he became earning As and Bs. In his senior year, he took a class with oceanographer and global warming theorist Roger Revelle, who sparked Gore's interest in global warming and other environmental issues. Gore earned an A on his thesis, "The Impact of Television on the Conduct of the Presidency, 1947–1969", graduated with an A. B. cum laude in June 1969. Gore was in college during the era of anti-Vietnam War protests, he was against that war. He thought that it was silly and juvenile to use a private university as a venue to vent anger at the war, he and his friends did not participate in Harvard demonstrations. John Tyson, a former roommate, recalled that "We distrusted these movements a lot... We were a pretty traditional bunch of guys, positive for civil rights and women's rights but formal, transformed by the social revolution to some extent but not buying into something we considered detrimental to our country." Gore helped his father write an anti-war address to the Democratic National Convention of 1968 but stayed with hi
Silicon Graphics, Inc. was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software. Founded in Mountain View, California in November 1981 by Jim Clark, its initial market was 3D graphics computer workstations, but its products and market positions developed over time. Early systems were based on the Geometry Engine that Clark and Marc Hannah had developed at Stanford University, were derived from Clark's broader background in computer graphics; the Geometry Engine was the first very-large-scale integration implementation of a geometry pipeline, specialized hardware that accelerated the "inner-loop" geometric computations needed to display three-dimensional images. For much of its history, the company focused on 3D imaging and was a major supplier of both hardware and software in this market. Silicon Graphics reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in January 1990. Through the mid to late-1990s, the improving performance of commodity Wintel machines began to erode SGI's stronghold in the 3D market.
The porting of Maya to other platforms is a major event in this process. SGI made several attempts to address this, including a disastrous move from their existing MIPS platforms to the Intel Itanium, as well as introducing their own Linux-based Intel IA-32 based workstations and servers that failed in the market. In the mid-2000s the company repositioned itself as a supercomputer vendor, a move that failed. On April 1, 2009, SGI filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and announced that it would sell all of its assets to Rackable Systems, a deal finalized on May 11, 2009, with Rackable assuming the name Silicon Graphics International; the remains of Silicon Graphics, Inc. became Graphics Properties Holdings, Inc. James H. Clark left his position as an electrical engineering associate professor at Stanford University to found SGI in 1982 along with a group of seven graduate students and research staff from Stanford: Kurt Akeley, David J. Brown, Tom Davis, Rocky Rhodes, Marc Hannah, Herb Kuta, Mark Grossman.
Ed McCracken was CEO of Silicon Graphics from 1984 to 1997. During those years, SGI grew from annual revenues of $5.4 million to $3.7 billion. The addition of 3D graphic capabilities to PCs, the ability of clusters of Linux- and BSD-based PCs to take on many of the tasks of larger SGI servers, ate into SGI's core markets; the porting of Maya to Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows further eroded the low end of SGI's product line. In response to challenges faced in the marketplace and a falling share price Ed McCracken was fired and SGI brought in Richard Belluzzo to replace him. Under Belluzzo's leadership a number of initiatives were taken which are considered to have accelerated the corporate decline. One such initiative was trying to sell workstations running Windows NT called Visual Workstations instead of just ones which ran IRIX, the company's version of UNIX; this put the company in more direct competition with the likes of Dell, making it more difficult to justify a price premium. The product line abandoned a few years later.
SGI's premature announcement of its migration from MIPS to Itanium and its abortive ventures into IA-32 architecture systems damaged SGI's credibility in the market. In 1999, in an attempt to clarify their current market position as more than a graphics company, Silicon Graphics Inc. changed its corporate identity to "SGI", although its legal name was unchanged. At the same time, SGI announced a new logo consisting of only the letters "sgi" in a proprietary font called "SGI", created by branding and design consulting firm Landor Associates, in collaboration with designer Joe Stitzlein. SGI continued to use the "Silicon Graphics" name for its workstation product line, re-adopted the cube logo for some workstation models. In November 2005, SGI announced that it had been delisted from the New York Stock Exchange because its common stock had fallen below the minimum share price for listing on the exchange. SGI's market capitalization dwindled from a peak of over seven billion dollars in 1995 to just $120 million at the time of delisting.
In February 2006, SGI noted. In mid-2005, SGI hired Alix Partners to advise it on returning to profitability and received a new line of credit. SGI announced it was postponing its scheduled annual December stockholders meeting until March 2006, it proposed a reverse stock split to deal with the de-listing from the New York Stock Exchange. In January 2006, SGI hired Dennis McKenna as its new chairman of the board of directors. Mr. McKenna succeeded Robert Bishop. On May 8, 2006, SGI announced that it had filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection for itself and U. S. subsidiaries as part of a plan to reduce debt by $250 million. Two days the U. S. Bankruptcy Court approved its first day motions and its use of a $70 million financing facility provided by a group of its bondholders. Foreign subsidiaries were unaffected. On September 6, 2006, SGI announced the end of development for the MIPS/IRIX line and the IRIX operating system. Production would end on December 29 and the last orders would be fulfilled by March 2007.
Support for these products would end after December 2013. SGI emerged from bankruptcy protection on October 17, 2006, its stock symbol at that point, SGID.pk, was canceled, new stock was issued on the NASDAQ exchange under the symbol SGIC. This new stock was distributed to the company's creditors, the SGID common stockh
The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In
Amdahl Corporation was an information technology company which specialized in IBM mainframe-compatible computer products, some of which were regarded as supercomputers competing with those from Cray Research. Founded in 1970 by Gene Amdahl, a former IBM computer engineer best known as chief architect of System/360, it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Fujitsu since 1997; the company is located in California. From its first machine in 1975, Amdahl's business was to provide mainframe computers that were plug-compatible with contemporary IBM mainframes, but offering higher reliability, running somewhat faster, costing somewhat less, they had additional practical advantages as well, in terms of size, power requirements, or being air-cooled instead of requiring a chilled water supply. This offered a price/performance ratio superior to the IBM lineup, made Amdahl one of the few real competitors to "Big Blue" in the high-margin computer market segment; the company won about 8% of the mainframe business worldwide, but was a market leader in some regions, most notably in the Carolinas.
Proverbially, savvy IBM customers liked to have Amdahl coffee mugs visible in their offices when IBM salespeople came to visit. As the mainframe market began to change in the 1980s, Amdahl was diversified, becoming a major supplier of UNIX and open systems software and servers, data storage subsystems, data communications products, application development software, a variety of educational and consulting services. Amdahl launched its first product in 1975, the Amdahl 470/6, which competed directly against high-end models in IBM's then-current System/370 family; when IBM announced the introduction of Dynamic Address Translation, Amdahl announced the 470V/6 and dropped the 470/6. At the time of its introduction, the 470V/6 was less expensive but still faster than IBM's comparable offerings; the first two 470V/6 machines were delivered to the University of Michigan. For the next quarter century Amdahl and IBM competed aggressively against one another in the high-end mainframe market. At its peak, Amdahl had a 24% market share.
Amdahl owed some of its success to antitrust settlements between IBM and the U. S. Department of Justice, which ensured that Amdahl's customers could license IBM's mainframe software under reasonable terms. Gene Amdahl was committed to expanding the capabilities of the uniprocessor mainframe during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Amdahl engineers, working with Fujitsu circuit designers, developed unique, air-cooled chips which were based on high-speed emitter-coupled logic circuit macros; these chips were packaged in a chip package with a heat-dissipating cooling attachment mounted directly on the top of the chip. This patented technology allowed the Amdahl mainframes of this era to be air-cooled, unlike IBM systems that required chilled water and its supporting infrastructure. In the 470 systems, the chips were mounted in a 6-by-7 array on multi-layer cards, which were mounted in vertical columns; the cards had eight connectors that attached the micro-coaxial cables that interconnected the system components.
A conventional backplane was not used in the central processing units. The card columns held at least three cards per side; each column had two large "Tarzan" fans to move the considerable amount of air needed to cool the chips. Additional models of Amdahl uniprocessor systems included / 7 and / 8 systems; the 470V/8, first shipped in 1980, incorporated high speed 64 KB cache memories to improve performance, the first real hardware-based virtualization. Amdahl pioneered a variable-speed feature on the V5 and V7 systems that allowed the customer to run the CPUs at the higher level of performance of the V6 and V8 systems when desired; the customer was charged by the number of hours used. Some at Amdahl thought this feature would anger customers, but it became quite popular as customer management could now control expenses while still having greater performance available when necessary. In the 580 systems, the chips were mounted in an 11-by-11 array on multi-layer boards called Multi-Chip Carriers that were positioned in high-airflow for cooling.
The MCCs were mounted horizontally in a large rectangular frame. The MCCs slid into a complex physical connection system; the processor "side panels" interconnected the system, providing clock propagation delays that maintained race-free synchronous operation at high clock frequencies. This processor box was cooled by high-speed fans generating horizontal air flow across the MCCs. Gene Amdahl left the company. With Gene Amdahl's departure, increasing influence from Fujitsu, Amdahl entered the large-scale multiprocessor market in the mid-1980s with the 5870 and 5880 models. In the 1980s, Amdahl entered the IBM-compatible peripherals business in front-end processors and storage products, shipping its first 4705 communications controller in August 1980 and its first 6000 DASD in August 1982; these products were successful for a number of years with the support of Jack Lewis, the former CEO of Amdahl. The reliance upon a limited product line, restricted to containment within the complex business of mainframes and their valuable peripherals, constrained the company's hardware business when market forces shifted to x86-based processors.
This had been foreseen, leading to an increasing emphasis on software and consu
National Center for Supercomputing Applications
The National Center for Supercomputing Applications is a state-federal partnership to develop and deploy national-scale cyberinfrastructure that advances research and engineering based in the United States of America. NCSA operates as a unit of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, provides high-performance computing resources to researchers across the country. Support for NCSA comes from the National Science Foundation, the state of Illinois, the University of Illinois and industry partners, other federal agencies. NCSA provides leading-edge computing, data storage, visualization resources. NCSA computational and data environment implements a multi-architecture hardware strategy, deploying both clusters and shared memory systems to support high-end users and communities on the architectures best-suited to their requirements. Nearly 1,360 scientists and students used the computing and data systems at NCSA to support research in more than 830 projects. NCSA is led by Bill Gropp. NCSA is one of the five original centers in the National Science Foundation's Supercomputer Centers Program.
The idea for NCSA and the four other supercomputer centers arose from the frustration of its founder, Larry Smarr, who wrote an influential paper, "The Supercomputer Famine in American Universities", in 1982, after having to travel to Europe in summertime to access supercomputers and conduct his research. Smarr wrote a proposal to address the future needs of scientific research. Seven other University of Illinois professors joined as co-principal investigators, many others provided descriptions of what could be accomplished if the proposal were accepted. Known as the Black Proposal, it was submitted to the NSF in 1983, it met the NSF's mandate and its contents generated excitement. However, the NSF had no organization in place to support it, the proposal itself did not contain a defined home for its implementation; the NSF established an Office of Scientific Computing in 1984 and, with strong congressional support, it announced a national competition that would fund a set of supercomputer centers like the one described in the Black Proposal.
The result was. The Black Proposal was approved in 1985 and marked the foundation of NCSA, with $42,751,000 in funding from 1 January 1985 through 31 December 1989; this was noteworthy in that the NSF's action of approving an unsolicited proposal was unprecedented. NCSA opened its doors in January 1986. In 2007, NCSA was awarded a grant from the National Science Foundation to build "Blue Waters", a supercomputer capable of performing quadrillions of calculations per second, a level of performance known as petascale. The'Black Proposal' was a short, ten-page proposal for the creation of a supercomputing center which led to funding from the National Science Foundation to create supercomputing centers, including the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois. In this sense, the significant role played by the U. S. Government in funding the center, the first popular web browser, cannot be denied; the Black Proposal described the limitations on any scientific research that required computer capabilities, it described a future world of productive scientific collaboration, centered on universal computer access, where technical limitations on scientific research would not exist.
It expressed a clear vision of how to get from the present to the future. The proposal was titled "A Center for Scientific and Engineering Supercomputing", was ten pages long; the proposal's vision of the computing future were unusual or non-existent, but elements of it are now commonplace, such as visualization, high-speed I/O, data storage, software engineering, close collaboration with the multi-disciplinary user community. Modern readers of the Black Proposal may gain insight into a world. Today's computers are easy to use, the web is omnipresent. Employees in high-tech endeavors are given supercomputer accounts because they are employees. Computers are universally available and can be used by anyone of any age, applicable to anything. At the time the proposal was written, computers were available to no one. For scientists who needed computers in their research, access was difficult; the effect on research was crippling. Reading publications from that time gives no hint that scientists were required to learn the arcane technical details of whatever computer facilities were available to them, a time-consuming limitation on their research, an exceedingly tedious distraction from their professional interests.
The implementation of the Black Proposal had a primary role in shaping the computer technology of today, its impact on research has been profound. The proposal's description of the leading edge of scientific research may be sobering, the limitations on computer usage at major universities may be surprising. A comprehensive list of the world's supercomputers shows the best resources that were available; the thrust of the proposal may seem obvious now, but was novel. The National Science Foundation announced funding for the supercomputer centers in 1985. NCSA came to the attention of the worldwide scientific community with the release of NCSA Telnet in 1986. A number of other tools followed, like NCSA Telnet, all were made available to everyone at no cost. In 1993, NCSA released the Mosaic web browser, the first pop