A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
Proxemics is the study of human use of space and the effects that population density has on behaviour and social interaction. Proxemics is one among several subcategories in the study of nonverbal communication, including haptics, kinesics and chronemics. Edward T. Hall, the cultural anthropologist who coined the term in 1963, defined proxemics as "the interrelated observations and theories of humans use of space as a specialized elaboration of culture". In his foundational work on proxemics, The Hidden Dimension, Hall emphasized the impact of proxemic behavior on interpersonal communication. According to Hall, the study of proxemics is valuable in evaluating not only the way people interact with others in daily life, but "the organization of space in houses and buildings, the layout of towns". Proxemics remains a hidden component of interpersonal communication, uncovered through observation and influenced by culture. Hall described the interpersonal distances of man in four distinct zones: intimate space, personal space, social space, public space.
Intimate distance for embracing, touching or whispering Close phase – less than under one inch Far phase – 6 to 18 inches Personal distance for interactions among good friends or family Close phase – 1.5 to 2.5 feet Far phase – 2.5 to 4 feet Social distance for interactions among acquaintances Close phase – 4 to 7 feet Far phase – 7 to 12 feet Public distance used for public speaking Close phase – 12 to 25 feet Far phase – 25 feet or more. The distance surrounding a person forms a space; the space within intimate distance and personal distance is called personal space. The space within social distance and out of personal distance is called social space, and the space within public distance is called public space. Personal space is the region surrounding a person. Most people value their personal space and feel discomfort, anger, or anxiety when their personal space is encroached. Permitting a person to enter personal space and entering somebody else's personal space are indicators of perception of those people's relationship.
An intimate zone is reserved for close friends, lovers and close family members. Another zone is used for conversations with friends, to chat with associates, in group discussions. A further zone is reserved for strangers, newly formed groups, new acquaintances. A fourth zone is used for speeches and theater. Entering somebody's personal space is an indication of familiarity and sometimes intimacy. However, in modern society in crowded urban communities, it can be difficult to maintain personal space, for example when in a crowded train, elevator or street. Many people find such physical proximity to be psychologically disturbing and uncomfortable, though it is accepted as a fact of modern life. In an impersonal, crowded situation, eye contact tends to be avoided. In a crowded place, preserving personal space is important, intimate and sexual contact, such as frotteurism and groping, is unacceptable physical contact; the amygdala is suspected of processing people's strong reactions to personal space violations since these are absent in those in which it is damaged and it is activated when people are physically close.
Research links the amygdala with emotional reactions to proximity to other people. First, it is activated by such proximity, second, in those with complete bilateral damage to their amygdala, such as patient S. M. lack a sense of personal space boundary. As the researchers have noted: "Our findings suggest that the amygdala may mediate the repulsive force that helps to maintain a minimum distance between people. Further, our findings are consistent with those in monkeys with bilateral amygdala lesions, who stay within closer proximity to other monkeys or people, an effect we suggest arises from the absence of strong emotional responses to personal space violation."A person's personal space is carried with them everywhere they go. It is the most inviolate form of territory. Body spacing and posture, according to Hall, are unintentional reactions to sensory fluctuations or shifts, such as subtle changes in the sound and pitch of a person's voice. Social distance between people is reliably correlated with physical distance, as are intimate and personal distance, according to the delineations below.
Hall did not mean for these measurements to be strict guidelines that translate to human behavior, but rather a system for gauging the effect of distance on communication and how the effect varies between cultures and other environmental factors. The distances mentioned above are horizontal distance. There is vertical distance that communicates something between people. In this case, vertical distance is understood to convey the degree of dominance or sub-ordinance in a relationship. Looking up at or down on another person can be taken in many cases, with the higher person asserting greater status. Teachers, those who work with small children, should realize that students will interact more comfortably with a teacher when they are in same vertical plane. Used in this way, an understanding of vertical distance can become a tool for improved teacher-student communication. On the other hand, a disciplinarian might put this information to use in order to gain psychological advantage over an unruly student.
Hall used biometric concepts to categorize and explore
Maria Petrovna Alexeyeva was a Russian stage actress, associated with the Moscow Art Theatre, better known under her stage name Lilina. Konstantin Stanislavski, the MAT director, was her husband. In 1933 Lilina was designated as a Meritorious Artist of RSFSR. Lilina was a founding member of the MAT troupe which she joined in 1898, her two breakthrough performances, which brought her to fame, were Masha in The Seagull and Sonya in Uncle Vanya, both praised for "fitting Chekhov's aesthetics." Lauded were her Natasha in Three Sisters. In 1906-1915 Lilina played three parts in Alexander Griboyedov's Woe from Wit: Liza, a sly and clever peasant servant, as well as graceful Countess the Granddaughter, Khlyostova, the latter with satyrical verve and wit, her tandem with Stanislavsky in Leo Tolstoy's The Living Corpse has been described as "the living amalgam of the fullness of life and the precision of the expression."Lilina was said to have "understood the electrically charged dynamics of the Dostoyevsky prose, full of emotional overload," and was stunning as Karpukhina in The Uncle's Dream and as Khromonozhka in Nikolai Stavrogin, according to Inna Solovyova.
"Many considered her the most subtle and deep of the MAT actresses," this critic argued. Lilina has always regarded her husband as her teacher and Stanislavsky referred to her as his'best student', he dedicated his book The Actor's Work on Himself to Lilina. Her other notable roles included Tatyana in Dmitry Merezhkovsky's Joy Will Come, The Guest and Anna Andreyevna in Revisor. After MAT's 1923-1924 foreign tour Lilina's domestic obligations started to prevail, her contribution to the theatre became limited. Since 1924 she's had only five new works, including Korobochka in Dead Souls and Yanina in The Embezzlers. In 1935 she started to read drama in Stanislavsky's last and Drama studio, after his death directed all of the latter's productions
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A theatre director or stage director is an instructor in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a theatre production by unifying various endeavours and aspects of production. The director's function is to ensure the quality and completeness of theatre production and to lead the members of the creative team into realizing their artistic vision for it; the director therefore collaborates with a team of creative individuals and other staff, coordinating research, costume design, lighting design, set design, stage combat, sound design for the production. If the production he or she is mounting is a new piece of writing or a translation of a play, the director may work with the playwright or translator. In contemporary theatre, after the playwright, the director is the primary visionary, making decisions on the artistic concept and interpretation of the play and its staging. Different directors occupy different places of authority and responsibility, depending on the structure and philosophy of individual theatre companies.
Directors use a wide variety of techniques and levels of collaboration. In ancient Greece, the birthplace of European drama, the writer bore principal responsibility for the staging of his plays. Actors were semi-professionals, the director oversaw the mounting of plays from the writing process all the way through to their performance acting in them too, as Aeschylus for example did; the author-director would train the chorus, sometimes compose the music, supervise every aspect of production. The fact that the director was called didaskalos, the Greek word for "teacher," indicates that the work of these early directors combined instructing their performers with staging their work. In medieval times, the complexity of vernacular religious drama, with its large scale mystery plays that included crowd scenes and elaborate effects, gave the role of director considerable importance. A miniature by Jean Fouquet from 1460 bears one of the earliest depictions of a director at work. Holding a prompt book, the central figure directs, with the aid of a long stick, the proceedings of the staging of a dramatization of the Martyrdom of Saint Apollonia.
According to Fouquet, the director's tasks included overseeing the erecting of a stage and scenery and directing the actors, addressing the audience at the beginning of each performance and after each intermission. From Renaissance times up until the 19th century, the role of director was carried by the actor-manager; this would be a senior actor in a troupe who took the responsibility for choosing the repertoire of work, staging it and managing the company. This was the case for instance with Commedia dell'Arte companies and English actor-managers like Colley Cibber and David Garrick; the modern theatre director can be said to have originated in the staging of elaborate spectacles of the Meininger Company under George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. The management of large numbers of extras and complex stagecraft matters necessitated an individual to take on the role of overall coordinator; this gave rise to the role of the director in modern theatre, Germany would provide a platform for a generation of emerging visionary theatre directors, such as Erwin Piscator and Max Reinhardt.
Constantin Stanislavski, principally an actor-manager, would set up the Moscow Art Theatre in Russia and emancipate the role of the director as artistic visionary. The French regisseur is sometimes used to mean a stage director, most in ballet. A more common term for theatre director in French is metteur en scène. Post World War II, the actor-manager started to disappear, directing become a fledged artistic activity within the theatre profession; the director originating artistic vision and concept, realizing the staging of a production, became the norm rather than the exception. Great forces in the emancipation of theatre directing as a profession were notable 20th-century theatre directors like Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, Vsevolod Meyerhold, Yevgeny Vakhtangov, Michael Chekhov, Yuri Lyubimov, Orson Welles, Peter Brook, Peter Hall, Bertolt Brecht, Giorgio Strehler and Franco Zeffirelli. A cautionary note was introduced by the famed director Sir Tyrone Guthrie who said "the only way to learn how to direct a play, is... to get a group of actors simple enough to allow you to let you direct them, direct".
A number of seminal works on directing and directors include Toby Cole and Helen Krich's 1972 Directors on Directing: A Sourcebook of the Modern Theatre, Edward Braun's 1982 book The Director and the Stage: From Naturalism to Growtowski and Will's The Director in a Changing Theatre. Because of the late emergence of theatre directing as a performing arts profession when compared with for instance acting or musicianship, a rise of professional vocational training programmes in directing can be seen in the second half of the 20th century. Most European countries nowadays know some form of professional directing training at drama schools or conservatoires, or at universities. In Britain, the tradition that theatre directors emerge from degree courses at the Oxbridge universities has meant that for a long time, professional vocational training did not take place at drama schools or performing arts colleges, although an increase in
Subtext is any content of a creative work, not announced explicitly by the characters or author, but is implicit or becomes something understood by the observer of the work as the production unfolds. Subtext has been used to imply controversial subjects without drawing the attention, or wrath, of censors; this has been true in comedy, but it is common in science fiction, where it can be easier and safer to make social critiques if it is set in a time other than the present. Subtext is content "under", hence, "sub", or hidden beneath, the actual dialog or text. To gather subtext the audience must "read between the lines"; this is crucial to a accurate understanding of the word. If it is stated explicitly, it is by definition not subtext. In fact, writer's are criticized for the failure to artfully create and use subtext; such writing is faulted for being too "on the nose", meaning the characters always mean what they say. Among other things, this robs the text of dramatic tension and can make the whole thing too boring and obvious.
Subtext is also inserted in narratives where explicit themes are unable to be shown or expressed due to the desire to appeal to a general audience. Examples are other adult references in a story nominally marketed to children, their inclusion sails right over the kid's heads but the adults appreciate a chuckling nod to the fact that they too are in the audience. Subtext is not costumes, set pieces, or design, although these cultural cues may'set the table' for the understanding and interpretation of the subtext. One of the best uses of subtext, one, used in screenwriting classes for this reason, is the brief moment from "Chinatown, where Faye Dunaway says that Katherine is'my sister', at another time,'my daughter', when questioned by Jack Nicholson, his first reaction is to slap her for uttering such nonsense. But she can only repeat the seeming contradiction despite the beating, Nicholson understands. He'reads between the lines' of the words she is using to understand not only what she is saying to him, but all the danger that unspoken statement reveals about the story, the characters, their past, their motives, so on, which Nicholson has neither foreseen nor understood until that moment, pretty far into the movie.
Now it is true that she says "she's my sister *and* my daughter" at the end of the beating, but that's a reveal, not on the nose writing. And that reveal does not explicitly state the implications Nicholson now grasps, because those implications - much bigger than just a single isolated act of incest - are not explicitly stated. "My father and I... understand? Or is it too tough for you?". Although the definition references creative works, it should not be surprising that usage of terms like'subtext' and'reading between the lines' have generalized to many other social contexts. An example of the power and controversy of subtexts in a socio-political context would be slave songs from the plantations of the south. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot is a call for escape and rescue from their real world present environment, not the hope that a supernatural god will swoop down from heaven and usher them into a better place when they die. Or foolishly, it was the knowledge of this history that led the FBI to believe the hit song of the 1960's, "Dancing in the Streets" by Martha Reeves and the Vandellas, was a coded call for riots
The Seagull is a play by Russian dramatist Anton Chekhov, written in 1895 and first produced in 1896. The Seagull is considered to be the first of his four major plays, it dramatises the romantic and artistic conflicts between four characters: the famous middlebrow story writer Boris Trigorin, the ingenue Nina, the fading actress Irina Arkadina, her son the symbolist playwright Konstantin Tréplev. Though the character of Trigorin is considered Chekhov's greatest male role like Chekhov's other full-length plays, The Seagull relies upon an ensemble cast of diverse developed characters. In contrast to the melodrama of mainstream 19th-century theatre, lurid actions are not shown onstage. Characters tend to speak in ways; the opening night of the first production was a famous failure. Vera Komissarzhevskaya, playing Nina, was so intimidated by the hostility of the audience that she lost her voice. Chekhov spent the last two acts behind the scenes; when supporters wrote to him that the production became a success, he assumed that they were trying to be kind.
When Konstantin Stanislavski, the seminal Russian theatre practitioner of the time, directed it in 1898 for his Moscow Art Theatre, the play was a triumph. Stanislavski's production of The Seagull became "one of the greatest events in the history of Russian theatre and one of the greatest new developments in the history of world drama". After purchasing the Melikhovo farm in 1892, Chekhov had built in the middle of a cherry orchard a lodge consisting of three rooms, one containing a bed and another a writing table. In spring, when the cherries were in blossom, it was pleasant to live in this lodge, but in winter it was so buried in the snow that pathways had to be cut to it through drifts as high as a man. Chekhov moved in and in a letter written in October 1895 wrote: I am writing a play which I shall not finish before the end of November. I am writing it not without pleasure. It's a comedy, there are four acts, landscapes, thus he acknowledged a departure from traditional dramatic action. This departure would become a critical hallmark of the Chekhovian theater.
Chekhov's statement reflects his view of the play as comedy, a viewpoint he would maintain towards all his plays. After the play's disastrous opening night his friend Aleksey Suvorin chided him as being "womanish" and accused him of being in "a funk." Chekhov vigorously denied this, stating: Why this libel? After the performance I had supper at Romanov's. On my word of honour. I went to bed, slept soundly, next day went home without uttering a sound of complaint. If I had been in a funk I should have run from editor to editor and actor to actor, should have nervously entreated them to be considerate, should nervously have inserted useless corrections and should have spent two or three weeks in Petersburg fussing over my Seagull, in excitement, in a cold perspiration, in lamentation.... I acted as coldly and reasonably as a man who has made an offer, received a refusal, has nothing left but to go. Yes, my vanity was stung, and a month later: I thought that if I had written and put on the stage a play so brimming over with monstrous defects, I had lost all instinct and that, therefore, my machinery must have gone wrong for good.
The eventual success of the play, both in the remainder of its first run and in the subsequent staging by the Moscow Art Theatre under Stanislavski, would encourage Chekhov to remain a playwright and lead to the overwhelming success of his next endeavor Uncle Vanya, indeed to the rest of his dramatic oeuvre. Irina Nikolayevna Arkadina – an actress Konstantin Gavrilovich Treplyov – Irina's son, a playwright Boris Alexeyevich Trigorin – a well-known writer Nina Mikhailovna Zarechnaya – the daughter of a rich landowner Pjotr Nikolayevich Sorin – Irina's brother Ilya Afanasyevich Shamrayev – a retired lieutenant and the manager of Sorin's estate Polina Andryevna – Ilya's wife Masha – Ilya and Polina's daughter Yevgeny Sergeyevich Dorn – a doctor Semyon Semyonovich Medvedenko – a teacher Yakov – a hired workman Cook – a worker on Sorin's estate Maid – a worker on Sorin's estate Watchman – a worker on Sorin's estate, he is the brother of the famous actress Irina Arkadina, who has just arrived at the estate for a brief vacation with her lover, the writer Boris Trigorin.
Pjotr Sorin and his guests gather at an outdoor stage to see an unconventional play that Irina's son, Konstantin Treplyov, has written and directed. The play-within-a-play features Nina Zarechnaya, a young woman who lives on a neighboring estate, as the "soul of the world" in a time far in the future; the play is Konstantin's latest attempt at creating a new theatrical form, is a dense symbolist work. Irina laughs at the play, finding it incomprehensible. Irina does not seem concerned about her son. Although others ridicule Konstantin's drama, the physician Yevgeny Dorn praises him. Act I sets up the play's various romantic triangles. T