The four most numerous Finno-Ugric peoples are the Hungarians, Finns and Mordvins. The first three of these have their own independent states – Hungary and Estonia, the traditional area of the indigenous Sami people is in Northern Fenno-Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula in Northwest Russia and is known as Sápmi. Some other Finno-Ugric peoples have autonomous republics in Russia, Komi, Mari and Mansi peoples live in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug of Russia. Komi subgroup Komi-Permyaks used to live in Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, Vladimir Lenin may have had Mordvin ancestry. There is a belief that President Vladimir Putin of Russia is potentially of Vepsian ancestry, a central concept in their cosmologies is the myth that the world was created from an egg. There are myths about the Milky Way, ideas about the existence of the World tree or pillar, a myth about a bird floating on the primary ocean that dives for the ground is a central Uralic cosmogonic myth. In 2007, the 1st Festival of the Finno-Ugric Peoples was hosted by President Vladimir Putin of Russia, and visited by Finnish President, Tarja Halonen, north Eurasian Finno-Ugric-speaking populations were found to be genetically a heterogeneous group showing lower haplotype diversities compared to more southern populations.
The proposal of a Finno-Ugric language family has led to the not just of an ancient Proto–Finno-Ugric people. Such hypotheses are based on the assumption that heredity can be traced though linguistic relatedness, Finno-Ugric has not been reconstructed linguistically, attempts to do so have been indistinguishable from Proto-Uralic. Like in any human population, individual groups within the Finno-Ugric language family have a diverse array of cultural, environmental. R1a1a7-M458 R1a1a7-M458 frequency peaks among Slavic and Finno-Ugric peoples, r1a1a1i This group seems to have connection with among others the Finno-Ugric peoples. It is the North-East European subclade of R1a1a1 and spread from the Baltic to the Ural Mountains as well as the Carpathian Basin, the majority of the Steppe Magyars likely belonged to this haplogroup, carrying the Ugric Hungarian language. Ananyino culture Comb Ceramic culture Dyakovo culture Samoyedic peoples Finno-Ugrian suicide hypothesis Mile Nedeljković, Leksikon naroda sveta, people of Volga and Uralic regions
The Neglinnaya River, known as Neglinka, Neglimna, is a 7. 5-km long underground river in the central part of Moscow and a tributary of the Moskva River. It flows in the tunnels under Samotechnaya Street, Tsvetnoy Boulevard, Neglinnaya Street and Alexander Garden, the Neglinnaya discharges into the Moskva River through two separate tunnels near Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge and Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge. The river in its natural state used to flow openly from the parts of Moscow to the south across the very centre of the city. The Kremlin was built on a hill east of the Neglinnaya, the moat did not stop foreign invasions, but slowed down development of territories west of the Kremlin, the city grew eastward, into Red Square and Kitai-gorod. When Muscovites began settling on the side, territories around the Neglinnaya remained vacant due to frequent flooding. Muscovites constructed a number of dams, creating a chain of six interconnected ponds, used for firefighting, with watermills, workshops, there were four bridges across the Neglinnaya River, Voskresensky Bridge, three-span Kuznetsky Bridge, Troitsky Bridge and Petrovsky Bridge.
The first plans to rebuild the Neglinnaya River, presented in 1775, a new masonry canal, one sazhen wide, was laid parallel to the Neglinnaya, after diverting water into the tunnel, builders filled the old river bed with earth. After the Fire of Moscow, the canal was so polluted that the city cleared it and covered with a masonry vault and this formed present-day Neglinnaya Street and Theatre Square. Before centralised city sewage, the tunnel doubled as a sewer, the first reconstruction replaced part of the tunnel with a larger pipe, but was terminated by World War I. This new pipe, designed by engineer Schekotov, was adequate by any standard, in 1966, the city built a second arm for the Neglinnaya River, cutting the path under Zaryadye. In 1974—1989, after the 1973 flood, the city built a completely new 4-kilometer tunnel,3.47 metres high and 4.90 metres wide, the old tunnel was re-used as a pipe and cable conduit. Present-day ponds on Manezhnaya Square are not the Neglinnaya River, the real river runs too deep to be properly displayed.
The area is dotted with statues on subjects taken from Russian fables designed by Zurab Tsereteli. Contractors report with photographs of 1965 flood www. mosinzhproekt. ru Russia Today image gallery
It is separated from the Moscow Kremlin by Red Square. Kitay-gorod does not constitute a district, as there are no resident voters, rather, the territory has been part of Tverskoy District, the Central Administrative Okrug authorities have managed the area directly since 2003. The etymology of the name is unclear, gorod is the Russian word for city, derived from the ancient gord. Note that Kitay is the modern Russian word for China, see Cathay, the walls were erected from 1536 to 1539 by an Italian architect known under the Russified name Petrok Maly and originally featured 13 towers and six gates. They were as thick as they were high, the average being six meters in both dimensions, the last of the towers were demolished in the 1930s, but small portions of the wall still stand. One of two remaining parts of the wall is located in Zaryadye and the other near the exit from the Okhotny Ryad station of Moscow Metro behind the Hotel Metropol, recently the mayor of Moscow announced plans for a full-scale restoration of the wall.
City officials plan to close Kitay-gorod to automobile traffic, since 1995 the wall has been extensively rebuilt, and a new tower has been added. Inside the tower are a couple of restaurants and bars, apart from Red Square, the quarter is bordered by the chain of Central Squares of Moscow, notably Theatre Square, Lubyanka Square, and Slavyanskaya Square. Bourse Square on Ilyinka Street is situated entirely within Kitay-gorod, Kitay-gorod, developing as a trading area, was known as the most prestigious business area of Moscow. Its three main streets — Varvarka and Nikolskaya — are lined with banks and storehouses like the historicistic shopping mall GUM which confines Kitay-gorod towards Red Square. One of the most beautiful churches in Moscow, St. Nicholas Church on the Ilyinka and this district features the Trinity Church of Nikitniki, which today is nestled among city buildings. It was built in the 1630s on the land of Moscow merchant, Nikolskaya Street is famous for being the site of Moscows first university, the Slavic Greek Latin Academy, housed in extant Zaikonospassky monastery.
Another monastery cathedral, the church of Epiphany Monastery, stands in the middle of Kitay-gorod in the eponymous Bogoyavlensky Lane. The 18th century survives in the walls of the otherwise rebuilt Gostiny Dvor by Giacomo Quarenghi. In the 19th century, Red Square was lined by a domed structure of Upper Trade Rows by Joseph Bove. However, in the 1890s it was torn down and replaced with the new, eclectic Upper Trading Rows, in the 1890s, developers consolidated large land lots on the perimeter of Kitay-gorod. Since the early 1990s, many buildings have been torn down or rebuilt by facadist methods. Apart from the Gostiny Dvor, recent losses include the Tyoplye Trade Rows, the degree of destruction cannot be assessed in full, since many properties are operated by the federal government and closed to the general public
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a fortress, castle, or fortified center, the term is a diminutive of city and thus means little city, so called because it is a smaller part of the city of which it is the defensive core. It is positioned to be the last line of defense, should the enemy breach the other components of the fortification system, a citadel is a term of the third part of a medieval castle, with higher walls than the rest. It was to be the last line of defense before the keep itself, some of the oldest known structures which have served as citadels were built by the Indus Valley Civilization, where the citadel represented a centralised authority. The main citadel in Indus Valley was almost 12 meters tall, the purpose of these structures, remains debated. Though the structures found in the ruins of Mohenjo-daro were walled, they may have been built to divert flood waters. The most well-known is the Acropolis of Athens, but nearly every Greek city-state had one – the Acrocorinth famed as a strong fortress.
In a much period, when Greece was ruled by the Latin Empire, rebels who took power in the city but with the citadel still held by the former rulers could by no means regard their tenure of power as secure. One such incident played an important part in the history of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire, the Hellenistic garrison of Jerusalem and local supporters of the Seleucids held out for many years in the Acra citadel, making Maccabean rule in the rest of Jerusalem precarious. When finally gaining possession of the place, the Maccabeans pointedly destroyed and razed the Acra, a city where the citadel held out against an invading army was not considered conquered. In the Philippines The Ivatan people of the islands of Batanes often built fortifications to protect themselves during times of war. They built their so-called idjangs on hills and elevated areas. These fortifications were likened to European castles because of their purpose. Usually, the entrance to the castles would be via a rope ladder that would only be lowered for the villagers.
In time of war the citadel in many cases afforded retreat to the living in the areas around the town. For example, during the Dutch Wars of 1664-67, King Charles II of England constructed a Royal Citadel at Plymouth, barcelona had a great citadel built in 1714 to intimidate the Catalans against repeating their mid-17th- and early-18th-century rebellions against the Spanish central government. A similar example is the Citadella in Budapest, the Citadelle of Québec still survives as the largest citadel still in official military operation in North America. It is home to the Royal 22nd Regiment of Canada, citadels since the mid 20th century, are commonly military command and control centres built to resist attack commonly aerial or nuclear bombardment. The Military citadels under London such as the underground complex beneath the Ministry of Defense called Pindar is one such example
Tokhtamysh or Tokhtamısh, a prominent khan of the Blue Horde, briefly unified the White Horde and Blue Horde subdivisions of the Golden Horde into a single state. He descended from Genghis Khans grandson, Tuqa-Timur, Tokhtamysh appears in history in 1376, trying to overthrow his uncle Urus Khan, ruler of the White Horde, and fleeing to the great Timur. Tokhtamysh outlived Urus and both his sons, and forcefully ascended to the throne of the White Horde in 1378, Tokhtamysh dreamed of emulating his ancestors and made plans to reunite the Golden Horde. In 1380, he invaded the Blue Horde by fording across the Volga, the ruler of the Blue Horde, was killed shortly after the Battle of Kulikovo, marking Tokhtamyshs victory and the reunification of the Golden Horde. In just six years, Tokhtamysh had reunified the lands of the Golden Horde from Crimea to Lake Balkhash. Dmitry Donskoy had raised an army to defeat and suppress the Mongol–Tatar hordes. Realizing the enmity the unruly Dimitry had unleashed, Tokhtamysh marched against Moscow, after three days of siege, Tokhtamysh was faced with a stalemate, until Donskoys brothers-in-law opened the gates and allowed the massacre of the citys inhabitants.
The destruction of Moscow led to Dimitrys surrender to the authority of Tokhtamysh at the end of 1382, Tokhtamysh took Donskoys son hostage. Returning north they took 200,000 slaves from the Caucasus, including tens of thousands of Armenians from the districts of Parskahayk and Artsakh. This proved to be an error for Tokhtamysh, who moved north from the Caucasus, thus allowing his Ilkhanate rivals to side with Timur. Furious, Tokhtamysh turned back and made war on his former ally, Tokhtamysh conceded defeat and withdrew to the steppe. However, in 1387 he suddenly invaded Transoxiana, the heart of Timurs realm, unfortunately for Tokhtamysh, heavy snow forced him back to the steppe. In 1395, the scenario reached its climax as Timur attacked the Golden Horde, Timur sacked cities of the Golden Horde such as Azov and Tokhtamyshs capital, Sarai Berke. Timur captured artisans and craftsmen of the Golden Horde, and placed a puppet ruler, Koirichak, on the throne of the White Horde, Tokhtamysh escaped to the Ukrainian steppes and asked for help from the Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania.
In the great Battle of the Vorskla River the combined forces of Tokhtamysh, the defeated Tokhtamysh was killed in Tyumen by Edigus men in 1406. He was the last khan who minted coins with Mongolian script and he had 8 sons, Jalal al-Din Khan ibn Tokhtamysh Karim Berdi Kebek Khan Jabbar Berdi Qadeer Berdi Khan Abu Said Khan Iskander Khan Khoja Khan List of Khans of the Golden Horde Kołodziejczyk, Dariusz. The Crimean Khanate and Poland-Lithuania, International Diplomacy on the European Periphery, a Study of Peace Treaties Followed by Annotated Documents
Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius
The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius is the most important Russian monastery and the spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church. The monastery is situated in the town of Sergiyev Posad, about 70 km to the north-east from Moscow by the leading to Yaroslavl. The monastery was founded in 1337 by one of the most venerated Russian saints, Sergius of Radonezh, early development of the monastic community is well documented in contemporary lives of Sergius and his disciples. In 1355, Sergius introduced a charter which required the construction of buildings, such as refectory, kitchen. This charter was a model for Sergius numerous followers who founded more than 400 cloisters all over Russia, including the celebrated Solovetsky and Simonov monasteries. St. Sergius supported Dmitri Donskoi in his struggle against the Tatars, at the outbreak of the battle, Peresvet died in a single combat against a Tatar bogatyr. The monastery was devastated by fire, when a Tatar unit raided the area in 1408, St. Sergius was declared patron saint of the Russian state in 1422.
The same year the first stone cathedral was built by a team of Serbian monks who had found refuge in the monastery after the Battle of Kosovo, the relics of St. Sergius still may be seen in this cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Trinity. The greatest icon painters of medieval Russia, Andrei Rublev and Daniil Chyorny, were summoned to decorate the cathedral with frescoes, Muscovite royals were baptized in this cathedral and held thanksgiving services here. In 1476, Ivan III invited several Pskovian masters to build the church of the Holy Spirit and this graceful structure is one of the few remaining examples of a Russian church topped with a belltower. The interior contains the earliest specimens of the use of glazed tiles for decoration, in the early 16th century, Vasily III added the Nikon annex and the Serapion tent, where several of Sergius disciples were interred. It took 26 years to construct the six-pillared Assumption Cathedral, which was commissioned by Ivan the Terrible in 1559, the cathedral is much larger than its model and namesake in the Moscow Kremlin.
The magnificent iconostasis of the 16th–18th centuries features Simon Ushakovs masterpiece, interior walls were painted with violet and blue frescoes by a team of Yaroslavl masters in 1684. The vault contains burials of Boris Godunov, his family and several 20th-century patriarchs, as the monastery grew into one of the wealthiest landowners in Russia, the woods where it had stood were cut over and a village sprang up near the monastery walls. It gradually developed into the town of Sergiyev Posad. The cloister itself was a centre of chronicle-writing and icon painting. A shell-hole in the gates is preserved as a reminder of Wladyslaw IVs abortive siege in 1618. By the end of the 17th century, when young Peter I twice found refuge within the monastery from his enemies and these include a small baroque palace of the patriarchs, noted for its luxurious interiors, and a royal palace, with its facades painted in checkerboard design
Grand Duchy of Moscow
The Grand Duchy of Moscow, or Grand Principality of Moscow, was a late medieval Rus principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia. The state originated with Daniel I, who inherited Moscow in 1283, eclipsing and it annexed the Novgorod Republic in 1478 and the Grand Duchy of Tver in 1485. After the Mongol invasion of Rus, Muscovy was a vassal to the Mongol ruled Golden Horde until 1480. By his marriage to the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, he established Muscovy as the state of the Roman Empire. Ivans successor Vasili III enjoyed success, gaining Smolensk from Lithuania in 1512. Vasilis son Ivan IV was an infant at his fathers death in 1533 and he was crowned in 1547, assuming the title of tsar together with the proclamation of Tsardom of Russia. As with many states the country had no particular official name. The Duke of Moscow or the Sovereign of Moscow were common short titles, in rivalry with other duchies Moscow dukes designated themselves as the Grand Dukes, claiming a higher position in the hierarchy of Russian dukes.
During the territorial growth and acquisitions, the title became rather lengthy. Since the 14th century various Moscow dukes added of all Rus to their titles, after the title of Russian metropolitans, Dmitry Shemyaka was the first Moscow duke who minted coins with the title the Sovereign of all Rus. Under the Polish-Lithuanian influence the country began to be called Muscovy in Western Europe, the first appearances of the term were in an Italian document of 1500. Initially Moscovia was the Latinized name of the city of Moscow itself, not of the state, it acquired its meaning and has been used alongside of the older name. The term Muscovy persisted in the West until the beginning of the 18th century and is used in historical contexts. When the Mongols invaded the lands of Kievan Rus in the 13th century, the first ruler of the principality of Moscow, Daniel I, was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky of Vladimir-Suzdal. He started to expand his principality by seizing Kolomna and securing the bequest of Pereslavl-Zalessky to his family, daniels son Yuriy controlled the entire basin of the Moskva River and expanded westward by conquering Mozhaisk.
He forged an alliance with the overlord of the Rus principalities, Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde, the Khan allowed Yuriy to claim the title of Grand Duke of Vladimir-Suzdal, a position which allowed him to interfere in the affairs of the Novgorod Republic to the north-west. Yuriys successor, Ivan I, managed to retain the title of Grand Duke by cooperating closely with the Mongols and by collecting tribute and taxes from other Rus principalities on their behalf. This relationship enabled Ivan to gain regional ascendancy, particularly over Moscows chief rival, the city of Tver
Red Square is a city square in Moscow, Russia. It separates the Kremlin, the royal citadel and currently the official residence of the President of Russia. Red Square is often considered the central square of Moscow since Moscows major streets, the name Red Square neither originates from the pigment of the surrounding bricks nor from the link between the colour red and communism. Rather, the name came about because the Russian word красная, several ancient Russian towns, such as Suzdal and Pereslavl-Zalessky, have their main square named Krasnaya ploshchad. The rich history of Red Square is reflected in paintings by Vasily Surikov, Konstantin Yuon. The square was meant to serve as Moscows main marketplace and it was the site of various public ceremonies and proclamations, and occasionally a coronation for Russias Tsars would take place. The square has been built up since that point and has been used for official ceremonies by all Russian governments since it was established. The relevant decrees were issued in 1493 and 1495 and they called for the demolition of all buildings within 110 sazhens of the wall.
Three square gates existed on this side of the wall, which in the 17th century, were known as, the last two are directly opposite Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basils Cathedral. In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, from this gate and stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – raskats, the Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto. The square was called Veliky Torg or simply Torg, Troitskaya by the name of the small Troitskaya Church, after that, the square held the name Pozhar, which means burnt. It was not until 1661–62, when it was first mentioned by its contemporary Krasnaya – Red name, Red Square was the landing stage and trade centre for Moscow. Ivan the Great decreed that trade should only be conducted from person to person, but in time, after a fire in 1547, Ivan the Terrible reorganised the lines of wooden shops on the Eastern side into market lines.
The streets Ilyinka and Varvarka were divided into the Upper lines, Middle lines and Bottom lines, after a few years, the Cathedral of Intercession of the Virgin, commonly known as Saint Basils Cathedral, was built on the moat under the rule of Ivan IV. This was the first building which gave the square its present-day characteristic silhouette, in 1595, the wooden market lines were replaced with stone. By that time, a platform for the proclamation of the tsars edicts. Red Square was considered a sacred place, during the expulsion of Poles from Moscow in 1612, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky entered the Kremlin through the square
The Mongols are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and Chinas Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They live as minorities in other regions of China, as well as in Russia, Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia. The Mongols are bound together by a heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are known as the Mongolian language. The ancestors of the modern-day Mongols are referred to as Proto-Mongols, broadly defined, the term includes the Mongols proper, Oirats, the Kalmyk people and the Southern Mongols. The latter comprises the Abaga Mongols, Aohans, Gorlos Mongols, Jaruud, Khuuchid, the designation Mongol briefly appeared in 8th century records of Tang China to describe a tribe of Shiwei. It resurfaced in the late 11th century during the Khitan-ruled Liao dynasty, after the fall of the Liao in 1125, the Khamag Mongols became a leading tribe on the Mongolian Plateau.
However, their wars with the Jurchen-ruled Jin dynasty and the Tatar confederation had weakened them, in the thirteenth century, the word Mongol grew into an umbrella term for a large group of Mongolic-speaking tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan. In various times Mongolic peoples have been equated with the Scythians, the Magog, based on Chinese historical texts the ancestry of the Mongolic peoples can be traced back to the Donghu, a nomadic confederation occupying eastern Mongolia and Manchuria. The identity of the Xiongnu is still debated today, although some scholars maintain that they were proto-Mongols, they were more likely a multi-ethnic group of Mongolic and Turkic tribes. It has been suggested that the language of the Huns was related to the Hünnü, the Donghu are mentioned by Sima Qian as already existing in Inner Mongolia north of Yan in 699–632 BCE along with the Shanrong. Mentions in the Yi Zhou Shu and the Classic of Mountains, the Xianbei chieftain was appointed joint guardian of the ritual torch along with Xiong Yi.
These early Xianbei came from the nearby Zhukaigou culture in the Ordos Desert, where maternal DNA corresponds to the Mongol Daur people, the Zhukaigou Xianbei had trade relations with the Shang. In the late 2nd century, the Han dynasty scholar Fu Qian wrote in his commentary Jixie that Shanrong, againm in Inner Mongolia another closely connected core Mongolic Xianbei region was the Upper Xiajiadian culture where the Donghu confederation was centered. After the Donghu were defeated by Xiongnu king Modu Chanyu, the Xianbei, tadun Khan of the Wuhuan was the ancestor of the proto-Mongolic Kumo Xi. The Wuhuan are of the direct Donghu royal line and the New Book of Tang says that in 209 BCE, the Xianbei, were of the lateral Donghu line and had a somewhat separate identity, although they shared the same language with the Wuhuan. In 49 CE the Xianbei ruler Bianhe raided and defeated the Xiongnu, killing 2000, the Xianbei reached their peak under Tanshihuai Khan who expanded the vast, but short lived, Xianbei state.
Three prominent groups split from the Xianbei state as recorded by the Chinese histories, the Rouran, the Khitan people, besides these three Xianbei groups, there were others such as the Murong and Tuoba
Moscow Kremlin Wall
The Kremlin Wall is a defensive wall that surrounds the Moscow Kremlin, recognizable by the characteristic notches and its Kremlin towers. The original walls were likely a wooden fence with guard towers built in 1156. One of the most symbolic constructions in Russias history can be traced back to the 12th century when Moscow was founded in 1147, the original outpost was surrounded by the first walls in 1156, which was most likely a simple wooden fence with guard towers. Destroyed in 1238 by the Mongol-Tartar invasion, the Moscow Kremlin was rebuilt by the Russian Knyaz Ivan Kalita, in 1339-1340 he erected a bigger fortress on the site of the original outpost which was defended by massive oak walls. Thought to be a defence from raids, it was proven to be useless against raids which burned Moscow in 1365. Nevertheless, the young knyaz Dmitry Donskoy in 1367 began a rebuilding of the fortress, all winter long from the Mukachyovo village 30 virsts from Moscow, limestone was hauled back on sledges, allowing the construction of the first stone walls to begin the following spring.
The walls successfully withstood two sieges during the Lithuanian–Muscovite War, within a few years the city was adorned with beautiful white-stone walls. Whilst it was invaded by the Tatars again in 1382. Dmitry Donskoys walls stood for over a century, and it was during this period that Muscovy rose as the dominant power in Northeastern Rus. By the end of the 15th century, however, it was clear that the old constructions had long passed their time and Czar Ivan the Greats visions. Between 1485 and 1495 a whole brigade of Italian architects took part in the erection of a new defence perimeter including Antonio Fryazin, Marko Fryazin, Pyotr Fryazin, the new walls were erected by building on top of the older walls. The thickness and height was dramatically increased requiring many wooden houses which surrounded the Kremlin to be torn down, in the following centuries Moscow expanded rapidly outside the Kremlin walls and as Russias borders became more and more secure their defensive duty has all but passed.
The cannons which were installed in the walls were removed after the turn of the 17th century, as was the second, during the reign of Czar Alexei Romanov, the towers were built up with decorative spires and the walls were restored. However their historical mightiness was dampened as the material became brick not stone, because of this the vertical profile is by no means uniform, and the height at some places ranges from no more than 5 metres quadrupling to 19 metres elsewhere. The thickness of the walls varies from 3.5 to 6.5 metres. The top of the walls, along their length, have outwardly-invisible battle platforms which range from 2 to 4.5 metres in width. A total of 1045 double-horned notched teeth crown the top of the walls, with a height ranging from 2 to 2.5 metres, some of the interior corridors inside the walls have rooms with no exterior illumination where particularly dangerous criminals were contained. To date twenty towers survived, highlighting the walls, built at a different time, the oldest one, Tainitskaya dates to 1485 whilst the newest one-Tsarskaya to 1680
A gord is a medieval Slavonic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites. Gords were built during the late Bronze and early Iron Ages by the Lusatian culture (c, 1300–500 BCE, and in the 8th–7th centuries BCE, in what are now Russia, Ukraine, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, eastern Germany, and India. These settlements were founded on strategic sites such as hills, lake islands. A typical gord was a group of houses built either in rows or in circles, surrounded by one or more rings of walls made of earth and wood. Some gords were ring-shaped, with a round, oval, or occasionally polygonal fence or wall surrounding a hollow, built on a natural hill or a man-made mound, were cone-shaped. Those with a defense on one side, such as a river or lake, were usually horseshoe-shaped. Most gords were built in densely populated areas on sites that offered particular natural advantages, as Slavic tribes united to form states, gords were built for defensive purposes in less-populated border areas.
Gords in which rulers resided or that lay on trade routes quickly expanded, near the gord, or below it in elevation, there formed small communities of servants, merchants and others who served the higher-ranked inhabitants of the gord. Each such community was known as a suburbium and its residents could shelter within the walls of the gord in the event of danger. Eventually the suburbium acquired its own fence or wall, in the High Middle Ages, the gord usual evolved into a castle or citadel and the suburbium into a town. Some gords did not stand the test of time and were abandoned or destroyed, notable archeological sites include Biskupin and Bilsk, Ukraine. The term ultimately descends from the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European root ǵʰortós, from this same root come the Germanic word elements *gard and *gart, and likely the names of Graz and Gartz, Germany. Cognate to these are English words such as yard, girdle, cognate but less closely related are Latin hortus, a garden, and its English descendants horticulture and orchard.
Further afield, in ancient Iran, a fortified settlement was called a gerd. Burugerd or Borujerd is a city in the West of Iran, the Indian suffix -garh, meaning a fort in Hindi and other Indo-Iranian languages, appears in many Indian place names. The Proto-Slavic word gordъ differentiated into grad and gorod, etc and it is the root of various words in modern Slavic languages pertaining to fences and fenced areas. Some of them are in countries which once were but no longer are mainly inhabited by Slavic-speaking peoples, the word survives in the names of several villages and town districts, as well as in the names of the German municipalities Puttgarden and Putgarten, Rügen. Garðaríki - Varangian name for Kievan Rus, interpreted as cities Biskupin, fortified settlements in other cultures, Motte-and-bailey
The Tsar Cannon is a large medieval artillery piece on display on the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin. It is a monument of Russian artillery casting art, cast in bronze in 1586 in Moscow, mostly of symbolic impact, it was never used in a war. However the cannon bears traces of at least one firing, per the Guinness Book of Records it is the largest bombard by caliber in the world, and it is a major tourist attraction in the ensemble of the Moscow Kremlin. The Tsar Cannon is located just past the Kremlin Armory, facing towards the Kremlin Senate, the very low ratio of the length of its barrel to its caliber makes it technically not a cannon, but a stylized mortar. The Tsar Cannon is made of bronze, it weighs 39.312 tonnes and has a length of 5.34 m and its bronze-cast barrel has an internal diameter of 890 mm, and an external diameter of 1,200 mm. The barrel has eight cast rectangular brackets for use in transporting the gun, the barrel is decorated with relief images, including an equestrian image of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich, with a crown and a scepter in his hand on horseback.
Above the front right bracket the message The grace of God and Great Duke Fyodor Ivanovich, the cannon-style gun carriage, added in 1835, is purely decorative. This weapon was never intended to be transported on or fired from this gun carriage, according to one version, the name of this cannon, Tsar, is associated with the image of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich. However, it is likely that this name owes to the massive size of this cannon. In old times the cannon is called the Russian Shotgun, because the gun was meant to shoot 800 kg stone grapeshot rather than true. The cannon ought to be classified as only a mortar by its length in modern classification. The cannon was cast in bronze in 1586, during the reign of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich, in the Cannon yard, by Russian master Andery Chokhov. The carriages and the cannon itself was decorated in 1835 at the St. Petersburg plant of Berd, with designs by architect A. P. Bryullov. The Tsar Cannon was placed at points around Moscow in its history. However, by 1706, it was moved to the Kremlin Arsenal and it was not used during the French invasion of Russia, although Napoleon Bonaparte considered removing it to France as a war trophy.
The wooden gun carriage burnt in the fire that consumed Moscow in 1812, in 1860, the Tsar Cannon was moved to its current location on Ivanovskaya Square near the Tsar Bell, which is similarly massive and is the largest bell in the world. For a long time, there was a theory that the Tsar Cannon was created only to impress foreigners of Russias military powers. Thus, according to writer Albert Valentinov. Andrey Chokov knew from the very first moment that this would not be a cannon at all