Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
For the theatre in Malmö with the same name, see Södra Teatern, Malmö. Södra Teatern is a theatre, located in the "Söder"-district in Stockholm, it is one of Stockholm's most appreciated private theatres. Established in 1859, it is Stockholm's oldest private theatre, it has outdoor terraces and seven stages. “… a palace of entertainment with an intellectual bite”. Since 1997, focus has been set on staging international performances; the theatre houses diverse events, spanning from club-scene entertainment, concerts and readings to children's philosophy. The venue is situated in the heart of the city. Although built as a theatre, the main focus today is on music. Over 600 events were staged in 2010, 2011 was expected to see around 1000 events. Facts: Annual events: approx. 652 Annual audience: 250 000 Capacity: 7 Stages Cornerstone date: Södra Teatern was built in 1859. Djurgårdsteatern Mindre teatern Media related to Södra teatern at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Södermalm shortened to “Söder”, is a district and island in central Stockholm. The district covers the large island of the same name. Although Södermalm is considered an island, water to both its north and south does not flow but passes through locks. Södermalm is connected to its surrounding areas by a number of bridges, it connects to Gamla stan to the north by Slussen, a grid of road and rail and a lock that separates the lake Mälaren from the Baltic Sea, to Långholmen to the northwest by one of the city's larger bridges, Västerbron, to the islet Reimersholme to the west, to Liljeholmen to the southwest by the bridge Liljeholmsbron, to Årsta by Årstabron and Skansbron, to Johanneshov by Johanneshovsbron and Skanstullsbron to the south, to Södra Hammarbyhamnen to the east by Danvikstull Bridge. Administratively, Södermalm is part of Stockholm Municipality, it constitutes, together with Gamla stan and some other districts, from 2007 the administrative district Södermalms stadsdelsområde translated as Södermalm borough.
The name Södermalm is first mentioned in 1288 in a letter from Bishop Anund of Strängnäs. Until the early 17th century Södermalm was a rural, agricultural area, its first urban areas were planned and built in the mid 17th century, comprising a mixture of working class housing, such as the little red cottages of which a few can still be seen in northeastern Södermalm, the summer houses and pavilions of wealthier families, such as Emanuel Swedenborg's pavilion, now in the outdoor museum Skansen. During this time, it was the location of the first theatre in Scandinavia, Björngårdsteatern. Södermalm is poetically named “Söders höjder”, which reflects its topography of sheer cliffs and rocky hills. Indeed, the hills of Södermalm provide remarkable views of Stockholm's skyline. In the 18th century, the working-class cottages that clung to Mariaberget, the steep cliffs facing Riddarfjärden, were replaced by the large buildings that are still present today, it was not until the beginning of the 20th century that urbanisation grasped the entire width of Södermalm, today parts of Södermalm have a rural feeling to them, as for instance the landscape of tiny allotments that climb the slopes of Eriksdal.
Södermalm was once known as the "slum" area of Stockholm. However today, Södermalm is known as the home of bohemian, alternative culture and a broad range of cultural amenities. Meanwhile, the growing demand of housing, as well as an increasing gentrification of Stockholm's central parts, makes apartments in Södermalm more and more difficult or expensive to come by, thus what was. There are four parishes of the Church of Sweden on the island: Högalid, partitioned from the parish of Maria Magdalena in 1925. Maria Magdalena, partitioned from the Stockholm Cathedral parish in 1591, subsequently divided into the modern parishes. Katarina, partitioned from Maria Magdalena in 1654. Sofia, partitioned from Katarina in 1917 and includes parts of the mainland south of Södermalm. Södermalm is divided into the following neighbourhoods: Högalid: Bergsund Drakenberg Heleneborg Tantolunden Zinkensdamm Maria Magdalena: Mariaberget Mariatorget Slussen Södra stationsområdet Åsö: Eriksdal Helgalund Medborgarplatsen Rosenlund Skanstull Katarina-Sofia: Blecktornsområdet Danvikstull Ersta Norra Hammarbyhamnen Nytorget Mosebacke Göta LejonHögalid Church Karl Johanslussen Katarina Elevator Katarina Church Maria Magdalena Church Medborgarhuset Stockholm Mosque St. Eric's Cathedral Skatteskrapan Slussen Södra teatern Sofia kyrka Stockholm South Station Söder Torn Nytorget The songs and poems of the popular 18th century poet and songwriter Carl Michael Bellman are filled with recurring references to names of places bars and meadhalls, on Södermalm.
The celebrated first paragraph of August Strindberg's satirical novel The Red Room describes Stockholm as seen from Mosebacke on Södermalm, where much of the story takes place. City of My Dreams, the first in a series of books by Per Anders Fogelström telling the story of several generations of Stockholmers, follows the young worker Henning's life on Södermalm. Lisbeth Salander and other characters in the Millennium Trilogy by Stieg Larsson live and work on Södermalm. Much of the action in those books takes place in that district. Greta Garbo grew up in the area. Mojang, a video game developer and publisher best known for the creation of the popular game Minecraft, has their main offices located on Södermalm. Egalia SoFo Söder tea
Cornelis Vreeswijk was a Dutch-born Swedish singer-songwriter and actor. He emigrated to Sweden with his parents in 1949 at the age of twelve, he was educated as a social worker and hoped to become a journalist, but became involved in music, performing at events for students. His idiosyncratic humor and social engagement is still gaining him new fans. Cornelis Vreeswijk is considered one of the most influential and successful troubadours in Sweden. In 2010 a Swedish drama film, called Cornelis, was made about his life, it was directed by Amir Chamdin. Cornelis Vreeswijk explained in one of his few interviews that he had taught himself to sing and play in the fifties by imitating his first idols Josh White and Lead Belly, his first album, Ballader och oförskämdheter, was a hit which gained him a large following among the emerging radical student generation. In this period he played with Swedish jazz pianist Jan Johansson and his trio, his songs "Ångbåtsblues" and "Jubelvisa för Fiffiga Nanette" are classics from these recordings.
His abrasive political lyrics and unconventional delivery were a deliberate break with what he was to describe as a Swedish song tradition of pretty singing and harmless lyrics, "a hobby for the upper classes". Influenced by jazz and blues and by the singing style and social criticism of Georges Brassens, Vreeswijk "speak-sings" his "insults", compels his listeners to pay close attention to the words, his 1965 loose translation of Allan Sherman's masterpiece "Hello Muddah, Hello Fadduh" remains beloved to Swedes as "Brev från kolonien" decades and could be said to have passed into folklore. A political singer with a bohemian lifestyle, Vreeswijk remained controversial in the sixties and early seventies, idolized by his fans but disapproved of by many others for his "rude" language and persistent interest in "unsuitable" people like prostitutes and criminals; some of his records were blacklisted by the public broadcasting company Sveriges Radio. During this period, he not only wrote and recorded songs now considered classics, such as "Sportiga Marie" and several affectionate salutes to the less employable "Polaren Pär", but he was an actor on the stage, receiving considerable critical acclaim, most notably as Pilate in the Swedish version of Jesus Christ Superstar, as Tevye in Fiddler on the Roof.
He participated in Melodifestivalen in 1972 with "Önskar du mig, så önskar jag dig", which finished sixth. He appeared in movies, including Svarta Palmkronor, filmed on location in Brazil. Spending four months in Brazil began Vreeswijk's lifelong interest in Latin American music and social and political conditions seen for example in his Victor Jara album of 1978. In his career, Vreeswijk was to gain increasing fame and a wider audience both for his songs and his other work, he published several volumes of poetry in his lifetime and left a considerable manuscript legacy of poems which have been published since. He became an important musical interpreter of the works of other people, recording the songs of Carl Michael Bellman, Evert Taube, Lars Forssell, his fresh, bluesy renderings of Bellman and Taube, who had up to been classics belonging to the "harmless" tradition that Vreeswijk despised, were artistic and commercial successes which extended his fanbase. The choice of Bellman was significant: Bellman's lively, pastoral and sometimes bawdy songs have gained him the somewhat undeserved reputation of being a drunken womaniser.
Vreeswijk may have enjoyed the association of being "something of a Bellman himself". Vreeswijk's own best-known songs of the seventies and early eighties tend to be dark in tone, like "Sist jag åkte jumbojet blues" and "Blues för Fatumeh", both addressing heavy drug addiction. Though in this period Vreeswijk was a prey of tabloid scandal and was in the news for his drinking problem and his debts rather than for his achievements, he remained creative and productive and he is known as the co-writer of the Hep Stars song "Speleman", released for their album Songs We Sang 68' Towards the end of Vreeswijk's life his reputation soared again, aided by the televising of some regarded nightclub shows, by Agneta Brunius' TV documentary Balladen om den flygande holländaren in 1986. By the time of his death from liver cancer at the age of fifty, Cornelis Vreeswijk had become an icon of the Swedish music scene, he was honored with burial at the cemetery of Katarina kyrka, a national cemetery in Stockholm.
In 2010, Cornelis, a movie about his life, premiered in Swedish cinemas. Norwegian singer Hans Erik Dyvik Husby played the role of Vreeswijk. In 1966, the Dutch broadcasting organisation VARA invited Vreeswijk to the Netherlands, he translated several of his songs into Dutch, wrote a couple of new ones. One of his songs, "De nozem en de non", was released without much popular success, his first Dutch album was only released after ten successful Swedish albums. 100,000 copies of Cornelis Vreeswijk were sold, the single "Veronica" became a big hit after it was picked up by the pirate radio station Veronica. His old song "De nozem en de non" was re-recorded and released with much success, his albums could not match