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Moselle (department)

Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department. Inhabitants of the department are known as Mosellans. Moselle is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from the former province of Lorraine. In 1793, France annexed the enclaves of Manderen, Lixing-lès-Rouhling, Créhange – all possessions of princes of the Duchy of Luxemburg – a state of the Holy Roman Empire, incorporated them into the Moselle département. One of its first prefects was the comte de Vaublanc, from 1805 to 1814. By the Treaty of Paris of 1814 following the first defeat and abdication of Napoleon, France had to surrender all the territory it had conquered since 1792. In northeastern France, the Treaty did not restore the 1792 borders, but defined a new frontier to put an end to the convoluted nature of the border, with all its enclaves and exclaves.

As a result, France ceded the exclave of Tholey as well as a few communes near Sierck-les-Bains to Austria. On the other hand, the Treaty confirmed the French annexations of 1793, furthermore, the south of the Napoleonic département of Sarre was ceded to France, including the town of Lebach, the city of Saarbrücken, the rich coal basin nearby. France thus became a net beneficiary of the Treaty of Paris: all the new territories ceded to her being far larger and more strategic than the few territories ceded to Austria. All these new territories were incorporated into the Moselle department, so Moselle had now a larger territory than since 1790. However, with the return of Napoleon and his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, the Treaty of Paris in November 1815 imposed much harsher conditions on France. Tholey and the communes around Sierck-les-Bains were still to be ceded as agreed in 1814, but the south of the Sarre department with Saarbrücken was withdrawn from France. In addition, France had to cede to Austria the area of Rehlingen as well as the strategic fort-town of Saarlouis and the territory around it, all territories and towns which France had controlled since the 17th century, which formed part of the Moselle department since 1790.

At the end of 1815 Austria transferred all these territories to Prussia, making for the first time a shared border for those two states. Thus, by the end of 1815, the Moselle department had the limits that it would keep until 1871, it was smaller than at its creation in 1790, the incorporation of the Austrian enclaves not compensating for the loss of Saarlouis, Rehlingen and the communes around Sierck-les-Bains. Between 1815 and 1871, the department had an area of 5,387 km², its prefecture was Metz. It had four arrondissements: Metz, Briey and Thionville. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71 all of the Moselle department, along with Alsace and portions of the Meurthe and Vosges departments, went to the German Empire by the Treaty of Frankfurt on the grounds that most of the population in those areas spoke German dialects. Bismarck omitted only one-fifth of Moselle from annexation, The Moselle department ceased to exist on May 18, 1871, the eastern four-fifths of Moselle was annexed to Germany merged with the German-annexed eastern third of the Meurthe Department into the German Department of Lorraine, based in Metz, within the newly established Imperial State of Alsace-Lorraine.

France merged the remaining area of Briey with the truncated Meurthe department to create the new Meurthe-et-Moselle department with its préfecture at Nancy. In 1919, following the French victory in the First World War, Germany returned Alsace-Lorraine to France under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. However, it was decided not to recreate the old separate departments of Meurthe and Moselle by reverting to the old department borders of before 1871. Instead, Meurthe-et-Moselle was left untouched, the annexed part of Lorraine was reconstituted as the new department of Moselle. Thus, the Moselle department was reborn, but with quite different borders from those before 1871. Having lost the area of Briey, it had now gained the areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg which before 1871 had formed one-third of the Meurthe department and, part of the Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine since 1871; the new Moselle department now reached its current area of 6,216 km², larger than the old Moselle because the areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg were far larger than the area of Briey and Longwy.

When the Second World War was declared on September 3, 1939 around 30% of Moselle's territory lay between the Maginot Line and the German frontier. 302,732 people, around 45% of the department's population, were evacuated to departments in central and western France during September 1939. Of those evacuated, around 200,000 returned after the war. In spite of the June 22, 1940 armistice, Moselle was again annexed by Germany in July of that year by becoming part of the Gau Westmark. Adolf Hitler considered Moselle and Alsace parts of Germany, as a result the inhabitants were drafted into the German Wehrmacht. Several organized groups were formed in resistance to the German occupation, notably the Grou

Nikolai Stepanov

Nikolai Alexandrovich Stepanov was a Russian artist and editor. Army general Pyotr Alexandrovich Stepanov was his brother. In the 1840s Stepanov contributed to Syn Otechestva, Illustrirovanny Almanac and Music Album, in 1855–1856 he published several albums of caricatures. In 1859 along with Vasily Kurochkin Stepanov co-founded and co-edited the satirical journal Iskra to which he contributed more than 1600 sketches and caricatures. After this publication's closure Stepanov founded Budilnik magazine; the visual arts in Russia are rooted in lubok but this begins to change in the reign of Peter the Great, an "alternate" tradition of social and political caricature. Artists from western Europe contribute to this cultural shift by teaching at the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg; the Academy's charter is revised by Catherine the Great and again in 1840 by Nicholas I. Nicholas assumes power in 1825 establishing new censorship committees after the Decembrist revolt that same year. During this time it becomes prohibited for artists or writers to mention political officials by name or to represent political views in their work.

Censorship continues to expand in the upcoming decades. In 1840 the royal family is given control of the Academy and in 1848 the Buturlin Committee is formed in response to the Revolutions of 1848. Private art schools continue to operate in this era but artist's are for practical purposes dependent on state and imperial support for a living. After 1851 the lubok folk art must be destroyed and new works to carry the censor's seal but unauthorized works were still made until the second half of the 19th century; these uncensored lubki depicted the religious and other themes and motifs of folklore common for this art form. The political developments between 1857 and 1863 are complex. Russia has just been defeated in the Crimean War and there is public dialogue about the abolition of serfdom, realized in 1861. Stepanov is involved during this period becoming one of the most influential of Russian artists as a new style of satire; when the periodical Hotchpotch he contributes to is shut down in 1869 he continues as editor of Spark that he co-founded with poet Kurochkin.

The successor of Spark is Alarm Clock, shut down in 1873. Stepanov's work Do you Feel any Freer Now? is censored for visual representation of a peasant who looks like Alexander II being led along on a rope by a landowner. Another of his caricature works showed editors waiting outside the censor's office on line forced to defend their works

Marmot Basin

Marmot Basin is an alpine ski area located in Alberta's Jasper National Park. Marmot Basin has 91 named runs on four mountain faces with 3,000 vertical feet of drop; the area has a lift capacity of close to 12,000 skiers per hour on seven lifts. The season runs from mid-November to early May. Marmot Basin's facilities and services include 7 lifts, including the Canadian Rockies Express high speed quad chair - the longest in the Canadian Rockies, 3 on-mountain day lodges, a full-service Rental Shop, Snow Sports School, eateries, a nursery and retail shop. Marmot Basin is located twenty minutes south of the town of Jasper, which provides for the needs of over two million visitors a year. Jasper National Park offers Rocky Mountain vistas and trail riding tours, whitewater rafting, other year-round attractions; the Rental & Repair shop offers standard and high performance rentals of skis, snowboards and poles. Rentals are available at the main Caribou Chalet; the Snow Sports School offers lessons for first time skiers and snowboarders, high performance clinics, freeride clinics, private lessons and a variety of children's programs.

The Little Rascals Nursery is available for children 19 months to 6 years of age. Three mountain day lodges. Three lounges, two cafeterias, two dining rooms, several outdoor sun decks and bag lunch areas. Marmot Basin has three terrain parks on the mountain, which feature various rail slides, table tops, jumps. Marmot offers a terrain park in the Lower and Upper mountain; the Outer Limits Shop is a place to buy gifts, accessories and souvenirs. Marmot Basin has a Sales Centre in town at 611 Patricia st. in Jasper, which you can buy smaller items at like toques and mitts. Tranquilizer Chair - 1968 - Removed 2009 Kiefer T-Bar - 1974 - Removed 2009 School House T-Bar - 1964 - Removed 2011 Caribou Chair - 1971 - Retired 2011 Spillway T-Bar - 1986 - Removed 1990 List of ski areas and resorts in Canada Jasper National Park SkiMarmot