Allegheny Cemetery is one of the largest and oldest burial grounds in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. It is a nonsectarian, wooded hillside park located at 4734 Butler Street in the Lawrenceville neighborhood and bounded by the Bloomfield and Stanton Heights areas, it is sited on the north-facing slope of hills above the Allegheny River. In 1973 the cemetery's Butler Street Gatehouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and in 1980 the entire cemetery was listed on the National Register. Incorporated in 1844, the Allegheny Cemetery is the sixth oldest rural cemetery in America and has expanded over the years to now encompass 300 acres. Allegheny Cemetery memorializes more than 124,000 people; some of the oldest graves are of soldiers who fought in the French and Indian War, which were moved here from their original burial site at Pittsburgh's Trinity Cathedral downtown. Many notables from the city of Pittsburgh are buried here; the cemetery was amongst those profiled in the PBS documentary A Cemetery Special.
In 1834 three members of the Third Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh, Dr. J. Ramsey Speer, Stephen Colwell and John Chislett, Sr. tried to establish a rural cemetery near Pittsburgh. Dr. Speer visited several famous rural cemeteries, Mount Auburn Cemetery on Boston, Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Green-Wood Cemetery in New York. In 1842 the 100 acre farm of Colonel Bayard was selected for the site. An Act of Incorporation passed the Pennsylvania Legislature and was signed by Gov. David R. Porter on April 24, 1844."Mt. Barney" was selected as the site of a memorial to naval heroes in 1848 and Commodore Joshua Barney and Lt. James L. Parker were reinterred there. Another memorial was erected on Memorial Day, 1937 to the memory of over 7,000 servicemen buried in the cemetery. Marcus E. Baldwin, Major League Baseball Player Joseph Baker, mayor of Pittsburgh Joshua Barney, Commodore in the United States Navy and American Revolutionary War veteran Richard Biddle, US Congressman Lem Billings and campaigner for John F. Kennedy James Blackmore, Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1872-1875 and 1868-1869.
Francis B. Brewer, US Congressman Don Brockett, motion picture and television actor, "Chef Brockett" on the PBS series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood James W. Brown, US Congressman Eben Byers, wealthy American industrialist and socialite noted for his gruesome death caused by consumption of the radioactive patent medicine Radithor. John Caldwell, Jr. George Westinghouse partner and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Louis Semple Clarke, automotive pioneer, founder of the Autocar Company and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club James Wallace Conant, manager of the Schenley Park Casino and Duquesne Gardens and founder of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League. Beano Cook, college football commentator John Dalzell, US Congressman Cornelius Darragh, US Congressman Ebenezer Denny, first mayor of Pittsburgh, American Revolutionary War veteran Harmar Denny, U. S. Congressman Harmar D. Denny, Jr. US Congressman William J. Diehl, Pittsburgh Mayor Harry Allison Estep, US Congressman John Baptiste Ford, founder of PPG Industries and Ford City, Pennsylvania Walter Forward, United States Secretary of the Treasury Stephen Foster, songwriter Josh Gibson, baseball great of the Negro Leagues Gus Greenlee, Major League Baseball Team Owner Moses Hampton, US Congressman General Alexander Hays William B.
Hays, Pittsburgh mayor Joseph Horne, founder of Pittsburgh department store Horne's the chain of stores closed in 1994 Thomas Marshall Howe, US Congressman Alfred E. Hunt, co-founder of the company that became Alcoa Thomas Irwin, US Congressman William Wallace Irwin, US Congressman, Pittsburgh Mayor William Freame Johnston, Governor of Pennsylvania Samuel Kier, pioneer oil refiner Andrew W. Loomis, US Congressman F. T. F. Lovejoy, associate of Andrew Carnegie William McClelland, US Congressman Charles McClure, US Congressman James McCord, millionaire owner of the oldest hattery west of the Allegheny Mountains and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Henry Sellers McKee, millionaire glass manufacturer, founder of Jeannette and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Robert McKnight, US Congressman William McNair, Pittsburgh mayor Thomas Mellon, founder of Mellon Bank Alexander Pollock Moore, publisher of the Pittsburgh Leader and ambassador, married to actress Lillian Russell James Kennedy Moorhead, US Congressman Philip H. Morgan, jurist, diplomat General James S. Negley, Civil War general and U.
S. Congressman John Neville, American Revolutionary War veteran and tax collector during the Whiskey Rebellion George Tener Oliver, publisher of the Pittsburgh Gazette Times and Chronicle Telegraph, US Senator Alfred L. Pearson, United States Army officer Henry Kirke Porter, US Congressman James Hay Reed, founding partner, Knox & Reed, member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club John Buchanan Robinson, US Congressman William Robinson, Jr. politician and militia general Calbraith Perry Rodgers, aviation pioneer James Ross, US Sen
30th United States Congress
The Thirtieth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1847, to March 4, 1849, during the last two years of the administration of President James K. Polk; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Sixth Census of the United States in 1840. The Senate had a Democratic majority, the House had a Whig majority, it was the only Congress. July 1, 1847: United States issued its first postage stamps January 24, 1848: Gold found at Sutter's Mill, beginning the California Gold Rush January 31, 1848: Washington Monument established February 23, 1848: Former President John Quincy Adams, now a Congressman representing Massachusetts, dies in the Speaker's office after suffering a stroke in the House Chambers. July 19, 1848: Seneca Falls Convention November 7, 1848: U. S. presidential election, 1848: Whig Zachary Taylor defeated Lewis Cass in the first US presidential election held in every state on the same day.
1846–1848: Mexican–American War March 3, 1849: United States Department of the Interior established, sess. 2, ch. 108, 9 Stat. 395 March 3, 1849: Gold Coinage Act, sess. 2, ch. 109, 9 Stat. 397 February 2, 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed, ending the Mexican–American War and ceding to the United States all of what is today the southwest United States. May 29, 1848: Wisconsin admitted as the 30th U. S. state, sess. 1, ch. 50, 9 Stat. 235 August 14, 1848: Oregon Territory was formed from territory ceded by Great Britain and others. March 3, 1849: Minnesota Territory formed from the Wisconsin Territory, sess. 2, ch. 121, 9 Stat. 403 During this congress, two Senate seats were added for the new state of Wisconsin. During this congress, two House seats were added for the new state of Wisconsin. President: George M. Dallas President pro tempore: David R. Atchison Speaker: Robert C. Winthrop This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class and Representatives are listed by district.
Skip to House of Representatives, below The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 11 Democrats: 4 seat net gain Whigs: no net change Deaths: 5 Resignations: 6 Interim appointments: 7 Seats of newly admitted states: 4 Replacements: 10 Democrats: no net change Whigs: no net change Deaths: 7 Resignations: 0 Contested election: 1 Seats of newly admitted states: 2 Total seats with changes: 12 Lists of committees and their party leaders. Agriculture Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Expedition of John C. Fremont Finance Foreign Relations Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Memorial of Certain Cherokee Claimants Military Affairs Militia Monuments to Deceased Senators Naval Affairs Oregon Railroad Ordnance and War Ships Patents and the Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Printing Private Land Claims Public Buildings and Grounds Public Lands Retired List for the Army and the Navy Retrenchment Seventh Census Revolutionary Claims Rivers and Harbors Convention in Chicago Roads and Canals Tariff Bill of 1828 Tariff Regulation Territories Whole Accounts Agriculture Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Engraving Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Patents Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Chaplain: Henry Slicer Secretary: Asbury Dickens Sergeant at Arms: Robert Beale Chaplain Ralph Gurley Clerk: Thomas J. Campbell Doorkeeper: Robert E. Horner Postmaster: John M. Johnson Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Nathan Sergeant United States elections, 1846 United States Senate elections, 1846 and 1847 United States House of Representatives elections, 1846 United States elections, 1848 United States presidential election, 1848 United States Senate elections, 1848 and 1849 United States House of Representatives elections, 1848 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789–1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists Congressional Directory for the 30th Congress, 1st Session. Congressional Directory for the 30th Congress, 3rd Session
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four presidents belonged to the party while in office, it emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonian democracy, pulling together former members of the National Republican and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had some links to the upscale traditions of the long-defunct Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s, it formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. It became a formal party within his second term, receded influence after 1854. In particular terms, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing, it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal.
Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not related to the British Whig party. Historian Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide: The Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana in 1848, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey in 1852 and the last nominee, former President Millard Fillmore from New York in 1856. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates and Taylor, elected president and both died in office. John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrison's death in 1841, but was expelled from the party that year. Millard Fillmore, who became President after Taylor's death in 1850, was the last Whig President; the party fell apart because of internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories.
With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the nomination for a full term of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election—instead, the party nominated General Scott. Most Whig Party leaders quit politics or changed parties; the Northern voter base gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, by which time the Whig Party had become defunct having endorsed Millard Fillmore's candidacy; some former Whigs became Democrats. The Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades, played a major role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction; the name "Whig" repeated the term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution.
It indicated hostility to the king. Despite the identical name it did not directly derive from the British Whig Party; the American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as "a dangerous man on horseback"—like a king—with a "reactionary opposition" to the forces of social and moral modernization. The Democratic-Republicans who formed the Whig Party, led by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, drew on a Jeffersonian tradition of compromise, balance in government and territorial expansion combined with national unity and support for a Federal transportation network and domestic manufacturing. Casting their enemy as "King Andrew", they sought to identify themselves as modern-day opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, the American people preferred partisan opposition to popular political agreement; as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back.
In 1831, Henry Clay started planning a new party. He defended national rather than sectional interests. Clay's plan for distributing the proceeds from the sale of lands in the public domain among the states was intended to serve the nation by providing the states with funds for building roads and canals, which would stimulate growth and knit the sections together. However, his Jacksonian opponents distrusted the federal government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvements and they again frustrated Clay's plan. Jacksonians promoted opposition to the National Bank and internal improvements and support of egalitarian democracy, state power and hard money; the Tariff of Abominations of 1828 had outraged Southern feelings—the South's leaders held that the high duties on foreign imports gave an advantage to the North. Clay's own high tariff schedule of 1832 further disturbed them as did his stubborn defense of high duties as necessary to his American System. However, Clay moved to pass the Compromise of 1833, which met Southern complaints by a gradual reduction of the rates on imports to a maximum of twenty percent.
Controlling the Senate for a while, Whigs passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the people as represented by Congress. The Whig Party began to take shape in 1833. Clay had run as a National Republican against J
Washington & Jefferson College
Washington & Jefferson College is a private liberal arts college in Washington, Pennsylvania. The college traces its origin to three log cabin colleges in Washington County established by three Presbyterian missionaries to the American frontier in the 1780s: John McMillan, Thaddeus Dod, Joseph Smith; these early schools grew into two competing academies, with Jefferson College located in Canonsburg and Washington College located in Washington. The two colleges merged in 1865 to form Jefferson College; the 60 acre campus has more than 40 buildings, with the oldest dating to 1793. The college's academic emphasis is on the liberal arts and the sciences, with a focus on preparing students for graduate and professional schools. Campus activities include various religious and general interest clubs, as well as academic and professional-themed organizations; the college has a strong history of competing literary societies, dating back before the union of Jefferson and Washington Colleges. Students operate a college radio station, a campus newspaper, a literary journal.
The athletic program competes in NCAA Division III. The football team has been successful over its history competing in the 1922 Rose Bowl. A large majority of students participate in intramural athletics. Nearly all students live on campus and one third are members of fraternities or sororities. A number of noteworthy alumni have attended the college or its predecessor institutions, including James G. Blaine, William Holmes McGuffey, Joseph Ruggles Wilson, the father of President Woodrow Wilson, Pete Henry. Washington & Jefferson College traces its origin to three log cabin colleges established by three frontier clergymen in the 1780s: John McMillan, Thaddeus Dod, Joseph Smith; the three men, all graduates from the College of New Jersey, came to present-day Washington County to plant churches and spread Presbyterianism to what was the American frontier beyond the Appalachian Mountains. John McMillan, the most prominent of the three founders because of his strong personality and longevity, came to the area in 1775 and built his log cabin college in 1780 near his church in Chartiers.
Thaddeus Dod, known as a keen scholar, built his log cabin college in Lower Ten Mile in 1781. Joseph Smith taught classical studies in his college, called "The Study," at Buffalo. Washington Academy was chartered by the Pennsylvania General Assembly on September 24, 1787; the first members of the board of trustees included Reverends Smith. After a difficult search for a headmaster, in which the trustees consulted Benjamin Franklin, the trustees unanimously selected Thaddeus Dod, considered to be the best scholar in western Pennsylvania. Amid financial difficulties and unrest from the Whiskey Rebellion, the Academy held no classes from 1791 to 1796. In 1792, the Academy secured four lots at Wheeling and Lincoln street from William Hoge and began construction on the stone Academy Building. During the Whiskey Rebellion, portions of David Bradford's militia camped on a hillside that would become home to the unified Washington & Jefferson College. In October 1792, after a year's delay from its official incorporation resulting from "trouble with Indians," McMillan was chosen as the headmaster and Canonsburg was chosen as the location for the "Canonsburg Academy."
At a subsequent unknown date, McMillan transferred his students from the log cabin to Canonsburg Academy. Canonsburg Academy was chartered by the General Assembly on March 11, 1794, thus placing it ahead of its sister school, Washington Academy, without a faculty, students, or facilities. On January 15, 1802, with McMillan as president of the board, the General Assembly granted a charter for "a college at Canonsburgh." In 1802, Canonsburg Academy was reconstituted as Jefferson College, with John McMillan serving as the first President of the Board of Trustees. In 1806, Matthew Brown petitioned the Pennsylvania General Assembly to grant Washington Academy a charter, allowing it to be re-christened as Washington College. At various times over the next 60 years, the various parties within the two colleges pursued unification with each other, but the question of where the unified college would be located thwarted those efforts. In 1817, a disagreement over a perceived agreement for unification erupted into "The College War" and threatened the existence of both colleges.
In the ensuing years, both colleges began to undertake risky financial moves over-selling scholarships. Thanks to the leadership of Matthew Brown, Jefferson College was in a stronger position to weather the financial storm for a longer period. Desperate for funds, Washington College accepted an offer from the Synod of Wheeling to take control of the college, a move, supposed to stabilize the finances for a period of time. However, Washington College undertook another series of risky financial moves that crippled its finances. Following the Civil War, both colleges were short on students and on funds, causing them to join together as Washington & Jefferson College in 1865; the charter provided for the college to operate at both Canonsburg and Washington, a position that caused significant difficulty for the administration trying to rescue the college amid ill feelings over the unification. Jonathan Edwards, a pastor from Baltimore, president of Hanover College, was elected the first president of the unified Washington & Jefferson College on April 4, 1866.
Edwards encountered significant challenges, including the difficulties of administering a college across two campuses, as well as old prejudices and hard feelings among those still loyal to either Jefferson College or Washing
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world of its languages and literature but of Greco-Roman philosophy and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a fundamental element of a rounded education; the study of classics has therefore traditionally been a cornerstone of a typical elite education. Study encompasses a time-period of history from the mid-2nd millennium BC to the 6th century AD; the word classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning "belonging to the highest class of citizens". The word was used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality. For example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts "classicus" and "proletarius" writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a second meaning.
Thus the two modern meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum, both derive from Roman use. In the Middle Ages and education were intertwined. Medieval education taught students to imitate earlier classical models, Latin continued to be the language of scholarship and culture, despite the increasing difference between literary Latin and the vernacular languages of Europe during the period. While Latin was hugely influential, Greek was studied, Greek literature survived solely in Latin translation; the works of major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century, the English philosopher Roger Bacon wrote that "there are not four men in Latin Christendom who are acquainted with the Greek and Arabic grammars."Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were other differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages.
Catullus, for instance, was entirely unknown in the medieval period. The popularity of different authors waxed and waned throughout the period: Lucretius, popular during the Carolingian period, was read in the twelfth century, while for Quintilian the reverse is true; the Renaissance led to the increasing study of both ancient literature and ancient history, as well as a revival of classical styles of Latin. From the 14th century, first in Italy and increasingly across Europe, Renaissance Humanism, an intellectual movement that "advocated the study and imitation of classical antiquity", developed. Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western Europe; this reintroduction was initiated by Petrarch and Boccaccio who commissioned a Calabrian scholar to translate the Homeric poems. This humanist educational reform spread from Italy, in Catholic countries as it was adopted by the Jesuits, in countries that became Protestant such as England and the Low Countries, in order to ensure that future clerics were able to study the New Testament in the original language.
The late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history, most associated with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models. Classical models were so prized that the plays of William Shakespeare were rewritten along neoclassical lines, these "improved" versions were performed throughout the 18th century. From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became important relative to that of Latin. In this period Johann Winckelmann's claims for the superiority of the Greek visual arts influenced a shift in aesthetic judgements, while in the literary sphere, G. E. Lessing "returned Homer to the centre of artistic achievement". In the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century; the poet Walter Savage Landor claimed to have been one of the first English schoolboys to write in Greek during his time at Rugby School. The 19th century saw the influence of the classical world, the value of a classical education, decline in the US, where the subject was criticised for its elitism.
By the 19th century, little new literature was still being written in Latin – a practice which had continued as late as the 18th century – and a command of Latin declined in importance. Correspondingly, classical education from the 19th century onwards began to de-emphasise the importance of the ability to write and speak Latin. In the United Kingdom this process took longer than elsewhere. Composition continued to be the dominant classical skill in England until the 1870s, when new areas within the discipline began to increase in popularity. In the same decade came the first challenges to the requirement of Greek at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, though it would not be abolished for another 50 years. Though the influence of classics as the dominant mode of education in Europe and North America was in decline in the 19th century, the discipline was evolving in the same period. Classical scholarship was becoming more systematic and scientific with the "new philology" created at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century.
Its scope was broadening: it was during the 19th century that ancient history and classical archaeology began to be s
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Admission to the bar in the United States
Admission to the bar in the United States is the granting of permission by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in the jurisdiction and before those courts. Each U. S. state and similar jurisdiction has its own court system and sets its own rules for bar admission, which can lead to different admission standards among states. In most cases, a person is "admitted" or "called" to the bar of the highest court in the jurisdiction and is thereby authorized to practice law in the jurisdiction. In addition, Federal Courts of the United States, although overlapping in admission standards with states, set their own requirements for practice in each of those courts. In the typical process, lawyers seeking admission must earn a Juris Doctor degree from a law school approved by the jurisdiction, in the states pass an exam administered by the attorney regulating authority of that jurisdiction. There is a character and fitness evaluation, which includes a background check. However, there are exceptions to each of these requirements.
A lawyer, admitted in one state is not automatically allowed to practice in any other. Some states have reciprocal agreements that allow attorneys from other states to practice without sitting for another full bar exam; the use of the term "bar" to mean "the whole body of lawyers, the legal profession" comes from English custom. In the early 16th century, a railing divided the hall in the Inns of Court, with students occupying the body of the hall and readers or Benchers on the other side. Students who became lawyers were "called to the bar", crossing the symbolic physical barrier and thus "admitted to the bar"; this was popularly assumed to mean the wooden railing marking off the area around the judge's seat in a courtroom, where prisoners stood for arraignment and where a barrister stood to plead. In modern courtrooms, a railing may still be in place to enclose the space, occupied by legal counsel as well as the criminal defendants and civil litigants who have business pending before the court.
The first bar exam in what is now the United States was instituted by Delaware Colony in 1763, as an oral examination before a judge. The other American colonies soon followed suit. By the late 19th century, the examinations were administered by committees of attorneys, they changed from an oral examination to a written one. Today, each state has its own rules which are the ultimate authority concerning admission to its bar. Admission to a bar requires that the candidate do the following: In most situations, earn a Juris Doctor from a law school approved by that state; the first law school in colonial America was not established until 1773. Abraham Lincoln is an example of a lawyer who did not attend law school, did not read with anyone else, stating in his autobiography that he "studied with nobody". Another telling example is Levi Woodbury, the 30th person appointed to the US Supreme Court, yet the first to have attended law school. In all United States jurisdictions except Maryland, Puerto Rico, Wisconsin, pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination, an examination covering the professional responsibility rules governing lawyers.
This test is not administered at the same time as any U. S. bar exam. Most candidates sit for the MPRE while still in law school, right after studying professional responsibility, while the material is still fresh in their memory; some states require. Connecticut and New Jersey waive the MPRE for candidates who have received a grade of C or better in a law school professional ethics class. Pass a bar examination administered by the state bar association or under the authority of the supreme court of the particular state; as of June 2015, 16 jurisdictions have adopted the Uniform Bar Examination. Missouri and North Dakota were the first two states to administer the UBE, doing so in February 2011. Since Alabama, Arizona, Idaho, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Utah and Wyoming have adopted and administered the UBE. According to the National Conference of Bar Examiners, which prepares the UBE, it is intended to "test knowledge and skills that every lawyer should be able to demonstrate prior to becoming licensed to practice law", "is uniformly administered and scored by user jurisdictions and results in a portable score."
UBE jurisdictions are allowed to additionally test candidates' knowledge of state-specific law, through either a test or course. The UBE consists of three parts:The Multistate Bar Examination, a standardized test consisting of 200 multiple-choice questions covering seven key areas of law: Constitutional law, Criminal law and Procedure, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Federal Rules of Evidence, Real Property and Torts. Examinees have three hours to answer 100 questions in a morning session and the same for an afternoon session; the MBE is administered on the last Wednesday in July. The Multistate Essay Examination, a uniform though not standardized test that examines a candidate's ability to analyze legal i