Jerome Avenue is one of the longest thoroughfares in the New York City borough of the Bronx, New York, United States. The road stretches from Highbridge general area to Woodlawn. Both of these termini are with the Major Deegan Expressway. Most of the elevated IRT Jerome Avenue Line runs along Jerome Avenue; the Cross Bronx Expressway interchanges with the Deegan. Though it runs through what is now the West Bronx neighborhood, Jerome Avenue is the dividing avenue between nominal and some named "West" and "East" streets in the Bronx; the south end of Jerome Avenue is at exit 5 of the Major Deegan Expressway. The road begins as a divided highway, intersecting with 161st Street, which goes to Yankee Stadium and its station of the IRT Jerome Avenue Line. Jerome merges into the road to the Macombs Dam Bridge and heads north. After some intersections with local roads, Jerome Avenue intersects with 167th Street which at the intersection which, west of there, is named Edward L. Grant Highway. Just east of the intersection is another station along the way.
Several blocks north, 170th Street intersects, just before crossing the Edward L. Grant Highway. Mt. Eden Avenue intersects in Morris Heights and the Cross Bronx Expressway does soon after. North the intersection with Tremont Avenue, Burnside Avenue intersects as Jerome Avenue leaves Morris Heights. 183rd street is the next major intersection, in University Heights. Fordham Road, both East and West intersect in University Heights. Saint James Park is passed to the east of Jerome, south of the intersection with Kingsbridge Road; as Jerome passes Lehman College, Bedford Park Boulevard intersects. Jerome Avenue crosses the Mosholu Parkway on an overpass, after passing the Mosholu Yard. Jerome Avenue intersects with Gun Hill Road. Here, Van Cortlandt Park is to the west; the final station on the IRT line is located in Woodlawn, just before intersecting Bainbridge Avenue. Jerome Avenue continues, cuts between Van Cortlandt Park and Woodlawn Cemetery, comes to an end at the Major Deegan and 233rd Street.
The road continues as a service road for the Major Deegan, until it reaches the Bronx-Westchester border, where it becomes Central Park Avenue, one of the main streets of the city of Yonkers. Jerome Avenue was put together as a plank road in 1874 for $375,000, it appeared on maps as Central Avenue, because it started from Macombs Dam Bridge to Jerome Park Racetrack. Borough President Louis F. Haffen selected contractors in 1897 to pave Jerome Avenue. Three sections of the road were to be remodeled, costing the Bronx about $136,505; the street was to be renamed after an unknown city alderman. Kate Hall Jerome, wife of Lawrence Jerome, was furious, replacing all the signs with the name Jerome Avenue in honor of Jerome Park Racetrack opened by her husband's financier brother, Leonard Jerome in 1866; when the subway line was commissioned, Jerome went from rural road to commercial artery. The southern part of the avenue, from the intersection with 161st Street, formed the western edge of Macombs Dam Park.
The parkland was alienated by the state legislature to enable construction of a new Yankee Stadium. Lower portions of the thoroughfare were demapped by the City Planning Commission, followed by the Department of City Planning's 2006 release of the Bronx Harlem River Waterfront Bicycle and Pedestrian Study; the Park Plaza Apartments at 1005 Jerome Avenue, one of the borough's first and most prominent Art Deco apartment houses and a New York City landmark since 1981, was overlooked in the environmental impact statement and is now in the shadow of the completed new stadium. In March 2018, the New York City Council voted to approve the rezoning of 92 blocks in the South Bronx, centered along Jerome Avenue from 165th to 184th Streets; the rezoning will allow developers to construct 4,600 housing units along the corridor, including 1,500 affordable housing units. At the time of the rezoning, the corridor consisted of small businesses and auto-parts shops; the New York City Subway's Jerome Avenue elevated line, served by the 4 train, runs along most of Jerome Avenue.
The now-demolished Ninth Avenue elevated merged with the Jerome Avenue line south of the 167th Street station. The first station along the Jerome Avenue elevated line is the 161st Street–Yankee Stadium station, served by the 4, B, D trains. All of the Jerome Avenue Line's elevated stations north of 167th Street, with the exception of Bedford Park Boulevard–Lehman College, are located directly above Jerome Avenue; the line and the 4 train have their northern terminus at Woodlawn, at the eastern edge of Van Cortlandt Park. The Jerome Avenue Line south of Kingsbridge Road opened on June 2, 1917; the Bedford Park Boulevard, Mosholu Parkway, Woodlawn stations opened on April 15, 1918. The entire route is in the New York City borough of the Bronx
New York City Subway
The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the world's most used metro systems, the metro system with the most stations, it offers service 24 hours per day on every day of the year, though some routes may operate only part-time. The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx; the MTA operates the Staten Island Railway and MTA Bus, with free transfers to and from the subway. The PATH in Manhattan and New Jersey and the AirTrain JFK in Queens both accept the subway's MetroCard but are not operated by the MTA and do not allow free transfers. However, the Roosevelt Island Tramway does allow free transfers to the MTA and bus systems though it is not operated by the MTA.
The system is one of the world's longest. Overall, the system contains 245 miles of routes. By annual ridership, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit rail system in both the Western Hemisphere and the Western world, as well as the eighth busiest rapid transit rail system in the world. In 2017, the subway delivered over 1.72 billion rides, averaging 5.6 million daily rides on weekdays and a combined 5.7 million rides each weekend. On September 23, 2014, more than 6.1 million people rode the subway system, establishing the highest single-day ridership since ridership was monitored in 1985. Of the system's 27 services, 24 pass through Manhattan, the exceptions being the G train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, the Rockaway Park Shuttle. Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, a few stretches of track run at ground level. In total, 40% of track is above ground. Many lines and stations have both express and local services; these lines have four tracks.
The outer two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains. Stations served by express trains are major transfer points or destinations; as of 2018, the New York City Subway's budgetary burden for expenditures was $8.7 billion, supported by collection of fares, bridge tolls, earmarked regional taxes and fees, as well as direct funding from state and local governments. Its on-time performance rate was 65% during weekdays. Alfred Ely Beach built the first demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City in 1869 and opened it in February 1870, his Beach Pneumatic Transit only extended 312 feet under Broadway in Lower Manhattan operating from Warren Street to Murray Street and exhibited his idea for an atmospheric railway as a subway. The tunnel was never extended for financial reasons. Today, no part of this line remains as the tunnel was within the limits of the present day City Hall Station under Broadway.) The Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system.
A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, construction began in 1900. The first underground line of the subway opened on October 27, 1904 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line; the fare was $0.05 and on the first day the trains carried over 150,000 passengers. The oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line; the oldest right-of-way, part of the BMT West End Line near Coney Island Creek, was in use in 1864 as a steam railroad called the Brooklyn and Coney Island Rail Road. By the time the first subway opened in 1904, the lines had been consolidated into two owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company; the city leased them to the companies. The first line of the city-owned and operated Independent Subway System opened in 1932; this required it to be run'at cost', necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time.
In 1940, the city bought the two private systems. Some elevated lines ceased service while others closed soon after. Integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT. Since the IRT tunnels, sharper curves, stations are too small and therefore can not accommodate B Division cars, the IRT remains its own division, the A Division. However, many passenger transfers between stations of all three former companies have been created, allowing the entire network to be treated as a single unit. During the late-1940s, the system recorded high ridership, on December 23, 1946, the system-wide record of 8,872,249 fares was set; the New York City Transit Authority, a public authority presided by New York City, was created in 1953 to take over subway, bus
A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, evacuate the system in the case of an emergency; the location of a metro station is planned to provide easy access to important urban facilities such as roads, commercial centres, major buildings and other transport nodes. Most stations are located underground, with entrances/exits leading up to street level; the bulk of the station is positioned under land reserved for public thoroughfares or parks. Placing the station underground reduces the outside area occupied by the station, allowing vehicles and pedestrians to continue using the ground-level area in a similar way as before the station's construction; this is important where the station is serving high-density urban precincts, where ground-level spaces are heavily utilised. In other cases, a station may be elevated above a road, or at ground level depending on the level of the train tracks.
The physical and economic impact of the station and its operations will be greater. Planners will take metro lines or parts of lines at or above ground where urban density decreases, extending the system further for less cost. Metros are most used in urban cities, with great populations. Alternatively, a preexisting railway land corridor is re-purposed for rapid transit. At street level the logo of the metro company marks the entrances/exits of the station. Signage shows the name of the station and describes the facilities of the station and the system it serves. There are several entrances for one station, saving pedestrians from needing to cross a street and reducing crowding. A metro station provides ticket vending and ticket validating systems; the station is divided into an unpaid zone connected to the street, a paid zone connected to the train platforms. The ticket barrier allows passengers with valid tickets to pass between these zones; the barrier may operated by staff or more with automated turnstiles or gates that open when a transit pass is scanned or detected.
Some small metro systems dispense with paid zones and validate tickets with staff in the train carriages. Access from the street to ticketing and the train platform is provided by stairs, escalators and tunnels; the station will be designed to minimise overcrowding and improve flow, sometimes by designating tunnels as one way. Permanent or temporary barriers may be used to manage crowds; some metro stations have direct connections to important nearby buildings. Most jurisdictions mandate; this is resolved with elevators, taking a number of people from street level to the unpaid ticketing area, from the paid area to the platform. In addition, there will be stringent requirements for emergencies, with backup lighting, emergency exits and alarm systems installed and maintained. Stations are a critical part of the evacuation route for passengers escaping from a disabled or troubled train. A subway station may provide additional facilities, such as toilets and amenities for staff and security services, such as Transit police.
Some metro stations are interchanges, serving to transfer passengers between lines or transport systems. The platforms may be multi-level. Transfer stations handle more passengers than regular stations, with additional connecting tunnels and larger concourses to reduce walking times and manage crowd flows. In some stations where trains are automated, the entire platform is screened from the track by a wall of glass, with automatic platform-edge doors; these open, like elevator doors, only when a train is stopped, thus eliminate the hazard that a passenger will accidentally fall onto the tracks and be run over or electrocuted. Control over ventilation of the platform is improved, allowing it to be heated or cooled without having to do the same for the tunnels; the doors add cost and complexity to the system, trains may have to approach the station more so they can stop in accurate alignment with them. Metro stations, more so than railway and bus stations have a characteristic artistic design that can identify each stop.
Some have frescoes. For example, London's Baker Street station is adorned with tiles depicting Sherlock Holmes; the tunnel for Paris' Concorde station is decorated with tiles spelling the Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen. Every metro station in Valencia, Spain has a different sculpture on the ticket-hall level. Alameda station is decorated with fragments of white tile, like the dominant style of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències; each of the original four stations on Line 8 of the Beijing Subway is decorated traditionally with elements of Chinese culture. On the Tyne and Wear Metro, the station at Newcastle United's home ground St James' Park is decorated in the clubs famous black and white stripes; each station of the Red Line and Purple Line subway in Los Angeles was built with different artwork and decorating schemes, such as murals, tile artwork and sculptural benches. Every station of the Mexico City Metro is prominently identified by a unique icon in addition to its name, because the city had high illiteracy rates at the time the system was designed.
Some metro systems, such as those of Naples, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Lisbon and Prague are famous for their beautiful architecture and public art; the Paris Métro is famous for its art nouveau station entrances.
A railroad switch, turnout, or points is a mechanical installation enabling railway trains to be guided from one track to another, such as at a railway junction or where a spur or siding branches off. The switch consists of the pair of linked tapering rails, known as points, lying between the diverging outer rails; these points can be moved laterally into one of two positions to direct a train coming from the point blades toward the straight path or the diverging path. A train moving from the narrow end toward the point blades is said to be executing a facing-point movement. Unless the switch is locked, a train coming from either of the converging directs will pass through the points onto the narrow end, regardless of the position of the points, as the vehicle's wheels will force the points to move. Passage through a switch in this direction is known as a trailing-point movement. A switch has a straight "through" track and a diverging route; the handedness of the installation is described by the side.
Right-hand switches have a diverging path to the right of the straight track, when coming from the point blades, a left-handed switch has the diverging track leaving to the opposite side. In many cases, such as rail yards, many switches can be found in a short section of track, sometimes with switches going both to the right and left. Sometimes a switch divides one track into two. In many cases, where a switch is supplied to leave a track, a second is supplied to allow the train to reenter the track some distance down the line. A straight track is not always present. A railroad car's wheels are guided along the tracks by coning of the wheels. Only in extreme cases does it rely on the flanges located on the insides of the wheels; when the wheels reach the switch, the wheels are guided along the route determined by which of the two points is connected to the track facing the switch. In the illustration, if the left point is connected, the left wheel will be guided along the rail of that point, the train will diverge to the right.
If the right point is connected, the right wheel's flange will be guided along the rail of that point, the train will continue along the straight track. Only one of the points may be connected to the facing track at any time. A mechanism is provided to move the points from one position to the other; this would require a lever to be moved by a human operator, some switches are still controlled this way. However, most are now operated by a remotely controlled electric motor or by pneumatic or hydraulic actuation, called a point machine; this both allows for remote control and for stiffer, strong switches that would be too difficult to move by hand, yet allow for higher speeds. In a trailing-point movement, the flanges on the wheels will force the points to the proper position; this is sometimes known as running through the switch. Some switches are designed to be forced to the proper position without damage. Examples include variable switches, spring switches, weighted switches. If a switch becomes worn or the operating rods become damaged, it is possible for the flange to split the switch, go through the switch in the direction other than what was expected.
This happens when the flange strikes a small gap between the set switch point. This can either happen to the locomotive, in which case the whole train can be directed onto the wrong track, with dangerous results, or it can occur at any point through the train, when a random truck is directed down a different track from the rest of the train. If it happens to the trailing truck of a car, the front truck will follow one track, while the trailing truck follows a parallel line; this can have disastrous results if there is any obstacle between the lines, as the car will be propelled into it sideways, such as happened in the 1928 Times Square derailment. In some cases, the whole train behind the car will follow the errant car onto the other track.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit known as heavy rail, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort, and, grade separated in tunnels or on elevated railways. Modern services on rapid transit systems are provided on designated lines between stations using electric multiple units on rail tracks, although some systems use guided rubber tires, magnetic levitation, or monorail; the stations have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, requiring custom-made trains in order to minimize gaps between train and platform. They are integrated with other public transport and operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some rapid transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines.
It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people over short distances with little to no use of land. The world's first rapid transit system was the underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a conventional railway in 1863, now forms part of the London Underground. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway a cable-hauled line using static steam engines. China has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world at 31, with over 4,500 km of lines and is responsible for most of the world's rapid transit expansion in the past decade; the world's longest single-operator rapid transit system by route length is the Shanghai Metro. The world's largest single rapid transit service provider by number of stations is the New York City Subway; the busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, the Shanghai Metro, the Guangzhou Metro, the New York City Subway, the Mexico City Metro, the Paris Métro, the Hong Kong MTR.
Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. Rapid transit systems may be named after the medium by which passengers travel in busy central business districts. One of these terms may apply to an entire system if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In most of Britain, a subway is a pedestrian underpass. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway. In most of North America, underground mass transit systems are known as subways; the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. Chicago's commuter rail system that serves the entire metropolitan area is called Metra, while its rapid transit system that serves the city is called the "L". Rapid transit systems such as the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, the Miami Metrorail, the Montreal Metro are called the Metro; the opening of London's steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant. Experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam and the natural choice for trains running in tunnels and proved superior for elevated services. In 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, fully underground. Prior to opening the line was to be called the "City and South London Subway", thus introducing the term Subway into railway terminology. Both railways, alongside others, were merged into London Underground; the 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset. The technology spread to other cities in Europe, the United States and Canada, with some railways being converted from steam and others being designed to be electric from the outset. Budapest, Chicago and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services.
Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services. Hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems. In response to cost, engineering considerations and topological challenges some cities have opted to construct tram systems those in Australia, where density in cities was low and suburbs tended to spread out. Since the 1970s, the viability of underground train systems in Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne, has been reconsidered and proposed as a solution to over-capacity. Since the 1960s many new systems were introduced in Europe and Latin America. In the 21st century, most new expansions and systems are located in Asia, with China becoming the world's leader in metro expansion operating some of the largest systems and possessing 60 cities operating, constructing or planning a rapid transit system. Rapid transit is used in cities and metropolitan areas to transport large numbers of people short distances at high frequency.
The extent of the rapid transit system varies between cities, with se
125th Street (IRT Lexington Avenue Line)
125th Street is an express station that has four tracks and two island platforms. It is the northernmost Manhattan station on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. Located at Lexington Avenue and East 125th Street in East Harlem, it is served by the 4 and 6 trains at all times, the 5 train at all times except late nights, the <6> during weekdays in peak direction. A planned northern extension of the Second Avenue Subway would connect with this station and with the Metro-North Railroad's Harlem–125th Street station, located one block west; this station opened on July 17, 1918 as part of the extension of the original subway up Lexington Avenue to 125th Street and into the Bronx. Service was provided only as a shuttle on the local tracks of the then-formed Lexington Avenue Line between Grand Central, continuing past this station and under the Harlem River to 167th Street on the IRT Jerome Avenue Line. On August 1, 1918, through service on the Lexington Avenue Line began. Both express trains and local trains began stopping at this station, running from Lower Manhattan and Brooklyn.
The extension from Grand Central cost $58 million. The opening of this station resulted in development in the surrounding neighborhood of East Harlem. In 1952 or 1953, a public address system was installed at this station, providing information to passengers and train crews. In 1981, the MTA listed the station among the 69 most deteriorated stations in the subway system; this station's renovation was completed in 2005. The station is unusual in design, as a bi-level station with island platforms but not configured in the standard express-local lower-upper configuration. Instead, the upper platform serves the lower level serves southbound trains. Adding to the unusual design is the local track on each level having train doors open to the right. North of the station, just after crossing the Harlem River, the line splits into the IRT Jerome Avenue Line and the IRT Pelham Line. On the lower platform, each track comes from one line, a flying junction south of the station allows trains to be diverted to the local or express track.
Throughout the station's history, this station has been one of the more important on the line as it is the northernmost transfer point between express trains to the IRT Jerome Avenue and White Plains Road Lines, local trains to the IRT Pelham Line. There is an active tower at the north end of the upper platform. There are one elevator exit. Staircase at SW corner of Lexington Avenue and 125th Street Staircase at SE corner of Lexington Avenue and 125th Street Staircase and elevator at NE corner of Lexington Avenue and 125th Street Staircase at NW corner of Lexington Avenue and 125th StreetThis station has a mezzanine with two separate turnstile banks; the northern turnstile bank leads to two staircases going to both northern corners of Lexington Avenue and 125th Street, an elevator going to the NE corner of Lexington Avenue and 125th Street. The southern turnstile bank has two exits leading to both southern corners of Lexington Avenue and 125th Street; the station lies one block east of the Metro-North Railroad's Harlem–125th Street station on Park Avenue.
A fifth entrance will be built as part of a proposed Second Avenue Subway station here. It would be located on the southern side of 125th Street in the median of Park Avenue, an ancillary facility would be located one block south. An ancillary would be built at the southeast corner of 125th Street and Third Avenue. Harlem–125th Street is the planned northern terminal for the Second Avenue Subway, it would be built underneath 125th Street and perpendicular to the existing Lexington Avenue Line station. The Harlem–125th Street station would be part of Phase 2, from 96th Street to 125th Street, with the next station south being 116th Street. Phase 2 would include a station at 106th Street. A station at Lexington Avenue and 125th Street was not on the original Second Avenue Subway proposed as part of the New York City Transit Authority's 1968 Program for Action; the line was to be built in two phases—the first phase from 126th to 34th Streets, the second phase from 34th to Whitehall Streets. When opened, it will be served by the Q train, with the T providing service when phase 3 of the line is built.
In March 2007, the Second Avenue Subway was revived. The line's first phase, the "first major expansion" to the New York City Subway in more than a half-century, included three stations in total and cost $4.45 to $4.5 billion. Spanning from 105th Street and Second Avenue to 63rd Street and Third Avenue. Phase 1 opened on January 1, 2017; the second phase, between 125th and 96th Streets, was allocated $525 million in the MTA's 2015–2019 Capital Plan for planning, environmental studies, utility relocation. This phase will complete the project's East Harlem section; the alignment will run under Second Avenue before turning west on 125th Street. On October 18, 2016, the de Blasio administration announced a rezoning plan for East Harlem. One of the three Special Transit Land Use districts is for the area of the 125th Street/Lexington Avenue station. On November 21, 2016, the MTA requested that the Phase 2 project be entered into the Project Development phase under the Federal Transit Administration's New Starts program.
On December 15, several elected officials for the area announced that they were seeking $6 billion of funding for
Bedford Park, Bronx
Bedford Park is a residential neighborhood in the northwest Bronx, New York City, between the New York Botanical Garden and Lehman College. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise are: Mosholu Parkway to the north, Webster Avenue to the east, East 196th Street to the south, the Jerome Reservoir and Goulden Avenue to the west; the neighborhood is part of Bronx Community District 7, its ZIP Codes include 10458 and 10468. The area is patrolled by the 52nd Precinct of the New York City Police Department; the area now known as Bedford Park was farmland outside the town of Kingsbridge an unincorporated suburb of New York City. The area began to be developed with the construction of the Jerome Park Racetrack, for thoroughbred horse racing, by Leonard Jerome and August Belmont, Sr. in 1866. Jerome Park Racecourse became the first home of the famous Belmont Stakes horse race, until 1890. To attract the wealthy to the racecourse, Leonard Jerome built. In 1874 the town of Kingsbridge was incorporated into New York City.
In 1890, Jerome Park Racecourse was sold. Construction was started to convert it into the Jerome Park Reservoir, to store fresh water from the New Croton Aqueduct. At the same time, the neighborhood of Bedford Park was beginning to take shape. Forty "villas" were built on a 23-acre stretch, in a planned community, named Villa Avenue; the area became a part of the newly created Borough of the Bronx in 1898. The Italian and Irish immigrants who worked on the Jerome Park Reservoir project soon anchored the community there. In 1906, 200th Street was renamed Bedford Park Boulevard named after Edward Thomas Bedford, a director of Standard Oil, president of the Bank of the State of New York, an associate of Leonard Jerome. Development continued with the completion of the Grand Concourse, a multilane thoroughfare, in 1914; the Grand Concourse saw a boom in housing construction in the post-World War I era. Much of this was from middle-class moving from Manhattan. During the 1970s and 1980s, when widespread poverty, crime and drug use were prevalent across the Bronx, Bedford Park was not hit as hard as many other neighborhoods in the more southern parts of the borough.
This was due to community activists and organizers taking an aggressive stance on drugs and demanding increased law enforcement in the area. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Bedford Park was 54,415, a change of -914 from the 55,329 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 343.81 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 158.3 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 6.7% White, 18% African American, 0.3% Native American, 5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 67.9% of the population. The entirety of Community District 7, which includes Bedford Park, Jerome Park, Kingsbridge Heights and Norwood, had 148,163 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 79.4 years. This is lower than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 26% are between the ages of between 0–17, 31% between 25–44, 23% between 45–64.
The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 11% and 9% respectively. As of 2017, the median household income in Community District 7 was $35,355. In 2018, an estimated 26% of Bedford Park and Norwood residents lived in poverty, compared to 25% in all of the Bronx and 20% in all of New York City. One in seven residents were unemployed, compared to 9 % in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 61% in Bedford Park and Norwood, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 58% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Bedford Park and Norwood are considered low-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying. Bedford Park is home to people of many ethnicities including Korean and Bangladeshis. Reflecting a population composed of foreign-born immigrants, there are distinct ethnic enclaves in Bedford Park. On 204th Street, between the Grand Concourse and Mosholu Parkway lies a small cluster of Korean restaurants, social clubs, other businesses.
Bedford Park's ethnic diversity manifests itself in an assortment of ways besides the formation of enclaves. Among the national symbols one may see strolling the neighborhood include the double-headed eagle, the icon of Our Lady of Guadalupe, the shamrock of Ireland, the Arabic calligraphy of the shahadah, or the coquí of Puerto Rico. A vast assortment of newspapers are sold in local convenience stores, including The Irish Echo, Albanian-language Bota Sot of Kosovo, the Spanish-language local newspapers El Diario/La Prensa, El Hoy. Bedford Park is dominated by 5 - or three-story Victorian houses; the apartments on the Grand Concourse are taller. Tracey Towers are two 41-story subsidized apartment buildings built close to the Jerome Park Reservoir. Designed by noted architect Paul Rudolph, they were completed in 1972 as a part of New York City's Mitchell Lama housing development initiative; the total land area is a little less than half a square mile. In the 2016 Presidential el