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Moskva River

The Moskva River is a river of western Russia. It rises about 140 km west of Moscow, flows east through the Smolensk and Moscow Oblasts, passing through central Moscow. About 110 km south east of Moscow, at the city of Kolomna, it flows into the Oka River, itself a tributary of the Volga, which flows into the Caspian Sea. In addition to Finno-Ugric tribes, the Moskva River is the origin of Slavic tribes such as the Vyatichi tribe. Moskva and Moscow are two different renderings of the same Russian word Москва; the city is named after the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, in English: Black river, it has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term, although several theories exist. To distinguish the river and the city, Russians call the river Moskva-reka instead of just Moskva; the river is 503 km long, with a vertical drop of 155 m. The area of its drainage basin is 17,600 km2; the maximum depth is 3 metres above Moscow city limits, up to 6 metres below it.

It freezes in November–December and begins to thaw around late March. In Moscow, the river freezes occasionally; the absolute water level in downtown Moscow is 120 metres above sea level. The main tributaries are the Ruza, Yauza and Severka rivers. Sources of water are estimated as 12 % rain and 27 % subterranean. Since completion of the Moscow Canal, the Moskva River has collected a share of Upper Volga water; this has enabled reliable commercial shipping, interrupted by summer droughts. The average discharge, including Volga waters, varies from 38 m3/s near Zvenigorod to 250 m3/s at the Oka inlet; the speed of the current, depending on the season, varies from 0.1 m/s to 1.5–2.0 m/s. Moscow, the capital of Russia, is situated on its banks; the river flows through the towns of Mozhaysk, Zhukovsky, Voskresensk, — at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka — Kolomna. As of 2007, there are its canals within Moscow city limits. Within the city, the river is 120–200 metres wide, the narrowest point being under the Kremlin walls.

Drinking water for the city of Moscow is collected from five stations on the Moskva River and from the Upper Volga reservoirs. Canals, built within Moscow city limits, have created a number of islands; some of them have names in Russian, some have none. Major, permanent islands are: Serebryany Bor. Separated from the mainland in the 1930s. Tatarskaya Poyma known as Mnyovniki. Separated from the mainland in the 1930s Balchug Island known as Bolotny Ostrov, lying just opposite the Kremlin; the island was formed by the construction of the Vodootvodny Canal in the 1780s, has no official name in Russian. Moscow residents informally call it "Bolotny Ostrov" while members of Moscow's English-speaking community refer to it as Balchug. One uninhabited island north of Nagatino. Three uninhabited islands east of Nagatino, connected by the Pererva lock system. There is a fleet of river ice-breaker cruisers which ply routes from moorings at the Hotel Ukraine and Gorky Park to the Novospassky Monastery and back.

Duration of trips ranges from 1.5 to 3 hours. "Moskva". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920

Mahaan Hutatma

Mahaan Hutatma is the first Kannada short film won National Award in National Film Award – Special Mention category. The film is directed by Sagar Puranik and produced by Akshay Chandrashekhar, under the banners of Puranik Productions. Starring Akshay Chandrashekhar, Sagar Puranik, Adhvithi Shetty and Srinath, it marks the directorial debut of Sagar Puranik. “Mahaan Hutatma” the national award winning short film directly translating into “The Great Martyr” is a dedication to the martyred freedom fighters and the Indian Army for their selfless sacrifice. It’s about the elders who pass the story of our brave freedom fighter Bhagat Singh to the next generation; the movie is about how Bhagat Singh and his team who fought with British for the freedom, what all they had to face, how they got tortured from the British Authorities. It's about how our Brave Soldiers sacrifice. It’s about the families of our soldiers. What our soldier’s families face when they get the news of their soldiers death.. Akshay Chandrashekhar Sagar Puranik Adhvithi Shetty Pranayaraja Srinath Achintya Puranik Varun Srinivas Kuldeep Manoj Shashi Kumar Peter Grabinski The official trailer of the short film was unveiled by Puranik Productions on 28 September 2018.

Mahaan Hutatma on IMDb

Grenfell Tower

Grenfell Tower is a derelict 24-storey residential tower block in North Kensington in London, the remains of which are still standing following a severe fire in June 2017. The tower was completed as part of the first phase of the Lancaster West Estate; the tower was named after Grenfell Road. The building's top 20 storeys consisted of 120 flats, with six per floor – two flats with one bedroom each and four flats with two bedrooms each – with a total of 200 bedrooms, its first four storeys were non-residential until its most recent refurbishment, from 2015 to 2016, when two of them were converted to residential use, bringing it up to 127 flats and 227 bedrooms. It received new windows and new cladding with thermal insulation during this refurbishment. Prior to a fire, which began in the early hours of 14 June 2017, the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and central UK government bodies "knew, or ought to have known", that their management of the tower was breaching the rights to life, to adequate housing, of the tower's residents, according to a enquiry by the government’s own equalities watchdog.

The fire killed 72 people, including a stillbirth. In early 2018, it was announced that, following demolition of the tower, the site will become a memorial to those killed in the fire; the 24-storey tower block was designed in 1967 in the Brutalist style of the era by Clifford Wearden and Associates, with the Kensington and Chelsea London Borough Council approving its construction in 1970, as part of phase one of the Lancaster West redevelopment project. The 67.3 m tall building contained 120 one- and two-bedroom flats. The floors were named ground, mezzanine and walkway+1, floor 1, floor 2 etc, it housed up to 600 people. The tower was built to the Parker Morris standards; each floor was 22m square. The layout of each floor was designed to be flexible; the residential floors contained a two bedroom flat at each corner, in between which on the east and the west face was a one bedroomed flat. The core contained the lift and service shafts. One-bedroom flats were 51.4 m2 in area and two-bedroom flats were 75.5 m2.

The building was innovative, as most LCC tower blocks used traditional brick work for infill whereas here precast insulated concrete blocks were used, giving the walls an unusual texture. The ten exterior concrete columns were unusual. In addition, other tower blocks of this era had four flats per storey, rather than six; the original lead architect for the building, Nigel Whitbread, said in 2016 in an interview with Constantine Gras, partially repeated in The Guardian, that the tower had been designed with attention to strength, following the Ronan Point collapse of 1968, "and from what I can see could last another 100 years." He described it as a "very straightforward concept. You have a central core containing the lift and the vertical risers for the services and you have external perimeter columns; the services are connected to the central boiler and pump which powered the whole development and this is located in the basement of the tower block. This basement is four metres deep and in addition has two metres of concrete at its base.

This foundation holds up the tower block and in situ concrete columns and slabs and pre-cast beams all tie the building together". Construction, by contractors A E Symes, of Leyton, commenced in 1972, with the building being completed in 1974. Before construction the plans at basement level were changed from the original brief to accommodate the need for extra car-parking. In the early 1990s, access to the building was restricted through the use of key fobs, lift access to the first four storeys was discontinued; the building was renovated in 2015–16. When the building opened in 1974, it was nicknamed the'Moroccan Tower' because many renters came from the local Moroccan immigrant community. In recent years some residents had become leaseholders under the Right to Buy scheme; the renovation was part of a project to utilise the area around Lancaster Green. A new leisure centre had been built to the east of the green, the all-weather football pitches to the north of the tower were destined to become Kensington Academy.

The renovation aimed to replace the substandard heating system, replace the windows, increase the thermal efficiency of the tower and improve appearance of the tower in the style of the academy. It aimed to reconfigure the podium levels; the nursery would move from 244 m2 on the mezzanine floor to 206 m2 on the ground floor with immediate access to outside play space. The mezzanine floor would be continued across the full width of the building making space for three four-bedroom, 101.5 m2 six person flats. The Dale Youth boxing club gained 100 m2 extra space by moving from the ground floor to the walkway level. Walkway + 1 level would be converted to four new four bedroom, 6 person flats. Plans by Studio E Architects for renovation of the tower were publicised in 2012; the £8.7 million refurbishment, underta