A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Council Bluffs, Iowa
Council Bluffs is a city in and the county seat of Pottawattamie County, United States. The city is the most populous in Southwest Iowa, forms part of the Omaha Metropolitan Area, it is located on the east bank of the Missouri River, across from the city of Omaha. Council Bluffs was known, as Kanesville, it was the historic starting point of the Mormon Trail. Kanesville is the northernmost anchor town of the other emigrant trails, since there was a steam powered boat to ferry their wagons, cattle, across the Missouri River. Council Bluffs' population was 62,230 at the 2010 census; the Omaha metropolitan region, of which Council Bluffs is a part, is the 59th largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 933,316. While Council Bluffs is more than a decade older than Omaha, the latter has grown to be a larger city and the anchor of the bi-state metropolitan region; the first Council Bluff was on the Nebraska side of the river at Fort Atkinson, about 20 miles northwest of the current city of Council Bluffs.
It was named by Lewis and Clark for a bluff where they met the Otoe tribe on August 2, 1804. The Iowa side of the river became an Indian Reservation in the 1830s for members of the Council of Three Fires of Chippewa and Potawatomi, who were forced to leave the Chicago area under the Treaty of Chicago, which cleared the way for the city of Chicago to incorporate; the largest group of Native Americans who moved to the area were the Pottawatomi, who were led by their chief Sauganash, the son of the British loyalist William Caldwell, who founded Canadian communities on the south side of the Detroit River, a Pottawatomi woman. Seeking to avoid confrontation with the Sioux, who were natives of the Council Bluffs area, the 1,000 to 2,000 Pottawattamie had settled east of the Missouri River in Indian territory between Leavenworth, Kansas and St. Joseph, Missouri; when this area was bought from Ioway and Fox tribes in the Platte Purchase and part of Missouri in 1837, Sauganash and the Pottawatomi were forced to move to their assigned reservation in Council Bluffs.
Sauganash's English name was Billy Caldwell, his village was called Caldwell's Camp. The tribe were sometimes called the Bluff Indians. U. S. Army Dragoons built a small fort nearby. In 1838–39, the missionary Pierre-Jean De Smet founded St. Joseph's Mission to minister to the Potawatomi. De Smet was appalled by the violence and brutality caused by the whiskey trade, tried to protect the tribe from unscrupulous traders. However, he had little success in persuading tribal members to convert to Christianity and resorted to secret baptisms of Indian children. During this time, De Smet contributed to Joseph Nicollet's work in mapping the upper midwest. De Smet produced the first detailed map of the Council Bluffs area. De Smet wrote an early description of the Potawatomi settlement, which captures his bias: Imagine a great number of cabins and tents, made of the bark of trees, buffalo skins, coarse cloth and sods, all of a mournful and funeral aspect, of all sizes and shapes, some supported by one pole, others having six, with the covering stretched in all the different styles imaginable, all scattered here and there in the greatest confusion, you will have an Indian village.
As more Native Americans were pushed into the Council Bluffs area by pressure of European-American settlement to the east, intertribal conflict increased, fueled by the illegal whiskey trade. The US Army built Fort Croghan in 1842, to keep order and try to control liquor traffic on the Missouri River; however that fort was destroyed in a flood the same year. By 1846 the Pottawatomi were forced to move again to a new reservation at Kansas. In 1844, the Stephens-Townsend-Murphy Party crossed the Missouri River here, on their way to blaze a new path into California across the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Beginning in 1846, there was a large influx of Latter-day Saints into the area, although in the winter of 1847–1848 most Latter-day Saints crossed to the Nebraska side of the Missouri River; the area was called "Miller's Hollow", after Henry W. Miller, who would be the first member of the Iowa State Legislature from the area. Miller was the foreman for the construction of the Kanesville Tabernacle. By 1848, the town had become known as Kanesville, named for benefactor Thomas L. Kane, who had helped negotiate in Washington, DC federal permission for the Mormons to use Indian land along the Missouri for their winter encampment of 1846–47.
Built at or next to Caldwell's Camp, Kanesville became the main outfitting point for the Mormon Exodus to Utah, it is the recognized head end of the Mormon Trail. Edwin Carter, who would become a noted naturalist in Colorado, worked here from 1848–1859 in a dry goods store, he helped supply Mormon wagon trains. Settlers departing west from Kanesville, into the sparsely settled, unorganized parts of the Territory of Missouri to the Oregon Country and the newly conquered California Territory, through the Nebraska Territory, traveled by wagon trains along the much-storied Oregon, Mormon, or California Trails into the newly expanded United States western lands. After the first large organized wagon trains left Missouri in 1841, the annual migration waves began in earnest by spring of 1843, they built up, with the opening of the Mormon Trail until peaking in the 1860s, when news of railroad's progress had a braking effect. By the 1860s all migration wagon trains were passing near the renamed town.
The wagon train trails became less important with the advent of the first complet
Earling is a city in Shelby County, United States. The population was 437 at the 2010 census. Earling had its start 1881-1882 by the building of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway through that territory; the town was first known as Marthan. However, there was a town called Marathon in Iowa, so the name of the town was soon changed to Earling, in honor of Albert J. Earling who in 1882 was division superintendent of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway. Earling is well known in paranormal circles for being the site of 1928 exorcism. Over 23 days in 1928, a Roman Catholic Capuchin named Theophilus Riesinger worked to exorcise demons from Emma Schmidt at the local Franciscan convent. During the exorcism Schmidt flew across the room, landed high above the door, clung to the wall. Despite attempts by church officials to keep the exorcism secret, townspeople soon began hearing strange noises coming from the convent as well as horrid odors. After 23 days the demons in Schmidt's body gave up after Father Riesinger commanded, "Depart, ye fiends of hell!
Begone, Satan." After the exorcism Schmidt led a normal life. Earling is located at 41°46′30″N 95°25′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.60 square miles, all of it land. Mosquito Creek rises near Earling; as of the census of 2010, there were 437 people, 175 households, 102 families residing in the city. The population density was 728.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 185 housing units at an average density of 308.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.9% White, 0.2% African American, 1.4% Native American, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 175 households of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.7% were non-families. 36.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 50.1 years. 21.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.3% male and 49.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 471 people, 181 households, 114 families residing in the city; the population density was 772.3 people per square mile. There were 186 housing units at an average density of 305.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.36% White, 0.21% Native American, 0.42% from two or more races. There were 181 households out of which 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.5% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 21.9% from 25 to 44, 15.5% from 45 to 64, 35.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,702, the median income for a family was $40,417. Males had a median income of $25,417 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,866. About 5.9% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.7% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over. Earling, Iowa City-Data Comprehensive statistical data and more about Earling
Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states. In colonial times, Iowa was a part of Spanish Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, financial services, information technology and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U. S states, its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in, its nickname is the Hawkeye State. Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east.
The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War. Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties; the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowa's bedrock geology increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old. Iowa is not flat. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, Rathbun Lake.
The state's northwest area has many remnants such as Barringer Slough. Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; the Southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains. There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, the Topeka shiner. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, northern wild monkshood.
There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur. Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants and pesticide runoff from crop production, diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer. Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state with extremes of both cold; the average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F. Winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year; the 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47. In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.
Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F and exceeding 100 °F. Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing dropping below −18 °F. Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934. Iowa has a smooth gradient of var
Shelby County, Iowa
Shelby County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,167; the county seat is Harlan. Its name is in honor of the first Governor of Kentucky. Shelby County was formed on January 15, 1851, it was named after General Isaac Shelby, a hero in the American Revolutionary War and the first Governor of Kentucky. Early settling in Shelby County began in 1848 in Galland’s Grove. On February 4, 1855, Shelbyville was designated the county seat. In April, 1859, the seat was moved to Harlan. One year the first courthouse was erected and a second courthouse was constructed in 1875. In 1892, the construction of the present courthouse was begun, this time of stone and three storeys high; the construction was completed in 1893 with the dedication on September 14. The 1892 Shelby County Courthouse and the surrounding buildings are all listed in the National Register of Historic places effective September 23, 1994. In 1978, the building still serves as the courthouse.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 591 square miles, of which 591 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 59 Iowa Highway 37 Iowa Highway 44 Iowa Highway 173 Iowa Highway 191 Crawford County Audubon County Cass County Pottawattamie County Harrison County The 2010 census recorded a population of 12,167 in the county, with a population density of 20.5931/sq mi. There were 5,542 housing units; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,173 people, 5,173 households, 3,703 families residing in the county. The population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 5,459 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.68% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.18% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. 0.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,173 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.30% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.40% were non-families.
25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.40% under the age of 18, 5.70% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 20.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,442, the median income for a family was $44,681. Males had a median income of $29,402 versus $20,296 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,969. About 4.30% of families and 6.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.00% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. Corley Jacksonville Botna The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Shelby County.† county seat Shelby County Courthouse National Register of Historic Places listings in Shelby County, Iowa Shelby County government's website
The Missouri River is the longest river in North America. Rising in the Rocky Mountains of western Montana, the Missouri flows east and south for 2,341 miles before entering the Mississippi River north of St. Louis, Missouri; the river takes drainage from a sparsely populated, semi-arid watershed of more than half a million square miles, which includes parts of ten U. S. states and two Canadian provinces. When combined with the lower Mississippi River, it forms the world's fourth longest river system. For over 12,000 years, people have depended on the Missouri River and its tributaries as a source of sustenance and transportation. More than ten major groups of Native Americans populated the watershed, most leading a nomadic lifestyle and dependent on enormous bison herds that roamed through the Great Plains; the first Europeans encountered the river in the late seventeenth century, the region passed through Spanish and French hands before becoming part of the United States through the Louisiana Purchase.
The Missouri River was one of the main routes for the westward expansion of the United States during the 19th century. The growth of the fur trade in the early 19th century laid much of the groundwork as trappers explored the region and blazed trails. Pioneers headed west en masse beginning in the 1830s, first by covered wagon by the growing numbers of steamboats that entered service on the river. Settlers took over former Native American lands in the watershed, leading to some of the most longstanding and violent wars against indigenous peoples in American history. During the 20th century, the Missouri River basin was extensively developed for irrigation, flood control and the generation of hydroelectric power. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Meanders have been cut and the river channelized to improve navigation, reducing its length by 200 miles from pre-development times. Although the lower Missouri valley is now a populous and productive agricultural and industrial region, heavy development has taken its toll on wildlife and fish populations as well as water quality.
From the Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming, three streams rise to form the headwaters of the Missouri River: the longest begins near Brower's Spring, 9,100 feet above sea level on the southeastern slopes of Mount Jefferson in the Centennial Mountains. From there it flows west north, it passes through Canyon Ferry Lake, a reservoir west of the Big Belt Mountains. Issuing from the mountains near Cascade, the river flows northeast to the city of Great Falls, where it drops over the Great Falls of the Missouri, a series of five substantial waterfalls, it winds east through a scenic region of canyons and badlands known as the Missouri Breaks, receiving the Marias River from the west widening into the Fort Peck Lake reservoir a few miles above the confluence with the Musselshell River. Farther on, the river passes through the Fort Peck Dam, downstream, the Milk River joins from the north. Flowing eastward through the plains of eastern Montana, the Missouri receives the Poplar River from the north before crossing into North Dakota where the Yellowstone River, its greatest tributary by volume, joins from the southwest.
At the confluence, the Yellowstone is the larger river. The Missouri meanders east past Williston and into Lake Sakakawea, the reservoir formed by Garrison Dam. Below the dam the Missouri receives the Knife River from the west and flows south to Bismarck, the capital of North Dakota, where the Heart River joins from the west, it slows into the Lake Oahe reservoir just before the Cannonball River confluence. While it continues south reaching Oahe Dam in South Dakota, the Grand and Cheyenne Rivers all join the Missouri from the west; the Missouri makes a bend to the southeast as it winds through the Great Plains, receiving the Niobrara River and many smaller tributaries from the southwest. It proceeds to form the boundary of South Dakota and Nebraska after being joined by the James River from the north, forms the Iowa–Nebraska boundary. At Sioux City the Big Sioux River comes in from the north; the Missouri flows south to the city of Omaha where it receives its longest tributary, the Platte River, from the west.
Downstream, it begins to define the Nebraska–Missouri border flows between Missouri and Kansas. The Missouri swings east at Kansas City, where the Kansas River enters from the west, so on into north-central Missouri. To the east of Kansas City, the Missouri receives, on the left side, the Grand River, it passes south of Columbia and receives the Osage and Gasconade Rivers from the south downstream of Jefferson City. The river rounds the northern side of St. Louis to join the Mississippi River on the border between Missouri and Illinois. With a drainage basin spanning 529,350 square miles, the Missouri River's catchment encompasses nearly one-sixth of the area of the United States or just over five percent of the continent of North America. Comparable to the size of the Canadian province of Quebec, the watershed encompasses most of the central Great Plains, stretching from the Rocky Mountains in the