Dunsmuir is a city in Siskiyou County, northern California. It is on the upper Sacramento River in the Trinity Mountains; the official city slogan is "Home of the best water on Earth". Dunsmuir is a hub for tourism in Northern California, with Interstate 5 in California passing through it. Visitors enjoy fishing, climbing, or sight-seeing. During the steam locomotive railroad era, it was notable for being the site of an important Central Pacific railroad yard, where extra steam locomotives were added to assist trains on the grade to the north. Located in the Shasta Cascade area of Northern California, Dunsmuir is a popular destination for tourists. Visitors come to fish trout in the Sacramento and McCloud Rivers, or to see and climb Mount Shasta, Castle Crags or the Trinity Alps. Visitors ski and bicycle, or can hike to the waterfalls and lakes in the area, including nearby Mossbrae Falls, Hedge Creek Falls, Lake Siskiyou, Castle Lake and Shasta Lake. Dunsmuir is located on the Upper Sacramento River, a blue ribbon trout stream that attracts fishermen from all over the world.
Wild rainbow trout abound in the river. Additionally, the City has a private stocking permit from the Department of Game; the City has a "Big Fish Program" and stocks the river within the city limits with trophy-sized rainbow trout up to 14 pounds. These stockings take place during the summer months. Catch-and-release fishing is permitted in the river during the off-season, so fly-fishing is available year-round; the town is a destination for historical and cultural tourists, as the town has preserved an authentic 1920s and 1930s look and feel. Dunsmuir's long connection with the railroad draws railfans to enjoy the sights and sounds of the railroad in the steep Sacramento River canyon. Dunsmuir is a Union Pacific "Train Town" and enjoys many financial benefits because of its relationship with the railroad. Dunsmuir has frequent events that draw people from wide. Dunsmuir has been described by many as an ideal venue. During the summer, the City hosts many local weekend festivals, including "State of Jefferson Brewfest", "Dogwood Daze", "Railroad Days" and the "Tribute to the Trees" al fresco dinner/concert along the river in the City's pristine park, home to Dunsmuir Botanical Gardens.
These events, along with the wonderful work done by the volunteers of the Botanical Gardens, bring joy to those visiting Dunsmuir. The City has another river's edge park, Tauhindauli Park, over which passes Interstate Five, several popular easy access fishing spots. Sites in and near Dunsmuir have been inhabited for over 5000 years. At least three waves of early peoples swept through area. At the time of the first European-American contact in the 1820s, the site of Dunsmuir was within the range of the Okwanuchu tribe of Native Americans; some believe the indigenous peoples of the area were wiped out when the U. S. Army fed them poisoned beef when they signed a peace treaty. However, this point remains open to speculation, as there are few concrete sources of evidence to support this claim. During the 1820s, early European-American hunters and trappers passed through Dunsmuir's site, following the Siskiyou Trail. In the mid-1830s, pioneer horse and cattle drives came up the Sacramento Canyon, delivering livestock from Mexican California to the new settlements in the Oregon Country to the north.
In 1841, an overland party of the famous United States Exploring Expedition passed through the area. The California Gold Rush led to increased traffic along the Siskiyou Trail through Dunsmuir's site, leading to the first non-Native American settlers at Upper Soda Springs in north Dunsmuir in the early 1850s; the discovery of gold at Yreka, California increased movement through the site of Dunsmuir, a toll bridge and stagecoach hotel were built at Upper Soda Springs. In 1887, the completion of the Central Pacific Railroad along the line of the Siskiyou Trail led to the creation of the modern town of Dunsmuir; the railroad developed a division point on the flats south of Upper Soda Springs, where railroad steam engines would be serviced, added to trains to push them up the steep grades north of town. A roundhouse and turntable were built. All this activity required the creation of a town known as'Poverty Flats' or'Pusher'. South of the present downtown and north of Castella is an area known as Nutglade, known as Dunsmuir and before that, Cedar Flat.
So the name moved north from the South rail yard to the main rail yard. During the railroad heyday, Dunsmuir was the largest town in this County, the size of Delaware and Rhode Island combined. In 1888, Alexander Dunsmuir, second son of British Columbian coal baron Robert Dunsmuir, was passing through, according to contemporary accounts, was so taken with the beauty of the area that he offered to donate a fountain to the new town, if they would rename the town in his honor; the offer was accepted, Dunsmuir's fountain remains operational, relocated to the City Park's baseball field, frequented by Babe Ruth and other N. Y. Yankees. By the early 1900s, Dunsmuir was the largest town in Siskiyou County, for a long time had been the largest California city north of Sacramento; the construction of the Pacific Highway along the Siskiyou Trail in the mid-1910s brought more tourists. By the mid-1950s, the railroad transitioned from steam to diesel locomotives, the substantial workforce in Dunsmuir was not needed, resulting in the town's contraction.
Interstate 5 runs through the canyon along with the upper Sacramento River. As a result, Dunsmuir retains today much of the charm and scale of the 1920s and 1930s, a
Box Canyon Dam (California)
Box Canyon Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Upper Sacramento River impounding Lake Siskiyou reservoir, in Siskiyou County, northern California. The dam and reservoir are located in Box Canyon of the eastern Trinity Mountains and within the Shasta–Trinity National Forest, southwest of the town of Mount Shasta and Mount Shasta peak. Box Canyon Dam is 209 feet high; the dam is owned and operated by Siskiyou County's Flood Control & Water Conservation District and Siskiyou Power Authority, was completed in 1970 to provide flood control. In 1984, a powerhouse was installed to provide hydroelectric power; the Box Canyon Trail begins on the north side of Box Canyon Dam, following the Upper Sacramento River down the narrow canyon to the outskirts of the town of Mount Shasta. The Lake Siskiyou Trail encircles the lake, including a crossing atop the dam. Dams on the Sacramento River List of dams and reservoirs in California Living Shasta Photography Blog: Lake Siskiyou's Box Canyon Dam — photo gallery, interiors/exteriors of dam + powerhouse.
"Virtualguidebooks.com: 360 degree view of Box Canyon Dam"
Irish is a Goidelic language originating in Ireland and spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford and Meath, a few other locations, as a second language by a larger group of non-habitual speakers across the country. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, they brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx respectively, it has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe. Irish has constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland and is an recognised minority language in Northern Ireland, it is among the official languages of the European Union. The public body Foras na Gaeilge is responsible for the promotion of the language throughout the island of Ireland. In An Caighdeán Oifigiúil the name of the language — in the Irish language — is Gaeilge.
Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge. Older spellings of this include Gaoidhealg in Classical Goídelc in Old Irish; the modern spelling results from the deletion of the silent dh in the middle of Gaedhilge, whereas Goidelic, used to refer to the language family including Irish, is derived from the Old Irish term. Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects include Gaedhilic/Gaeilic/Gaeilig or Gaedhlag in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing/Gaoluinn/Gaelainn in Munster Irish; the name of the language — in the English language — is Irish, defined in the European Union as "the Celtic language of Ireland". The English-language term Gaelic is sometimes used outside Ireland to refer to the language but according to the European Union, "Contrary to certain usage, those two terms are not synonymous" and it defines Gaelic as the "Celtic language group of Ireland and Scotland". In Europe and in Asia the language is referred to as Irish, with Gaelic or Irish Gaelic used in some instances elsewhere.
The term Irish Gaelic is used when English speakers discuss the relationship between the three Goidelic languages. Written Irish is first attested in Ogham inscriptions from the 4th century AD, a stage of the language known as Primitive Irish; these writings have been found throughout the west coast of Great Britain. Primitive Irish transitioned into Old Irish through the 5th century. Old Irish, dating from the 6th century, used the Latin alphabet and is attested in marginalia to Latin manuscripts. During this time, the Irish language absorbed some Latin words, some via Old Welsh, including ecclesiastical terms: examples are easpag from episcopus, Domhnach. By the 10th century, Old Irish had evolved into Middle Irish, spoken throughout Ireland and in Scotland and the Isle of Man, it is the language including the Ulster Cycle. From the 12th century, Middle Irish began to evolve into modern Irish in Ireland, into Scottish Gaelic in Scotland, into the Manx language in the Isle of Man. Early Modern Irish, dating from the 13th century, was the basis of the literary language of both Ireland and Gaelic-speaking Scotland.
Modern Irish, as attested in the work of such writers as Geoffrey Keating, may be said to date from the 17th century, was the medium of popular literature from that time on. From the 18th century on, the language lost ground in the east of the country; the reasons behind this shift were complex but came down to a number of factors: Discouragement of its use by Anglo-British administrations. The Catholic church supporting the use of English over Irish; the spread of bilingualism from the 1750s, resulting in language shift. It was a change characterised by transitional bilingualism. By the mid-18th century, English was becoming a language of the Catholic middle class, the Catholic Church and public intellectuals in the east of the country; as the value of English became apparent, the prohibition on Irish in schools had the sanction of parents. Once it became apparent that immigration to the United States and Canada was for a large portion of the population, the importance of learning English became relevant.
This allowed the new immigrants to get jobs in areas other than farming. It has been estimated that, due to the immigration to the United States because of the Famine, anywhere from a quarter to a third of the immigrants were Irish speakers. Irish was not marginal to Ireland's modernisation in the 19th century, as assumed. In the first half of the century there were still around three million people for whom Irish was the primary language, their numbers alone made them a cultural and social force. Irish speakers insisted on using the language in law courts, Irish was common in commercial transactions; the language was implicated in the "devotional revolution" which marked the standardisation of Catholic religious practice and was widely used in a political context. Down to the time of the Great Famine and afterwards, the language was in use by all clas
A waterfall is an area where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are formed in the upper course of a river in steep mountains; because of their landscape position, many waterfalls occur over bedrock fed by little contributing area, so may be ephemeral and flow only during rainstorms or significant snowmelt. The further downstream, the more perennial a waterfall can be. Waterfalls can have a wide range of depths; when the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens and is dominated by impacts of water-borne sediment on the rock, while downstream the erosion occurs more rapidly. As the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it may pluck material from the riverbed, if the bed is fractured or otherwise more erodible. Hydraulic jets and hydraulic jumps at the toe of a falls can generate large forces to erode the bed when forces are amplified by water-borne sediment.
Horseshoe-shaped falls focus the erosion to a central point enhancing riverbed change below a waterfalls. A process known as "potholing" involves local erosion of a deep hole in bedrock due to turbulent whirlpools spinning stones around on the bed, drilling it out. Sand and stones carried by the watercourse therefore increase erosion capacity; this causes the waterfall to recede upstream. Over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, it will carve deeper into the ridge above it; the rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one-and-a-half metres per year. The rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will be of a softer type, meaning that undercutting due to splashback will occur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rock shelter under and behind the waterfall; the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. These blocks of rock are broken down into smaller boulders by attrition as they collide with each other, they erode the base of the waterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool in the gorge downstream.
Streams can become wider and shallower just above waterfalls due to flowing over the rock shelf, there is a deep area just below the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the water hitting the bottom. However, a study of waterfalls systematics reported that waterfalls can be wider or narrower above or below a falls, so anything is possible given the right geological and hydrological setting. Waterfalls form in a rocky area due to erosion. After a long period of being formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat, causing a horizontal pit parallel to the waterfall wall; as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed. In addition to gradual processes such as erosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes or landslides or volcanoes can cause a differential in land heights which interfere with the natural course of a water flow, result in waterfalls. A river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a glacial trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted.
The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, referred to as a hanging valley. Another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other. Waterfalls can be grouped into ten broad classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls. Classes of other well-known waterfalls include Kaieteur Falls. Alexander von Humboldt "Father of Modern Geography" Humboldt was marking waterfalls on maps for river navigation purposes. Oscar von Engeln Published "Geomorphology: systematic and regional", this book had a whole chapter devoted to waterfalls, is one of the earliest examples of published works on waterfalls. R. W. Young Wrote "Waterfalls: form and process" this work made waterfalls a much more serious topic for research for modern Geoscientists. Ledge waterfall: Water descends vertically over a vertical cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock.
Block/Sheet: Water descends from a wide stream or river. Classical: Ledge waterfalls where fall height is nearly equal to stream width, forming a vertical square shape. Curtain: Ledge waterfalls which descend over a height larger than the width of falling water stream. Plunge: Fast-moving water descends vertically, losing complete contact with the bedrock surface; the contact is lost due to horizontal velocity of the water before it falls. It always starts from a narrow stream. Punchbowl: Water descends in a constricted form and spreads out in a wider pool. Horsetail: Descending water maintains contact with bedrock most of the time. Slide: Water glides down maintaining continuous contact. Ribbon: Water descends over a long narrow strip. Chute: A large quantity of water forced through a narrow, vertical passage. Fan: Water spreads horizontally as
Shasta Springs was a popular summer resort during the late 19th and early 20th centuries on the Upper Sacramento River in northern California. It was located just north of the town of Dunsmuir, just north of Upper Soda Springs along the Siskiyou Trail; the resort was on the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, natural springs on the property were the original sources of the water and beverages that became known as the Shasta brand of soft drinks. The resort closed in the early 1950s when it was sold and continues to be owned by the Saint Germain Foundation, is used as a major facility by that organization, it is no longer open to the public and the lower part of the resort – the bottling plant, the train station, the incline railway, the kiosk and the fountains – are all gone. The falls that were visible from the railroad tracks and what ruins are left of the lower part of the resort are all overgrown by blackberry bushes. Angel Trail and Mineral Spring Trail in this private property leads down to the railway track near couple of small falls.
The famous Mossbrae Falls is on the other side of the bridge. Saint Germain Foundation home page Collected Images of Shasta Springs Resort Collected Images of Shasta Springs Resort Image of Shasta Springs Image of Shasta Springs Image of Shasta Springs The Railroad stop at Shasta Springs Native American legend of Shasta Springs Museum of the Siskiyou Trail Media related to Shasta Springs at Wikimedia Commons
A trail is a path, track or unpaved lane or road. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland path or footpath is the preferred term for a walking trail; the term is applied, in North America, to routes along rivers, sometimes to highways. In the US, the term was used for a route into or through wild territory used by emigrants. In the USA "trace" is a synonym for trail, as in Natchez Trace; some trails are single use and can only be used for walking, horse riding and cross-country skiing. There are unpaved trails used by dirt bikes and other off-road vehicles and in some places, like the Alps, trails are used for moving cattle and other livestock. In Australia, the term track can be used interchangeably with trail, can refer to anything from a dirt road to an unpaved pedestrian path. In New Zealand, the terms track or walkway are used exclusively except in reference to cross-country skiing: "walkways vary enormously in nature, from short urban strolls, to moderate coastal locations, to challenging tramps in the high country ".
Walkway is used in St. John's, Canada, where the "Grand Concourse", is an integrated walkway system. In the United Kingdom, the term trail is in common usage. Longer distance walking routes, government-promoted long distance paths, collectively known as National Trails, are frequently called ways; the term footpath is preferred for pedestrian routes, including long distance trails, is used for urban paths and sometimes in place of pavement. Track is used for wider paths used for hiking; the terms bridleway, restricted byway are all recognised legal terms and to a greater or lesser extent in general usage. The increased popularity of mountain biking has led to a proliferation of mountain bike trails in many countries; these will be grouped to form larger complexes, known as trail centers. In the early years of the 20th century, the term auto trail was used for a marked highway route, trail is now used to designate routes, including highway routes, designated for tourist interest like the Cabot Trail, Nova Scotia and the Quilt Trails in the US.
The term trail has been used by developers and urban planners for a variety of modern paved roads and boulevards, in these countries, some highways continue to be called a trail, such as the Susquehanna Trail in Pennsylvania, a designation that varies from a two-lane road to a four-lane freeway. A unusual use of the term is in the Canadian province of Alberta, which has multi-lane freeways called trails. Trail segregation, the practice of designating certain trails as having a specific preferred or exclusive use, is common and diverse. For example, bike trails are used not only on roads open to motor vehicles, but in trail systems open to other trail users; some trails are segregated for use by both equestrians and mountain bikes, or by equestrians only, or by mountain bikes only. Designated "wilderness area" trails may be segregated for non-wheeled use. Trail segregation for a particular use is accompanied by prohibitions against that use on other trails within the trail system. Trail segregation may be supported by signage, trail design and construction, by separation between parallel treads.
Separation may be achieved by "natural" barriers including distance, banking and vegetation, by "artificial" barriers including fencing and walls. Bicycle trails encompass a wide variety of trail types, including shared-use paths used for commuting, off-road cross country trails and downhill mountain bike trails; the number of off-road cycle trails has increased along with the popularity of mountain bikes. Off-road bicycle trails are function-specific and most waymarked along their route, they may form part of larger complexes, known as trail centres. Off-road trails incorporate a mix of challenging terrain, smooth fireroads, paved paths. Trails with an easy or moderate technical complexity are deemed cross-country trails, while trails difficult to experienced riders are more dubbed all-mountain, freeride, or downhill. Downhilling is popular at ski resorts such as Mammoth Mountain in California or Whistler Blackcomb in British Columbia, where ski lifts are used to get bikes and riders to the top of the mountain.
EuroVelo bicycle routes are a network of long-distance cycling routes criss-crossing Europe in various stages of completion, more than 45,000 km was in place by 2013. It is envisaged that the network will be complete by 2020 and when finished, the EuroVelo network's total length will exceed 70,000 km. EuroVelo is a project of the European Cyclists' Federation. EuroVelo routes can be used for bicycle touring across the continent, as well as by local people making short journeys; the routes are made of both existing national bike routes, such as the Dutch LF-Routes, the German D-Routes, the British National Cycle Network, existing general purpose roads, together with new stretches of cycle routes to connect them. Off-road cycling can cause soil erosion and habitat destruction if not carried out on established trails; this is so when trails are wet, overall though, cycling may have only as mu