World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Constructed by the German Democratic Republic, starting on 13 August 1961, the Wall cut off West Berlin from all of surrounding East Germany and East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989, its demolition began on 13 June 1990 and finished in 1992. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, accompanied by a wide area that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses; the Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. GDR authorities referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart; the West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement. Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border, which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize physically the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.
Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin. Between 1961 and 1989 the Wall prevented all such emigration. During this period over 100,000 people attempted to escape and over 5,000 people succeeded in escaping over the Wall, with an estimated death toll ranging from 136 to more than 200 in and around Berlin. In 1989 a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany that resulted in the demise of the Wall. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric people and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall.
The "fall of the Berlin Wall" paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990. After the end of World War II in Europe, what remained of pre-war Germany west of the Oder-Neisse line was divided into four occupation zones, each one controlled by one of the four occupying Allied powers: the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union; the capital of Berlin, as the seat of the Allied Control Council, was subdivided into four sectors despite the city's location, within the Soviet zone. Within two years, political divisions increased between the other occupying powers; these included the Soviets' refusal to agree to reconstruction plans making post-war Germany self-sufficient, to a detailed accounting of industrial plants and infrastructure - some of, removed by the Soviets. France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Benelux countries met to combine the non-Soviet zones of Germany into one zone for reconstruction, to approve the extension of the Marshall Plan.
Following World War II, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin headed a group of nations on his Western border, the Eastern Bloc, that included Poland and Czechoslovakia, which he wished to maintain alongside a weakened Soviet-controlled Germany. As early as 1945, Stalin revealed to German communist leaders that he expected to undermine the British position within the British occupation zone, that the United States would withdraw within a year or two, that nothing would stand in the way of a united communist Germany within the bloc; the major task of the ruling communist party in the Soviet zone was to channel Soviet orders down to both the administrative apparatus and the other bloc parties, which in turn would be presented as internal measures. Property and industry was nationalized in the East German zone. If statements or decisions deviated from the described line and punishment would ensue, such as imprisonment and death. Indoctrination of Marxism-Leninism became a compulsory part of school curricula, sending professors and students fleeing to the West.
The East Germans created an elaborate political police apparatus that kept the population under close surveillance, including Soviet SMERSH secret police. In 1948, following disagreements regarding reconstruction and a new German currency, Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade, preventing food and supplies from arriving in West Berlin; the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and several other countries began a massive "airlift", supplying West Berlin with food and other supplies. The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the Western policy change. Communists attempted to disrupt the elections of 1948, preceding large losses therein, while 300,000 Berliners demonstrated for the international airlift to continue. In May 1949, Stalin lifted the blockade; the German Democratic Republic was declared on 7 October 1949. By a secret treaty, the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs accorded the East Ge
Cremer & Wolffenstein
The Cremer & Wolffenstein architecture firm was founded in Germany in 1882 by Richard Wolffenstein and Wilhelm Cremer and existed up to the death of its two founders. During the so-called Gründerzeit in Berlin, the years of rapid industrial expansion in Germany at the end of the 19th century, they were a prolific firm in the various aspects of architecture; as one of the largest firms in Berlin at the turn of the century, they designed residential, transportation and religious buildings. They built a number of synagogues, won second place in the 1882 competition to design the Reichstag, were involved in planning the Hochbahn overhead railway installation between Kreuzberg and Nollendorfplatz. Wilhelm Albert Cremer died 28 March 1919 in Berlin. In 1867 he passed the bricklayer master examination, a prerequisite for his longer studies from 1868 to 1875 at the Berliner Bauakademie. Parallel to this education he studied with August Orth. After conclusion of his studies he worked as a private architect and as a teacher at the Unterrichtsanstalt des Kunstgewerbemuseums Berlin, who appointed him to professor in 1885.
In 1878, at the school, he made the acquaintance of another professor Richard Wolffenstein, in 1882 they created the architecture firm of Cremer & Wolffenstein. With Richard Wolffenstein, on 8 June 1879, he became a founding member of the Vereinigung Berliner Architekten or Union of Berlin Architects, an offshoot of private architects from the Architektenverein zu Berlin. Starting in 1883 he taught additionally at the Technical University of Berlin. In 1907 he was appointed the head of the planning and building department and in 1912 Geheimen Baurat. Few projects of Wilhelm Cremer are known that were not work of the firm, one example is the evangelical church in Neuwied of 1880. Although the partner in a firm that designed many synagogues, Cremer was a Christian. Richard Wolffenstein was born on 7 September 1846 in Berlin and died there on 13 April 1919, he was the son of a dye factory owner who studied trade school and acquired the high school diploma in 1864. He was apprenticed as a mason between 1864 and 1868 and studied subsequently at the Berliner Bauakademie.
Beside his education, he worked in the architecture offices of Kyllmann & Heyden, Hude & Hennicke. After the master builder examination in 1873, he was active with the architect Wilhelm Neumann, specializing in state administration for the next three years. From the years 1876 to 1878, he led an extended study trip through Italy, the Netherlands, Britain and Spain. Through teaching at the Unterrichtsanstalt des Kunstgewerbemuseums Berlins from 1878 to 1896 he met Wilhelm Cremer and in 1882 they formed the firm Cremer & Wolffenstein. Richard Wolffenstein was a founding member of the Vereinigung Berliner Architekten on 8 June 1879 and in 1898 was a board member. In 1907 he was a Baurat and in 1912 he was appointed Geheimen Baurat. Synagogues were a speciality of the office because of Wolffenstein's Jewish background; the two architects are considered the most important representatives of the building of synagogues of the Gründerzeit. For their work in this field they found inspiration in Dresden's Semper Synagogue, the only sacral building by Gottfried Semper, with its simple basic concept and cube formed arrangements.
Of the eleven synagogues designed by Cremer & Wolffenstein, eight were built, among them the New Synagogue in Königsberg in Prussia. But all suffered the same fate as their model in Dresden and were destroyed during the Kristallnacht. In 1996, the Lindenstraße Synagogue was the subject of a memorial designed by Zvi Hecker, Eyal Weizmann, sculptor Micha Ullman. In the courtyard of the present office building, they designed an arrangement of concrete benches placed in the pattern of the seating in the original synagogue; the courtyard and memorial is accessed through a large ground floor opening, much like the central passageway that figured prominently in the Cremer & Wolffenstein synagogue. The Cremer & Wolffenstein firm was renowned for its functional designs; the two architects preferred Neo-Renaissance influences. However they would use a variety of historical styles; the houses and office buildings in the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Straße were among the first Neo-baroque buildings of Berlin. In some works Jugendstil influences can be found, though their overall tendency was towards eclecticism
The Berliner Tageblatt or BT was a German language newspaper published in Berlin from 1872 to 1939. Along with the Frankfurter Zeitung, it became one of the most important liberal German newspapers of its time; the Berliner Tageblatt was first published by Rudolf Mosse as an advertising paper on 1 January 1872, but developed into a liberal newspaper. On 5 January 1919 the office of the newspaper was occupied by Freikorps soldiers in the German Revolution. By 1920, the BT had achieved a daily circulation of about 245,000. Prior to the National Socialist administration taking office on 30 January 1933, the newspaper was critical and hostile to their program. On 3 March 1933, after the Reichstag fire, Hans Lachmann-Mosse, the publisher, dismissed editor in chief Theodor Wolff because of his criticism of the Nazi government and his Jewish ancestry. Wolff by fled to the Tyrol in Austria by plane. After 1933, the National Socialist government took control of the newspaper. However, in September 1933, special permission was granted by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels to release the paper from any obligation to reprint Nazi propaganda in order to help portray an image of a free German press internationally.
Due to this assurance, their respected foreign correspondent Paul Scheffer became editor on 1 April 1934. He had been the first foreign journalist to be refused a re-entry permit into the Soviet Union in 1929 for his critical reporting on the Five-Year Plan and prophecy of famine in Ukraine. For two years, Scheffer surrounded himself by independently minded university graduates such as Margaret Boveri, she wrote in 1960 that Scheffer "was hated from the beginning by leading people of the Propaganda Ministry, it was only because of his excellent foreign connections that he was not relieved of his position in the early years of the regime." Scheffer's position became untenable and he resigned on 31 December 1936. The paper was shut down by the Nazi authorities on 31 January 1939. During the 27 years when Theodor Wolff was editor in chief, the BT became the most influential newspaper in Berlin. Wolff brought the elite of German journalism to the Berliner Tageblatt. Ernst Feder and Rudolf Olden ran the domestic politics section, while Josef Schwab, Max Jordan, Maximilian Müller-Jabusch handled foreign politics.
Arthur Norden and Felix Pinner were responsible for the business section. Fred Hildenbrandt headed the feuilleton section from 1922 to 1932. Regular contributors to the feuilleton included Alfred Polgar, Fritz Mauthner, Kurt Tucholsky, Erich Kästner, Otto Flake, Felix Hirsch and Frank Thiess; the chief of the theatre section was Alfred Kerr. From 1918 until April 1920, Kurt Tucholsky contributed 50 articles to the Berliner Tageblatt while he was editor in chief of the satirical magazine Ulk, which appeared weekly between 1913 and 1933, his novel Schloss Gripsholm appeared in the BT from 20 March to 26 April 1931. Alfred Eisenstaedt was one of the newspaper's photographers. Erich Everth began corresponding from the BT from Vienna in 1924; as the successor of Leopold Schmidt, Alfred Einstein was the musical critic from September 1927 until August 1933. The head of the important Central European Office from 1927 to 1933 was Heinrich Eduard Jacob, based in Vienna. During his time at the BT, Jacob had 1,000 contributions.
Because he was an opponent of the Austrian Nazis, Jacob was imprisoned at Dachau concentration camp after the Anschluss in 1938. The BT published separate weekly magazines, distributed as part of the newspaper. A number of these, such as "Technische Rundschau," a weekly review of trends in technology, the "Haus, Hof und Garten" sections, were edited by Rudolf Jonas. Jonas was an editor from 1929 to 1932 and became an editor of the magazine Das Theater. Digitised version of Berliner Tageblatt from 1878 to 1929 -
Erich Mendelsohn was a German architect, known for his expressionist architecture in the 1920s, as well as for developing a dynamic functionalism in his projects for department stores and cinemas. Mendelsohn is a pioneer of the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne architecture, notably with his 1921 Mossehaus design. Erich Mendelsohn was born in Allenstein, East Prussia, now the Polish town of Olsztyn, his birthplace was at the former Oberstrasse 21, now no. 10 Staromiejska street. A plaque embedded on the wall on the side of Barbara street commemorates his place of birth, he was the fifth of six children. He continued with commercial training in Berlin. In 1906 he took up the study of national economics at the University of Munich. In 1908 he began studying architecture at the Technical University of Berlin. In Munich he was influenced by Theodor Fischer, an architect whose own work fell between neo-classical and Jugendstil, and, teaching there since 1907. From 1912 to 1914 he worked as an independent architect in Munich.
In 1915 he married the cellist Luise Maas. Between 1910 and 1953 they corresponded with each other. Through his wife, he met the cello-playing astrophysicist Erwin Finlay Freundlich. Freundlich was the brother of Herbert Freundlich, the deputy director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie. Freundlich wished to build a suitable astronomical observatory to experimentally confirm Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Through his relationship with Freundlich, Mendelsohn had the opportunity to design and build the Einsteinturm; this relationship and the family friendship with the Luckenwalde hat manufacturers Salomon and Gustav Herrmann helped Mendelsohn to an early success. From until 1918, what is known of Mendelsohn is, above all, a multiplicity of sketches of factories and other large buildings in small format or in letters from the front to his wife, Louise Mendelsohn; the 2011 documentary film by Duki Dror titled "Incessant Visions" is about Erich Mendelsohn and his wife, in which Dror animates the memoirs of Louise and the letters.
At the end of 1918, upon his return from World War I, he settled his practice in Berlin. The Einsteinturm and the hat factory in Luckenwalde established his reputation; the Hat Factory was commissioned in 1921, Mendelsohn's design included four production halls, a boiler, a turbine house, two gatehouses and a dyeing hall. The dyeing hall became a distinctive feature of the factory, the building was shaped with a modern, ventilation hood that expelled the toxic fumes used in the dyeing process; the structure ironically resembled a hat. As early as 1924 Wasmuths Monatshefte für Baukunst produced a booklet about his work. In that same year, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius, he was one of the founders of the progressive architectural group known as Der Ring, his practice employed as many as forty people, among them, as a trainee, Julius Posener an architectural historian. Mendelsohn's work encapsulated the consumerism of the Weimar Republic, most in his shops: most famously the Schocken Department Stores.
Nonetheless he was interested in the socialist experiments being made in the USSR, where he designed the Red Banner Textile Factory in 1926. His Mossehaus newspaper offices and Universum cinema were highly influential on art deco and Streamline Moderne. In 1926, he bought an old villa, in 1928, he designed Rupenhorn, nearly 4000 m², which the family occupied two years later. With an expensive publication about his new home, illustrated by Amédée Ozenfant among others, Mendelsohn became the subject of envy. In the spring of 1933, in the wake of growing antisemitism and the rise of the Nazis in Germany, he fled to England, his assets were seized by the Nazis, his name struck from the list of the German Architects' Union, he was excluded from the Prussian Academy of Arts. In England he formed an architectural practice with Serge Chermayeff, which continued until the end of 1936 and together they designed two important private houses - Cohen House and Shrubs Wood - and the De La Warr Pavilion, an entertainment and arts complex in the seaside town of Bexhill-on-Sea and paid for by the local landowner.
Mendelsohn had long known Chaim Weizmann President of Israel. At the start of 1934 he began planning on Weizmann's behalf a series of projects in Palestine during the British Mandate. In 1935, he opened an office in Jerusalem and planned Jerusalem stone buildings in the International Style that influenced local architecture. In 1938 he dissolved his London office. At that same time he and his wife received British citizenship and he changed his name to "Eric". In Palestine, Mendelsohn built many now-famous buildings: Weizmann House and three laboratories at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Anglo-Palestine Bank in Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus, R
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Axel Springer SE
Axel Springer SE is a German digital publishing house, the largest in Europe, with numerous multimedia news brands, such as Bild, Die Welt, Fakt and more than 15,000 employees. It generated total revenues of about €3.3 billion and an EBITDA of €559 million in the financial year 2015. The digital media activities contribute more than 60% to its revenues and nearly 70% to its EBITDA. Axel Springer’s business is divided into three segments: paid models, marketing models, classified ad models. Headquartered in Berlin, the company is active in more than 40 countries with subsidiaries, joint ventures, licensing, it was started in 1946/1947 by journalist Axel Springer. Its current CEO is Mathias Döpfner; the Axel Springer company is the largest publishing house in Europe and controls the largest share of the German market for daily newspapers. The media offerings of Axel Springer SE are clustered in: current news, sports and consumer electronics, as well as lifestyle. Die Welt, the intellectual flagship of the company Bild, tabloid with the largest circulation in Europe Auto Bild, automobile magazine with the largest circulation in Europe Audio Video Foto Bild, magazine for consumer electronics Computer Bild, published in nine countries, is Europe's best-selling computer magazine Sport Bild, published in many countries, is Europe's largest sport magazine Auto.cz, the largest Czech internet car portal including RoadLook.tv, starting in Slovakia and Poland as well Fakt, the largest daily tabloid in Poland B.
Z. local newspaper Watchmi, a personalized TV content discovery system Musikexpress, a monthly music magazine the German edition of the magazine Rolling Stone Transfermarkt, a football statistics website Business Insider, a business and technology news website INSIDER, a social-first lifestyle publication. In addition, the company is active in the online editorial and marketing business with its shares in aufeminin.com and buy.at and owns several classified advertising online platforms such as the online career site StepStone, the real estate marketing portal immonet and price comparison platform idealo. 1946: Publisher Hinrich Springer and his son Axel Springer establish the limited company Axel Springer Verlag GmbH. Launch of the NORDWESTDEUTSCHE HEFTE and the radio and TV magazine HÖRZU. 1948: Launch of the evening newspaper HAMBURGER ABENDBLATT, the first daily created by Axel Springer. 1952: Launch of the popular daily BILD. The paper was based on the British tabloid Daily Mirror, peaked at circulation of 5 million in the 1980s.
1953: Axel Springer Verlag buys the publishing house DIE WELT, including the daily paper DIE WELT and the Sunday paper WELT am SONNTAG. 1956: Company headquarters in Hamburg is built. 1959: The company acquires the majority holding in Ullstein AG, including the Berlin newspapers BERLINER MORGENPOST and B. Z. and the Ullstein book-publishing business. 1966: Official opening of the Berlin headquarters. Hamburg remains important site. 1968: After the attack on the students' leader Rudi Dutschke on 11 April 1968 the APO starts acts of violence against the company. The APO had a history of animosity with the Springer Group's biased coverage of the student movement. For instance, in the wake of the shooting of Benno Ohnesorg by the police at a student demonstration against the Shah, one Springer paper reported that “what happened yesterday in Berlin had nothing to do with politics… It was criminal in the most sickening way.”. In fact, who had never attended a demonstration before, had been shot in the back while trying to leave the demonstration.
1972–73: Building of the offset-printing plant in Essen-Kettwig. 1984: Official opening of the offset printing facility in Ahrensburg near Hamburg. 1985: 49% of the company is offered for public subscription. That year Axel Springer dies. Control is passed to his widow Friede Springer. 1986: The first licensed edition of AUTO BILD comes out in Italy. Other licensed editions and joint venture publications appear in twenty European countries and Thailand. 1993: Official opening of the offset printing works in Berlin-Spandau. 2001: Axel Springer and T-Online establish a joint subsidiary Bild.de/T-Online AG. 2002: Launch of immonet.de. Mathias Doepfner, former editor-in-chief of Die Welt, becomes CEO of Axel Springer AG. 2003: Name is changed to Axel Springer AG. 2009: Axel Springer AG acquires affiliate marketers Zanox and Digital Window as well as StepStone ASA. 2010 a $635.7 million offer by Axel for leading French real estate website operator seloger.com caused seloger shares to rise as much as 32% the most since it went public.
Within 3 days Axel increased its offer 15.6% to $735 million after seloger shareholders rejected the deal. 2012 Axel Springer forms a joint venture with global growth equity firm General Atlantic. The company buys TotalJobs in the UK from Reed Elsevier. 2013: Springer sells its regional newspapers, woman's magazines, television magazines to Funke Mediengruppe for €920 million 2013: Publications Grand Public, a French magazine publisher owned by Springer, is sold to Reworld Media. 2015: Axel Springer AG purchases Business Insider, a business and technology news website, in a deal that values Business Insider at $442 million. 2015: On December 8, Axel Springer increased their share in Axel Springer Digital Classifieds GmbH from 70 per cent to 85 per cent, was granted a purchase option to acquire the remaining 15 per cent from General Atlantic. On December 9, Axel Springer exercised the option, acquiring the additional 15% from General Atlantic in exchange