Most favoured nation

In international economic relations and international politics, most favoured nation is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade. The term means the country, the recipient of this treatment must nominally receive equal trade advantages as the "most favoured nation" by the country granting such treatment. In effect, a country, accorded MFN status may not be treated less advantageously than any other country with MFN status by the promising country. There is a debate in legal circles whether MFN clauses in bilateral investment treaties include only substantive rules or procedural protections; the members of the World Trade Organization agree to accord MFN status to each other. Exceptions allow for preferential treatment of developing countries, regional free trade areas and customs unions. Together with the principle of national treatment, MFN is one of the cornerstones of WTO trade law. "Most favoured nation" relationships extend reciprocal bilateral relationships following both GATT and WTO norms of reciprocity and non-discrimination.

In bilateral reciprocal relationships a particular privilege granted by one party only extends to other parties who reciprocate that privilege, while in a multilateral reciprocal relationship the same privilege would be extended to the group that negotiated a particular privilege. The non-discriminatory component of the GATT/WTO applies a reciprocally negotiated privilege to all members of the GATT/WTO without respect to their status in negotiating the privilege. Most Favoured Nation status is given to an international trade partner to ensure non-discriminatory trade between all partner countries of the WTO. A country which provides MFN status to another country has to provide concessions and immunity in trade agreements, it is the first clause in the General Agreement on Trade. Under rules of the World Trade Organisation, a member country is not allowed to discriminate between trade partners and if a special status is granted to one trade partner, the country is required to extend it to all members of the WTO.

In a nutshell, MFN is a non-discriminatory trade policy as it ensures equal trading among all WTO member nations rather than exclusive trading privileges. The earliest form of the most favoured nation status can be found as early as in the 11th century. Today's concept of the most favoured nation status starts to appear in the 18th century, when the division of conditional and unconditional most favoured nation status began. In the early days of international trade, "most favoured nation" status was used on a dual-party, state-to-state basis. A nation could enter into a "most favoured nation" treaty with another nation. In the Treaty of Madrid, Spain granted England "most favoured nation" trading status. With the Jay Treaty in 1794, the US granted the same to Britain. After World War II, tariff and trade agreements were negotiated by all interested parties through the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which resulted in the World Trade Organization in 1995; the WTO requires members to grant one another "most favoured nation" status.

A "most favoured nation" clause is included in most bilateral investment treaties concluded between capital exporting and capital importing countries after World War II. Trade experts consider MFN clauses to have the following benefits: Increases trade creation and decreases trade diversion. A country that grants MFN on imports will have its imports provided by the most efficient supplier if the most efficient supplier is within the group of MFN. Otherwise, that is, if the most efficient producer is outside the group of MFN and additionally, is charged higher rates of tariffs it is possible that trade would be diverted from this most efficient producer to a less efficient producer within the group of MFN; this leads to economic costs for the importing country, which can outweigh the gains from free trade. MFN allows smaller countries, in particular, to participate in the advantages that larger countries grant to each other, whereas on their own, smaller countries would not be powerful enough to negotiate such advantages by themselves.

Granting MFN has domestic benefits: having one set of tariffs for all countries simplifies the rules and makes them more transparent. Theoretically, if all countries in the world confer MFN status to each other, there will be no need to establish complex and administratively costly rules of origin to determine which country a product must be attributed to for customs purposes. However, if at least one nation lies outside the MFN alliance customs cannot be done away with. MFN restrains domestic special interests from obtaining protectionist measures. For example, butter producers in country A may not be able to lobby for high tariffs on butter to prevent cheap imports from developing country B, because, as the higher tariffs would apply to every country, the interests of A's principal ally C might get impaired; as MFN clauses promote non-discrimination among countries, they tend to promote the objective of free trade in general. GATT members recognized in principle that the "most favoured nation" rule should be relaxed to accommodate the needs of developing countries, the UN Conference on Trade and Development has sought to extend preferential treatment to the exports of the developing countries.

Another challenge to the "most favoured nation" principle has been posed by regional trade blocs such as the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreement, which have lowered or eliminated tariffs

Will Janowitz

Will Janowitz is an American actor. He best known for playing Meadow Soprano's boyfriend Finn De Trolio on The Sopranos. Janowitz is a first-generation American. After graduating from North Carolina School of the Arts in 2000, Janowitz began acting professionally, he worked as Mary-Louise Parker's personal assistant on several film and television projects. One of his earliest film credits was a role in David Gordon Green's George Washington. In 2003, he and his college friend, Bill English, starred in The Pavement Series for Showtime, in which they played sports inventors. In 2002, he had a role on Order. In 2002, Janowitz booked a recurring role on The Sopranos as Meadow Soprano's boyfriend Finn De Trolio, he would appear in one season of the show, portraying a novice's perspective of the organized crime ring. Janowitz's character notably disclosed the homosexuality of Vito Spatafore, one of Tony Soprano's best-earning captains. Janowitz appeared on Law & Order: Criminal Intent from 2004 to 2008.

He has appeared including Backseat and Bristol Boys. In 2005, he appeared in the cult video game Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories as the voice of Donald Love. Janowitz joined the ensemble cast of Ang Lee's Taking Woodstock in 2009 and wore a blonde wig and moustache to play Chip Monck, the festival's production designer; that same summer, he went to Marietta, Georgia, to play the role of Leo Frank in The People v. Leo Frank; the film explores the life and trial of Leo Frank an American born Jew, lynched in Marietta, Georgia, on August 17, 1915, after being wrongly accused of the murder of a 13-year-old girl who worked in his pencil factory. 1999 Terror Firmer as Partier Minor character Film 2000 George Washington as Railroad Worker Minor character Film 2002-2006 The Sopranos as Finn Detrolio / Finn DeTrollio Minor character 14 episodes TV Show 2002-2009 Law & Order as Cal / Bill Horton Minor character 2 episodes TV Show 2003 The Pavement as Various Movie 2004 Press Gang as Derrick Short film 2004-2008 Law and Order: Criminal Intent as Jacob Green / Rico Minor character 2 episodes TV Show 2005 Backseat as Frankie Titular Character Movie 2005 David and Layla as Woody Fine Main Character Movie 2005 Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories as Donald Love Primary Character Video Game 2006 Bristol Boys as Corey Movie 2007 Mattie Fresno and the Holoflux Universe as East European Lab Assistant Minor character Movie 2007 Bed Head as Will Short film 2007 Gnome as Gnome Short film 2007 Babylon Fields as Jimmy Viskupic Major Character TV Movie 2008 Grand Theft Auto: IV as The Crowd of Liberty City Minor character Video game 2008 Midnight Club: Los Angeles as Julian Minor character Video game 2009 The People v. Leo Frank as Leo Frank Movie 2009 Taking Woodstock as Chip Monck Minor character Movie 2009 Two Birds as The Other Man Short film 2010 John Scharnhorst as John Scharnhorst Short Film 2010 Odd Jobs as The Director TV Movie 2010 Mad Men as Comedian Minor character 1 episode TV Show 2010 Superego as Dr. Charlie Knight TV Movie 2011 Louie as Goblin Minor character TV Show 2012 Bottle Poppaz as Dj Lava Short film 2012 Exposed as Alexi Krustonovich Major Character Movie 2012 Ex-Girlfriends as Matt Major Character Movie 2012-2013 Boardwalk Empire as Hymie Weiss Minor Character 5 Episodes TV Series 2013 B-Side as Evan Major Character Movie 2013 Inside Amy Schumer as Sam Minor character 1 episode TV Show 2013 The Volunteer as Joe Intermediate Character Movie 2013 Law & Order: Special Victims Unit as Officer Scott Graver Minor character 1 episode TV Show 2013 Junkie Doctors as Andersen Stevenson Minor character 4 episodes TV Show 2014 Google Comes to Collect as Google Video Short film 2014 Broad City as Will Minor character 1 episode TV Show 2014 H. as Alex Movie 2014 The Heart She Holler as Joshia 1 episode Minor character TV Show 2015 Film-U as Sebastian TV Mini-Series Minor character 2015 Deadbeat as Chef Christopher 1 episode Minor character TV Series 2015 Lucky and The Walk Home as Turkey Major Character Short film 2016 Puppy Love as James Main character Short film 2016 American Experience as Charles Guiteau Minor character 1 episode TV Documentary Series 2016 The Characters as Jeremiah Minor character 1 episode TV Series 2016 Little Boxes as Steve Secondary Character Movie 2016 Youth in Oregon as Ralph Major Character Movie 2016 The Night Of as Dr. Ross 1 episode TV Miniseries Minor character 2016 The Daily Show as Doug Bailey 1 episode Minor character TV Series 2017 Lost and Found as Ian Main Character TV Series 2017 Bikini Moon as Trevor Movie 2017 Gotham as Wally Clarke Minor character 1 episode 2017 Troll as Noah Short film Will Janowitz on IMDb

Bed (album)

Bed is the third solo album by American singer-songwriter Juliana Hatfield, released in 1998 by Zoë Records. Bed was written in a few weeks, recorded and mixed from March 9 to March 15, 1998 at Sound Station Seven in Providence, Rhode Island. Hatfield chose to record the album with a stripped-down sound and did not favor any digital processing effects. According to her, "I had just been listening to things that were raw and dry, the kind of things where you can hear all the instruments close to your ear when you have headphones on. I guess I was feeling raw, I didn't want to pretty it up or put anything on top of it." Writing for CMJ New Music Monthly, reviewer Brett Milano praised the album, stating that its songs have more depth than Hatfield's earlier MTV hits. Although he admitted that some tracks sounded a bit rushed, he felt that the album has enough gems to keep it interesting. All tracks are written by Juliana Hatfield. MusiciansJuliana Hatfield – guitar, vocals Todd Philipspercussion, drums Mikey Welsh – bassTechnicalProducer: Juliana Hatfield Engineer: Jon Williams Package design: Tom Bonauro, Jim Goldberg Design assistant: Richard Turtletaub Photography: Jim Goldberg