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Most livable cities

The world's most livable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on an annual survey of living conditions. In addition to providing clean water, clean air, adequate food and shelter, a ‘livable’ city must generate a sense of community and offer hospitable settings for all young people, to develop social skills, a sense of autonomy and identity. Regions with cities ranked in the top 50 include Canada, Europe and New Zealand. Three examples of such surveys are Monocle's "Most Liveable Cities Index", the Economist Intelligence Unit's "Global Liveability Ranking", "Mercer Quality of Living Survey". Numbeo has survey data based on cities and countries. Deutsche Bank's Liveability Survey is another ranking of cities by quality of life. Livability rankings may be used by employers assigning hardship allowances as part of job relocation; the Economist Intelligence Unit's publishes an annual Global Liveability Ranking, which ranks 140 cities for their urban quality of life based on assessments of their stability, culture, environment and infrastructure.

Melbourne, had been ranked by the EIU as the world's most livable city for seven years in a row, from 2011 to 2017. Between 2004 and 2010, Canada, was ranked the EIU's most livable city, with Melbourne sharing first place in the inaugural 2002 report. Vancouver has ranked third since 2015, while Vienna, ranked second until 2018 when it climbed to the top spot; the Syrian capital, was ranked the least livable city of the 140 assessed in 2016. The EIU publishes a Worldwide Cost of Living Survey that compares the cost of living in a range of global cities. American global human resources and related financial services consulting firm Mercer annually releases its Mercer Quality of Living Survey, comparing 221 cities based on 39 criteria. New York City is given a baseline score of 100 and other cities are rated in comparison. Important criteria are safety, hygiene, health care, environment, political-economic stability, public transport and access to goods and services; the list is intended to help multinational companies decide where to open offices or plants, how much to pay employees.

For nine consecutive years, Mercer ranked Austria's capital Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey, a title the city still held in 2016. Since 2006, the lifestyle magazine Monocle has published an annual list of livable cities; the list in 2008 was named "The Most Liveable Cities Index" and presented 25 top locations for quality of life. Important criteria in this survey are safety/crime, international connectivity, climate/sunshine, quality of architecture, public transport, environmental issues and access to nature, urban design, business conditions, pro-active policy developments and medical care; the 2019 Monocle Survey determined the world's most livable city was Zurich, followed by Tokyo and Copenhagen. The 2019 survey showed the following cities to be highest in quality of life, for numerous reasons: 1. Zürich 2. Wellington 3. Copenhagen 4. Edinburgh 5. Vienna European Green Capital Award List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees List of metropolitan areas by population

Philip de Jersey

Philip de Jersey is a Guernsey archaeologist and numismatist. He is known as an expert on Celtic coins of the Iron Age. De Jersey was born in Guernsey, studied Geography at Hertford College, University of Oxford. After graduating he stayed on at Oxford University to study for a doctorate on the late Iron Age in north-west France. From 1992 to 2008 de Jersey was employed as keeper of the Oxford University Celtic Coin Index, was responsible for the computerisation of the index. During his time in charge of the Celtic Coin Index the number of coins included on the database increased from about 14,000 to about 40,000. De Jersey is an Honorary Research Fellow of the Heberden Coin Room at the Ashmolean Museum, in 1999 was awarded the Council Prize of the British Numismatic Society. 2014. Coin Hoards in Iron Age Britain. Spink for The British Numismatic Society. ISBN 9781907427381 2006. Celtic coinage: new discoveries, new discussion. BAR international series no.1532. Archaeopress. ISBN 9781841719672 1997.

With Barry Cunliffe. Armorica and Britain: Cross-Channel Relationships in the Late First Millennium BC. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology. ISBN 9780947816452 1996. Celtic Coinage in Britain. Shire Archaeology no.72. Shire Books. ISBN 9780747803256 1994. Coinage in Iron Age Armorica. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology. ISBN 9780947816391 1994. With Robert D. Van Arsdell; the Coinage of the Dobunni: Money Supply and Coin Circulation in Dobunnic Territory. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology. ISBN 9780947816384 1992. La Tene and Early Gallo-Roman North-west France. University of Oxford

James Havard

James Havard is an American painter and sculptor. He was a pioneer of abstract illusionism in the 1970s. In the 1980s he changed his style into a form of abstract expressionism influenced by Native American and tribal cultures as well as outsider art. Drawing inspiration from outsider and tribal art, Havard stands within a tradition that includes such notable artists as Paul Gauguin, Cy Twombly, Jean Dubuffet, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Joseph Beuys. James Pinkney Havard was born in Galveston, Texas, in 1937, he received a bachelor of science degree in art from Sam Houston State College in Huntsville, Texas, in 1959. From 1961 to 1965 he studied at Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Pennsylvania. There he was influenced by realist painters Ben Hobson Pittman, his career can be divided into three broad periods: realism, abstract illusionism, abstract expressionism with tribal and outsider influences. “His early work was... realistic and traditional, including landscapes and figuration much in the same styles as Camille Corot, Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas.”

Beginning in 1967, he broke away from realism and went through a period of experimentation with various abstract and contemporary styles. By the late 1970s Havard was considered one of the founders of abstract illusionism along with Al Held, Jack Lembeck, John Clem Clarke, George D. Green, Tony King, his work during this period is characterized by pastel colors, “optical illusions and combinations of gesso wipes, chalk scrawls, incised lines, squirts of paint directly from the tube.” In 1976, one art critic wrote of his paintings, "Though conveived to fool the eye, Havard's paintings are at once daring and subtle, complex in scheme and simplistic in symbolic reference." He moved to New York in 1977 and took frequent trips to Santa Fe, New Mexico, beginning in 1978. In New York, his color palette darkened and his works became richer in texture, he began including Native American images and Native American words inscribed in loose script as well as random numbers. During the 1980s Havard’s paintings began to include thicker layers of paint, more collage elements, fewer squiggles of paint and optical illusions.

He moved to Santa Fe in 1989 where he continued to develop his style freeing himself from all references to abstract illusionism. His paintings have fewer overt tribal references and are smaller in size than many of his earlier pieces. One critic accused Havard's paintings of "display the female body with what comes off as a misogynistic vigor." Havard began to use an encaustic medium that allowed him to incise the surface of the painting which gave them a carved, luminous appearance. His palette varies from dark and contrasting colors to bright blues and reds. Rich textures and visually arresting but crudely rendered figures define his work. Many of his paintings seem visually dense. One collector of Havard's paintings remembered his initial uniformed response to them: "What a mixed up mess these are." In 2006 Havard continues to paint. This well-trained artist who for many years was inspired by outsider art has become an outsider himself in the sense that he now paints with the constraints of a physical handicap.

Due to Havard's limited mobility, his most recent works are small in scale, but "are nonetheless powerful even more so because the reduced format concentrates them."Havard's work is in the permanent collection of many museums around the world, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Tucson Museum of Art, the Los Angeles County Museum. Havard has been married three times: Charlotte Lisle, Elizabeth Corson Beardsley, Catherine Bruni, he has two children, Inga Renee Havard and Houston James Havard, from his first and third marriages respectively. Sasse, Julie. James Havard. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 2006. McKanic, Arlene. “The Figure 2001,” Artnews, March 2002. Korotkin, Joyce. “James Havard,” The New York Art World, April 2001. Kolpas, Norman. "Expert Guidance," Southwest Art 29, no. 3: 74-78. Polsky, Richard. “Allan Stone Gallery,” Art Market Guide: Contemporary American Art, 1998, 174. Haggerty, Gerard. “James Havard,” Artnews: 128.

Cavanaugh, Tony. “James Havard's powerful paint personages have real presence,” Artspeak March 1997. Bell, J. Boyer. “Spring Group Exhibition,” Review Art, June 1996, 31. McCormack, Ed. “Four Diverse Talents and James Havard solo show at Allan Stone,” Artspeak, Spring 1996, 4. “James Havard,” Santa Fe Magazine, October 1991. Lipton, E. C. “Opposites in Art,” Artspeak, March 16, 1990. Ratcliff, Carter. “The Collectors: An American Palette,” Architectural Digest, May 1986, 205. Abstract Illusionism Bill Lowe Gallery Visual Art Source Windsor Betts Art Brokerage Zane Bennett Contemporary Art John Molloy Gallery Mill Contemporary

Antonio Salemme

Antonio Salemme, Italian-born American sculptor and painter, is best known for his sculpted portraits and classical nudes. After studying in Boston and Rome before World War I, serving in the Italian army during that conflict, Salemme settled in New York and became a prominent figure in the Greenwich Village cultural scene of the 1920s and 30s. Three of his sculpted portraits are in the collection of the National Portrait Gallery, his Kennedy portrait is at the John F. Kennedy Library. Salemme's life-size nude of Paul Robeson entitled "Negro Spiritual" was exhibited to acclaim in New York, San Francisco and Paris, became a cause celebré when it was banned from an exhibition in Philadelphia in 1930. Salemme was the recipient of two Guggenheim Fellowships. In the 1940s he became interested in painting, which he had studied as a teen-ager. Salemme's Annual summer visits to Rockport, resulted in numerous post-Impressionist-inspired sea- and landscapes. After a 43-year career in New York and his wife Martha moved to rural eastern Pennsylvania in 1962.

Working from memory and imagination, inspired by Hindu philosophy and his devoted practice of Zen Buddhist meditation, Salemme continued to evolve artistically over the next 30 years and sculpting prolifically until his death at age 102. In 2013 an Italian historical society published a selection of Salemme's letters and photographs from his military service in World War I; the artist's work was the subject of a retrospective exhibition at the Sigal Museum in Easton, Pennsylvania in 2014. Salemme was born on November 1892 in Gaeta, Italy. In 1904 following the death of his mother he emigrated to Boston with his father, he began to undertake the study of art at the age of 14 and a benefactor enabled him to study sculpture in Rome in 1912. He came back to the United States after the first world war and established a studio in the New York City borough of Manhattan's Greenwich Village. In 1924 he attended a performance of The Emperor Jones starring Paul Robeson and subsequently asked the actor to model for him.

The finished work, "Negro Spiritual" was displayed at the Brooklyn Museum as well as other fine art institutions. The sculpture voyaged to a foundry in France to be cast in bronze, but was lost during World War Two. In the nineteen thirties the artist worked as a director in the Works Progress Administration and throughout his career did many portrait commissions. In the 1980s he and his wife Martha set up the Antonio Salemme Foundation in Allentown, Pennsylvania as an initial step towards the founding of a museum to permanently house the artist's work. Salemme died on May 1995 in Williams Township, Northampton County, Pennsylvania. At the age of 102 Antonio Salemme Foundation -

William T. Owen

Lieutenant Colonel William Taylor Owen was an Australian Army officer who served during the Second World War. A survivor of the Battle of Rabaul, he was killed in action leading the 39th Battalion during the Kokoda Track campaign. Owen was born on 27 May 1905, in Victoria, he worked as a bank officer in civilian life and served as a militia officer in the years prior to the outbreak of the Second World War. Owen enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 8 July 1940, with the service number VX45223, he was posted with the rank of major, in command of ` A' Company. The 2/22nd Infantry Battalion was sent to the town of Rabaul, on the island of New Britain, in early 1941; this was the closest Australian base to the Japanese, considered unlikely to be defended. In late January 1942, the 1,400-strong Rabaul garrison was overwhelmed by the Japanese. Owen's'A' Company was positioned at Vulcan beach, bore the brunt of the main Japanese landing. After fighting for several hours, Owen ordered his men to break contact, as they would otherwise have been cut off.

With the remainder of the Australian garrison and his men escaped from Rabaul. They faced a harrowing battle for survival along the southern coast. More than 150 men were massacred after being taken prisoner around Tol and Waitavalo plantations, up to 100 others died of illnesses, about 800 surrendered and were taken back to Rabaul by the Japanese. Owen was one of only 400 to get off New Britain, he arrived in Port Moresby and after a period of recuperation in Australia was promoted to lieutenant colonel and assumed command of the 39th Battalion on 7 July 1942. The 39th Battalion was preparing for deployment to the mountain village of Kokoda, as the first step in an Allied plan to occupy the north coast of Papua; the first troops departed the day. After the Japanese landed on the north coast on 21 July, Owen was flown up to Kokoda, from where'B' Company was engaging the enemy. Facing overwhelming odds, the Australians were pushed back. Owen ordered the burning of the supply dump at a retreat to Deniki.

After realising the Japanese had not occupied Kokoda, he led his men back into the village in an attempt to reopen its airfield to receive reinforcements and supplies. The aircraft dispatched to Kokoda were not able to land; the Japanese started attacking in force on the evening of 28 July. Owen was mortally wounded at 0300 hrs on the morning of 29 July 1942, as the Japanese stepped up their attacks on the dug-in Australians, he was shot just above the right eye while in his forward weapon pit. Taken back to a hut, being used as an aid post, he was examined by the medical officer, Captain Geoffrey'Doc' Vernon, his situation was deemed hopeless and when the Australians were forced to withdraw from their location at 0430 hrs, Owen could not be moved. He was left as comfortable as possible. On 9 August, Owen's body was found and buried at Kokoda by members of'A' Company, 39th Battalion, when they retook Kokoda for a short period between 8 and 10 August 1942. In the war, the temporary Australian war graves at the various battle sites along the Kokoda Track were consolidated at Bomana, north-west of Port Moresby.

As a part of this, Owen's body was reburied. He posthumously received the United States Distinguished Service Cross and was Mentioned in Despatches. OWEN, Lieutenant Colonel, WILLIAM TAYLOR, VX45223. A. I. F. 39 Bn. Australian Infantry. 29 July 1942. Age 37. Son of William and Ida Owen. C6. E. 4. Citations BibliographyAnderson, Nicholas. To Kokoda. Australian Army Campaigns Series – 14. Sydney, New South Wales: Big Sky Publishing. ISBN 978-1-922132-95-6. Austin, Victor. To Kokoda And Beyond – The Story of the 39th Battalion 1941–1943. Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0-522-84374-3. Brune, Peter; those Ragged Bloody Heroes: From the Kokoda Trail to Gona Beach 1942. St Leonards, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1863732640. Brune, Peter. A Bastard of a Place: The Australians in Papua. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-74114-403-1. Downs, Ian; the New Guinea Volunteer Rifles NGVR 1939–1943: A History. Broadbeach Waters, Queensland: Pacific Press. ISBN 1-875150-03-X. James, Karl. ""The Track": A Historical Desktop Study of the Kokoda Track".

Commonwealth Department of the Environment. Retrieved 29 November 2014. Sinclair, James. To Find a Path: The Life and Times of the Royal Pacific Islands Regiment: Volume I – Yesterday's Heroes 1885–1950. Brisbane, Queensland: Boolarong Publications. ISBN 0-7316-9120-2. Wigmore, Lionel; the Japanese Thrust. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 1 – Army. Volume 4. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 3134219. Johnson, Carl. Little Hell: The Story of the 2/22nd Battalion and Lark Force. Blackburn, Victoria: History House. ISBN 9780958106016

Austin Corbin

Austin Corbin was a 19th-century American railroad entrepreneur. He consolidated the rail lines on Long Island bringing them under the profitable umbrella of the Long Island Rail Road, he was the owner of a resort in Brooklyn, New York City, from which he barred Jews. He was the owner of the Sunnyside Plantation in Chicot County, Arkansas from 1886 to his death in 1896, where he used convict laborers and brought Italian immigrants to work on the land. Austin Corbin was born on July 11, 1827. Corbin's most ambitious plan was the 20-mile extension of the rail line from Bridgehampton, New York to Montauk, New York where he planned to open a deep water port so that trans-Atlantic passengers could shave a day off their voyages by taking the "mile a minute" trains 100 miles to New York City. However, the plan never materialized as the planned port at Fort Pond Bay in Montauk could not be dredged to handle the seagoing vessels. Corbin improved the railroad's infrastructure which had fallen into disrepair after a period of cutthroat competition had thrown all the island's railroads into bankruptcy.

Corbin's tactic included the infamous strong-arming of the Montaukett tribe out of nearly 10,000 acres they owned around Montauk. The tribe is still seeking compensation for this tactic. Relics from the tribe are still visible at Camp Wikoff which the LIRR sold the government and where Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders were quarantined after returning from the Spanish–American War. Corbin acquired the Sunnyside Plantation in Chicot County, Arkansas from John C. Calhoun II, the grandson of John C. Calhoun and brother of Patrick Calhoun, in 1886. In 1894, he entered in an agreement with the state of Arkansas whereby he was given 250 convict laborers to pick cotton for him. Meanwhile, with the help of Emanuele Ruspoli, 1st Prince of Poggio Suasa, who served as the Mayor of Rome from 1892 to 1899, he brought Italian immigrants to work on the plantation. However, Corbin was accused of "peonage."Corbin was the owner of the resort of Manhattan Beach, Brooklyn. An antisemite, he banned Jews from patronizing the resort.

The 1888 Corbin Building in Manhattan was named for him. He resided in a mansion in New Hampshire, he owned a summer estate in North Babylon, New York along the shores of what is known today as Deer Lake in the Parkdale Estates neighborhood. His daughter married René C. Champollian, a French artist who committed suicide, he died in a carriage accident near his country home in New Hampshire in 1896 at age 68. He is buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx. List of railroad executives Newsday "Our History" Article on Corbin Coney Island and the Jews, a downloadable contemporary book dealing with Corbin's role in banning Jews from his resort info on Austin Corbin and Corbin Park in his native New Hampshire Austin Corbin at Find a Grave