Super Bowl Most Valuable Player Award
The Super Bowl Most Valuable Player Award, or Super Bowl MVP, is presented annually to the most valuable player of the Super Bowl, the National Football League's championship game. The winner is chosen by a panel of 16 football writers and broadcasters and, since Super Bowl XXXV in 2001, fans voting electronically; the media panel's ballots count for 80 percent of the vote tally, while the viewers' ballots make up the other 20 percent. The game's viewing audience can vote by using cellular phones, they can nominate one player from each team, with instructions to count their vote for the player on the winning team. Voters cannot select an entire unit; the Super Bowl MVP has been awarded annually since the game's inception in 1967. Through 1989, the award was presented by SPORT magazine. Bart Starr was the MVP of the first two Super Bowls. Since 1990, the award has been presented by the NFL. At Super Bowl XXV, the league first awarded the Pete Rozelle Trophy, named after former NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle, to the Super Bowl MVP.
Ottis Anderson was the first to win the trophy. The most recent Super Bowl MVP, from Super Bowl LIII held on February 3, 2019, is New England Patriots wide receiver Julian Edelman, who had 10 receptions for 141 yards. Tom Brady is the only player to have won four Super Bowl MVP awards. Starr and Bradshaw are the only ones to have won it in back-to-back years; the MVP has come from the winning team every year except 1971, when Dallas Cowboys linebacker Chuck Howley won the award despite the Cowboys' loss in Super Bowl V to the Baltimore Colts. Harvey Martin and Randy White were named co-MVPs of Super Bowl XII, the only time co-MVPs have been chosen. Including the Super Bowl XII co-MVPs, seven Cowboys players have won Super Bowl MVP awards, the most of any NFL team. Quarterbacks have earned the honor 29 times in 53 games. General"Super Bowl History". National Football League. Retrieved January 6, 2009. Specific
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players, its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; the opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may be awarded for penalties, field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, is a popular sport in Northern England, the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon.
The Super League and the National Rugby League are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European and Pacific Island countries, is governed by the Rugby League International Federation; the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954. Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908; the first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union. Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.
In 1922, the Northern Union changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football. In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union. Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams had more working class players who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In 1897, the line-out was in 1898 professionalism introduced. In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. Rugby league went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. In 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed; this was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967 saw. The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer; the media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed; the NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries and field goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declar
National Football League Most Valuable Player Award
The National Football League Most Valuable Player Award is an award given by various entities to the American football player, considered the most valuable in the National Football League during the regular season. Organizations which give an NFL MVP award or have in the past include the Associated Press, the Newspaper Enterprise Association, Pro Football Writers of America, United Press International; the first award described as a most valuable player award was the Joe F. Carr Trophy, awarded by the NFL from 1938 to 1946. Today, the AP award is considered the de facto official NFL MVP award. Since the 2011 season, the NFL has held the annual NFL Honors ceremony to recognize the winner of the Associated Press MVP award; the AP has presented an MVP award since 1957. The award is voted upon by a panel of 50 sportswriters at the end of the regular season, before the playoffs, though the results are not announced to the public until the day before the Super Bowl. Pro Football Writers of America began naming their most valuable player in 1975 and continue to do so as of the 2017 season.
Sporting News began awarding a National Football League player of the year award in 1954. From 1970 to 1979, Sporting News chose American Football Conference and National Football Conference players of the year, returned to a single winner in 1980. Beginning in 2012 Sporting News chose an offensive player of the year and a defensive player of the year; the Newspaper Enterprise Association presented its MVP award from 1955 to 2008. The winner was chosen by a poll of NFL players and received the Jim Thorpe Trophy, which by 1975 was described as "one of the pros' most coveted honors." Beginning in 1997, the trophy was presented by the Jim Thorpe Association, with the winner determined by a "vote of NFLPA representatives". The Joe F. Carr Trophy was the first award in the NFL to recognize a most valuable player, it was named in honor of NFL commissioner Joseph Carr and remains the only MVP award the NFL has sanctioned. United Press International gave an NFL MVP/player of the year award from 1948 through 1969, excepting 1949–50, 1952.
In 1970 UPI instituted separate awards for the NFC and AFC. In 1975 UPI added a Defensive Player of the Year Award for both the NFC and AFC. American Football League Most Valuable Player Award Bert Bell Award Football Digest § NFL Player of the Year Sporting News NFL Player of the Year Award UPI AFL-AFC Player of the Year UPI NFC Player of the Year Washington D. C. Touchdown Club § NFL Player of the Year awards General"Joe F. Carr Trophy Winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 15, 2016. "UPI NFL Most Valuable Player Winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2016. "Newspaper Ent. Assoc. NFL Most Valuable Player Winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2016. "AP NFL Most Valuable Player Winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2016. "PFWA NFL Most Valuable Player Winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2016. Footnotes -->|}
Award or decoration
An award is something given to a person, a group of people, like a sports team, or an organization in recognition of their excellence in a certain field. An award may be accompanied by trophy, certificate, commemorative plaque, badge, pin, or ribbon. An award may carry a monetary prize given to the recipient. For example: the Nobel Prize for contributions to society, or the Pulitzer prize for literary achievements. An award may simply be a public acknowledgment of excellence, without any tangible token or prize of excellence. A decoration is an object, such as a medal or an order's insignia, awarded to honor the recipient, it may be awarded by a sovereign state, a fount of honour or an organization, can include: An honorable mention is an award, prize or recognition given to something that does not make it to a higher standing but is worth mentioning in an honorable way. Decoration Order Prize List of awards List of science and technology awards Military awards and decorations List of military decorations Civil awards and decorationsTitle Order of precedence English, James F..
The Economy of Prestige: Prizes and the Circulation of Cultural Value. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674030435
In sports, a coach is a person involved in the direction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople. A coach may be a teacher; the original sense of the word coach is that of a horse-drawn carriage, deriving from the Hungarian city of Kocs where such vehicles were first made. Students at the University of Oxford in the early nineteenth century used the slang word to refer to a private tutor who would drive a less able student through his examinations just like horse driving. Britain took the lead in upgrading the status of sports in the 19th century. For sports to become professionalized, "coacher" had to become established, it professionalized in the Victorian era and the role was well established by 1914. In the First World War, military units sought out the coaches to supervise physical conditioning and develop morale-building teams. A coach in a professional league, is supported by one or more assistant coaches and specialist support staff; the staff may include coordinators and fitness specialists, trainers.
In elite sport, the role of nutritionists and physiotherapists will all become critical to the overall long-term success of a coach and athlete. They work on the over all responsibility of their athletes. In association football, the duties of a coach can vary depending on the level they are coaching at and the country they are coaching in, amongst others. In youth football, the primary objective of a coach is to aid players in the development of their technical skills, with emphasis on the enjoyment and fair play of the game rather than physical or tactical development. In recent decades, efforts have been made by governing bodies in various countries to overhaul their coaching structures at youth level with the aim of encouraging coaches to put player development and enjoyment ahead of winning matches. In professional football, the role of the coach or trainer is limited to the training and development of a club's "first team" in most countries; the coach is aided by a number of assistant coaches, one of which carries the responsibility for the training and preparation of the goalkeepers.
The coach is assisted by medical staff and athletic trainers. The medium to long term strategy of a football club, with regard to transfer policies, youth development and other sporting matters, is not the business of a coach in most football countries; the presence of a sporting director is designed to give the medium term development of a club the full attention of one professional, allowing the coach to focus on improving and producing performances from the players under their charge. The system provides a certain level of protection against overspending on players in search of instant success. In football, the director of a professional football team is more awarded the position of manager, a role that combines the duties of coach and sporting director; the responsibilities of a European football manager tend to be divided up in North American professional sports, where the teams have a separate general manager and head coach, although a person may fill both roles of general manager and head coach.
While the first team coach in football is an assistant to the manager who holds the real power, the American style general manager and head coach have distinct areas of responsibilities. For example, a typical European football manager would have the final say on player lineups and contract negotiations, while in American sports these duties would be handled separately by the head coach and general manager, respectively. In baseball, at least at the professional level in North America, the individual who heads the coaching staff does not use the title of "head coach", but is instead called the field manager. Baseball "coaches" at that level are members of the coaching staff under the overall supervision of the manager, with each coach having a specialized role; the baseball field manager is equivalent a head coach in other American professional sports leagues. The term manager used without qualification always refers to the field manager, while the general manager is called the GM. At amateur levels, the terminology is more similar to that of other sports.
The person known as the "manager" in professional leagues is called the "head coach" in amateur leagues. S. college baseball. In American football, like many other sports, there are assistant coaches. American football includes a head coach, an assistant head coach, an offensive coordinator, a defensive coordinator, a special teams coordinator and defensive line coaches, coaches for every position, a strength and conditioning coach, among other positions; the Guardian describes the social conservatism that has defined American football coaches for decades: Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the enemies of football were civil rights, the campus protest movement, anti-war activism, long hair, other offenses against grooming. In August 1969 Sports Illustrated devoted a cover story to the plight of “the desperate coach,” adrift in a world unmoored from its old verities and tasked with managing a generation of hirsute, anti-authoritarian “free thinkers”. There was, no struggle to get coaches to go on the record.
Dallas Cowboys coach Tom Landry lamented in the late 1960s that without football, “society would lose on the great strongholds – paying the price. There’s not much discipline left in this country.” Around the same time University of Southern California assistant coach Marv Goux, surveying the alarming growth of his charges’ hair, groused: “The bums eat the
The Charles Brownlow Trophy, better known as the Brownlow Medal, is awarded to the "best and fairest" player in the Australian Football League during the home-and-away season, as determined by votes cast by the officiating field umpires after each game. It is the most prestigious award for individual players in the AFL, it is widely acknowledged as the highest individual honour in the sport of Australian rules football. The medal was first awarded by the Victorian Football League, it was created and named in honour of Charles Brownlow, a former Geelong Football Club footballer and club secretary, VFL president, who had died in January 1924 after an extended illness. Although the award is spoken of the "best and fairest", the award's specific criterion is "fairest and best", reflecting an emphasis on sportsmanship and fair play, as the 1924 somewhat illuminated citation expressly states: Mr. Edward Greeves Geelong Football ClubTHE CHARLES BROWNLOW TROPHYDear Sir, On behalf of the Victorian Football League, we desire to place on permanent record the appreciation of your excellent play during the Season 1924.
You were selected as the fairest and best player and we have pleasure in presenting the accompanying Gold Medal in recognition of those sterling qualities. Trusting that you will be long spared to interest yourself in the adancement of the Game. We are, yours sincerelyW. Baldwin Spencer, M. E. Green, E. L. Wilson The VFL was the last of the four major mainland leagues to strike an award for league best and fairest: the SANFL's Magarey Medal had been awarded since 1898, while the WAFL's Sandover Medal and the VFA's Woodham Cup had been struck more recently. Over time, all of these awards have migrated towards similar rules regarding eligibility, but for the change of the monogram from VFL to AFL in 1990, the design and size of the medallion itself has remained unchanged from that of 1924. To determine the best player, the three field umpires confer after each home-and-away match and award 3 votes, 2 votes and 1 vote to the players they regard as the best, second best and third best in the match respectively.
On the awards night, the votes from each match are tallied, the player or players with the highest number of votes is awarded the medal. The current voting system has been used for the vast majority of Brownlow Medal counts. There have been different voting systems for short periods in the past: until 1930, only one vote was cast in each game; this was changed to the current 3–2–1 system after the 1930 season saw three players tied on four votes apiece. Since the rules were changed in 1980, if two or more eligible players score the equal highest number of votes, each wins a Brownlow medal. Prior to 1980, if two or more players were tied, a single winner was chosen on a countback: up to 1930, the winner was the player who had played the fewest games. With these considerations, these countbacks failed to separate Des Fothergill and Herbie Matthews, who tied for the medal in 1940; the league decided to keep the original award replica medals to the two winners. In 1989, the eight players who since the inception of the award had tied on votes but lost on a countback were awarded retrospective medals.
The fairest component of the medal is achieved by making ineligible any player, suspended by the AFL Tribunal during the home-and-away season. An ineligible player cannot win the Brownlow Medal, regardless of the number of votes he has received. A player remains eligible for the Brownlow Medal under the following circumstances: if he is suspended during the finals or pre-season; the application of the ineligibility criteria has remained consistent throughout the history of the award, with some subtle changes. For example, from 2005 until 2014, whether or not a player was ineligible was based on the penalty determined by the Tribunal's Match Review Panel before applying adjustments based on a player's good or bad record, or for accepting an early guilty plea or a player's existing good record – meaning that a player could be ineligible based on an infringement, worthy of a one-game suspension, but still avoid suspension by taking an early guilty plea on the charge. Since 2015, the criteria has been based upon whether or not the player is suspended during the season.
Umpires cast their votes for each game independent of eligibility criteria of the players. Prior to 1991, votes could not be awarded to a player in a match in which he was reported, but this rule was eliminated in 1991 so that a player would not be disadvantaged if he would have gained votes in a match in which he was reported but cleared by the tribunal. On three occasions, an ineligible player has tallied the highest number of Brownlow votes: In 1996, Core
NBA All-Star Game Most Valuable Player Award
The National Basketball Association All-Star Game Most Valuable Player is an annual National Basketball Association award given to the player voted best of the annual All-Star Game. The award was established in 1953 when NBA officials decided to designate an MVP for each year's game; the league re-honored players from the previous two All-Star Games. Ed Macauley and Paul Arizin were selected as the 1952 MVP winners respectively; the voting is conducted by a panel of media members, who cast their vote after the conclusion of the game. The player with the most votes or ties for the most votes wins the award. No All-Star Game MVP was named in 1999; as of 2019, the most recent recipient is Golden State Warrior forward Kevin Durant. Bob Pettit and Kobe Bryant are the only two players. Oscar Robertson, Michael Jordan, Shaquille O'Neal, LeBron James have each won the award three times, while Bob Cousy, Julius Erving, Isiah Thomas, Magic Johnson, Karl Malone, Allen Iverson, Russell Westbrook, Kevin Durant have all won the award twice.
James' first All-Star MVP in 2006 made him the youngest to have won the award at the age of 21 years, 1 month. Kyrie Irving, winner of the 2014 All-Star Game MVP, is the second-youngest at 10 months, they are notable as being the two youngest. Four of the games had joint winners—Elgin Baylor and Pettit in 1959, John Stockton and Malone in 1993, O'Neal and Tim Duncan in 2000, O'Neal and Bryant in 2009. O'Neal became the first player in All-Star history to share two MVP awards as well as the first player to win the award with multiple teams; the Los Angeles Lakers have had eleven winners. Duncan of the U. S. Virgin Islands and Irving of Australia are the only winners not born in the United States. Both Duncan and Irving are American citizens, but are considered "international" players by the NBA because they were not born in one of the fifty states or Washington, D. C. No player trained outside the U. S. has won the award. S. since age two, Duncan played U. S. college basketball at Wake Forest. Bob Pettit and Russell Westbrook are the only players to win consecutive awards.
Pettit, Bob Cousy, Wilt Chamberlain, Bill Russell, Oscar Robertson, Willis Reed, Dave Cowens, Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Shaquille O'Neal, Allen Iverson all won the All-Star Game MVP and the NBA Most Valuable Player Award in the same season. 14 players have won the award playing for the team that hosted the All-Star Game: Macauley, Pettit, Adrian Smith, Rick Barry, Jerry West, Tom Chambers, Michael Jordan, Karl Malone, John Stockton, O'Neal and Davis. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar has the distinction of playing in the most All-Star Games without winning the All-Star Game MVP, while Adrian Smith won the MVP in his only All-Star Game. NBA Most Valuable Player Award Bill Russell NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award List of NBA All-Stars List of NBA All-Star vote leaders General Specific