Messe de Nostre Dame
Messe de Nostre Dame is a polyphonic mass composed before 1365 by French poet and composer Guillaume de Machaut. Regarded as one of the masterpieces of medieval music and of all religious music, it is notable as the earliest complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass attributable to a single composer; the Messe de Nostre Dame consists of 5 movements, the Kyrie, Credo and Agnus Dei, followed by the dismissal Ite, missa est. The tenor of the Kyrie is based on Vatican Kyrie IV, the Sanctus and Agnus correspond to Vatican Mass XVII and the Ite is on Sanctus VIII; the Gloria and Credo have no apparent chant basis, although they are stylistically related to one another. Machaut's Messe de Nostre Dame is for four voices rather than the more common three. Machaut added a contratenor voice that moved in the same low range as the tenor, sometimes replacing it as the lowest voice. In the liturgy of the Mass, the items of the Ordinary are not performed consecutively, but are separated from one another by prayers and chants.
Machaut's unification of these items into an artistic whole is the earliest instance of an Ordinary of the Mass setting, stylistically coherent and was conceived as a unit. This gesture imposed on the Ordinary a unconsidered abstract artistic idea, influenced composers throughout the ages to continue setting the Ordinary to stylistically coherent music. Machaut composed his Messe de Nostre Dame for the Cathedral at Reims where he served as a canon, a permanent member of the clergy. According to a rubric found at the Cathedral, it would have been performed for the Saturday Lady Mass; some scholars hypothesize that, contrary to popular belief, Machaut did not come to work for the Reims Cathedral until the end of the 1350s, composing the mass as an act of devotion and dedication marking his arrival in the precinct. In conformity with the wills of Guillaume and his brother Jean a canon at the Cathedral, the mass was believed to have been transformed into a memorial service for them following their deaths.
However, neither the specific nature of its performance nor the service the Mass was prepared for has been conclusively ascertained. It is possible that Machaut was familiar with the Tournai Mass, an earlier polyphonic 14th-century mass setting in which each movement is believed to have been written independently by different composers; the Gloria and Credo of the Messe de Nostre Dame exhibit some similarities to the Tournai mass, such as textless musical interludes, simultaneous style, long melismatic Amens. The other four movements of Machaut's mass are composed in motet style with mass text, it is stated that the Messe de Nostre Dame was first recorded by Safford Cape in 1956 for the Deutsche Grammophon Archiv Produktion Series. However, earlier recordings were made by the Dessoff Choirs under Paul Boepple, in 1951. More recent recordings include the following: Guillaume de Machaut: Messe de Nostre Dame. Taverner Consort and Taverner Choir directed by Andrew Parrott Guillaume de Machaut: Messe de Nostre Dame.
Hilliard Ensemble directed by Paul Hillier Early Music – Machaut: La Messe De Nostre Dame, Le Voir Dit, Oxford Camerata directed by Jeremy Summerly Guillaume de Machaut – Messe de Notre Dame. Ensemble Organum directed by Marcel Peres Guillaume de Machaut: Messe de Nostre Dame. Ensemble Gilles Binchois directed by Dominique Vellard Guillaume de Machaut: Messe de Nostre Dame. Diabolus in Musica directed by Antoine Guerber Guillaume De Machaut's Messe De Nostre Dame Gilbert Reaney, Machaut. Daniel Leech-Wilkinson, Machaut's Mass: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. Anne Walters Robertson. Guillaume de Machaut at Reims: Context and Meaning in his Musical Works. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Free scores of the Messe de Nostre Dame in the Choral Public Domain Library Complete discography
Joseph Maurice Ravel was a French composer and conductor. He is associated with impressionism along with his elder contemporary Claude Debussy, although both composers rejected the term. In the 1920s and 1930s Ravel was internationally regarded as France's greatest living composer. Born to a music-loving family, Ravel attended France's premier music college, the Paris Conservatoire. After leaving the conservatoire, Ravel found his own way as a composer, developing a style of great clarity, incorporating elements of baroque, neoclassicism and, in his works, jazz, he liked to experiment with musical form, as in his best-known work, Boléro, in which repetition takes the place of development. He made some orchestral arrangements of other composers' music, of which his 1922 version of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition is the best known; as a slow and painstaking worker, Ravel composed fewer pieces than many of his contemporaries. Among his works to enter the repertoire are pieces for piano, chamber music, two piano concertos, ballet music, two operas and eight song cycles.
Many of his works exist in two versions: first, a piano score and an orchestration. Some of his piano music, such as Gaspard de la nuit, is exceptionally difficult to play, his complex orchestral works such as Daphnis et Chloé require skilful balance in performance. Ravel was among the first composers to recognise the potential of recording to bring their music to a wider public. From the 1920s, despite limited technique as a pianist or conductor, he took part in recordings of several of his works. Ravel was born in the Basque town of Ciboure, near Biarritz, 18 kilometres from the Spanish border, his father, Pierre-Joseph Ravel, was an educated and successful engineer and manufacturer, born in Versoix near the Franco-Swiss border. His mother, Marie, née Delouart, had grown up in Madrid. In 19th-century terms, Joseph had married beneath his status – Marie was illegitimate and literate – but the marriage was a happy one; some of Joseph's inventions were successful, including an early internal combustion engine and a notorious circus machine, the "Whirlwind of Death", an automotive loop-the-loop, a major attraction until a fatal accident at Barnum and Bailey's Circus in 1903.
Both Ravel's parents were Roman Catholics. He was baptised in the Ciboure parish church six days; the family moved to Paris three months and there a younger son, Édouard, was born. Maurice was devoted to their mother. Among his earliest memories were folk songs; the household was not rich, but the family was comfortable, the two boys had happy childhoods. Ravel senior delighted in taking his sons to factories to see the latest mechanical devices, but he had a keen interest in music and culture in general. In life, Ravel recalled, "Throughout my childhood I was sensitive to music. My father, much better educated in this art than most amateurs are, knew how to develop my taste and to stimulate my enthusiasm at an early age." There is no record. When he was seven, Ravel started piano lessons with a friend of Emmanuel Chabrier. Without being anything of a child prodigy, he was a musical boy. Charles-René found that Ravel's conception of music was natural to him "and not, as in the case of so many others, the result of effort".
Ravel's earliest known compositions date from this period: variations on a chorale by Schumann, variations on a theme by Grieg and a single movement of a piano sonata. They survive only in fragmentary form. In 1888 Ravel met the young pianist Ricardo Viñes, who became not only a lifelong friend, but one of the foremost interpreters of his works, an important link between Ravel and Spanish music; the two shared an appreciation of Wagner, Russian music, the writings of Poe and Mallarmé. At the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889, Ravel was much struck by the new Russian works conducted by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov; this music had a lasting effect on both Ravel and his older contemporary Claude Debussy, as did the exotic sound of the Javanese gamelan heard during the Exposition.Émile Decombes took over as Ravel's piano teacher in 1889. Aged fourteen, he took part in a concert at the Salle Érard along with other pupils of Decombes, including Reynaldo Hahn and Alfred Cortot. With the encouragement of his parents, Ravel applied for entry to France's most important musical college, the Conservatoire de Paris.
In November 1889, playing music by Chopin, he passed the examination for admission to the preparatory piano class run by Eugène Anthiome. Ravel won the first prize in the Conservatoire's piano competition in 1891, but otherwise he did not stand out as a student; these years were a time of considerable advance in his development as a composer. The musicologist Arbie Orenstein writes tha
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. General definitions of music include common elements such as pitch, rhythm and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Different styles or types of music may de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; the word derives from Greek μουσική. See glossary of musical terminology. In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music, the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."The creation, performance and the definition of music vary according to culture and social context.
Indeed, throughout history, some new forms or styles of music have been criticized as "not being music", including Beethoven's Grosse Fuge string quartet in 1825, early jazz in the beginning of the 1900s and hardcore punk in the 1980s. There are many types of music, including popular music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies and work songs such as chanteys. Music ranges from organized compositions–such as Classical music symphonies from the 1700s and 1800s, through to spontaneously played improvisational music such as jazz, avant-garde styles of chance-based contemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries. Music can be divided into genres and genres can be further divided into subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are subtle, sometimes open to personal interpretation, controversial. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between heavy metal. Within the arts, music may be classified as a fine art or as an auditory art.
Music may be played or sung and heard live at a rock concert or orchestra performance, heard live as part of a dramatic work, or it may be recorded and listened to on a radio, MP3 player, CD player, smartphone or as film score or TV show. In many cultures, music is an important part of people's way of life, as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of passage ceremonies, social activities and cultural activities ranging from amateur karaoke singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir. People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, or work as a professional musician or singer; the music industry includes the individuals who create new songs and musical pieces, individuals who perform music, individuals who record music, individuals who organize concert tours, individuals who sell recordings, sheet music, scores to customers. The word derives from Greek μουσική. In Greek mythology, the nine Muses were the goddesses who inspired literature and the arts and who were the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, song-lyrics, myths in the Greek culture.
According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the term "music" is derived from "mid-13c. Musike, from Old French musique and directly from Latin musica "the art of music," including poetry." This is derived from the "... Greek mousike " of the Muses," from fem. of mousikos "pertaining to the Muses," from Mousa "Muse". Modern spelling from 1630s. In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, but music and lyric poetry." Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. When music was only available through sheet music scores, such as during the Classical and Romantic eras, music lovers would buy the sheet music of their favourite pieces and songs so that they could perform them at home on the piano. With the advent of sound recording, records of popular songs, rather than sheet music became the dominant way that music lovers would enjoy their favourite songs. With the advent of home tape recorders in the 1980s and digital music in the 1990s, music lovers could make tapes or playlists of their favourite songs and take them with them on a portable cassette player or MP3 player.
Some music lovers create mix tapes of their favorite songs, which serve as a "self-portrait, a gesture of friendship, prescription for an ideal party... an environment consisting of what is most ardently loved."Amateur musicians can compose or perf
Bibliothèque de la Pléiade
The Bibliothèque de la Pléiade is a French editorial collection, created in 1931 by Jacques Schiffrin, an independent young editor. Schiffrin wanted to provide the public with reference editions of the complete works of classic authors in a pocket format. André Gide took an interest in Schiffrin's project and brought it into Gallimard, under which it is still published; the Pléiade has a strong emphasis on works that were written in French, though the collection includes classics of world literature, such as bilingual editions of the works of William Shakespeare, or French editions of Jane Austen's work. To date, more than eight hundred books have been published in the series, with eleven books published every year; the "entry into the Pléiade" is considered a major sign of recognition for an author in France, it is rare that a living author is published in the Pléiade. In 1992, Gallimard and Einaudi began a similar series of literature in Italian, the Biblioteca della Pléiade; the Library of America series, launched in 1979, is a similar project in the United States inspired by the Bibliothèque de la Pléiade.
The Bibliothèque de la Pléiade was founded by Jacques Schiffrin in 1931. The first volume published was the first tome of the complete works of Charles Baudelaire, on 10 September 1931. André Gide and Jean Schlumberger, creators of the Nouvelle Revue française, took interest in this, integrated the collection into Gallimard on 31 July 1936. In 1939, André Gide became the first author to be published while still living, with the partial publication of his diary. In 1940, Jacques Schiffrin was fired by Gaston Gallimard because of the anti-Jewish laws. Jean Paulhan took the direction of the collection. After moving to New York to escape Nazism, Schiffrin became a founder of Pantheon Books. Directors of the collection: 1931–1940: Jacques Schiffrin 1960–1966: Jean Ducourneau 1966–1987: Pierre Buge 1988–1996: Jacques Cotin After 1997: Hugues Pradier All the books offer a similar high quality appearance—leather bound, with gold lettering on the spine and bible paper, they have a practical small format which makes them look like small Bibles.
The use of bible paper allows the books to contain a high number of pages. The longest volume in the Pléiade is une nuits I, II et III, at 3504 pages; the leather covers of the books are colour-coded according to period: 20th century literature comes in tobacco leather, 19th century in emerald green, 18th century in blue, 17th century in Venetian red, 16th in Corinthian brown, the Middle Ages purple, Antiquity green, spiritual texts grey, anthologies red. The books are sold in a transparent rhodoïd dust jacket, inserted in a white printed cardboard slipcase, although multiple volumes are sold in a single slipcase; the books are critical editions, with annotations, comments and editorial variants and accompanying documents. The preparation of these critical editions can take many years for a team of specialists, which accounts for the books' steep cost. For works written in languages other than French, new French translations are created. In the 1960s and 1970s, an Encyclopédie de la Pléiade in the same format was created, under the direction of Raymond Queneau.
At the beginning of 2017, the collection includes nearly 800 books and more than 250 authors: Bibliothèque de la Pléiade: 787 volumes. The Albums are offered for free with the purchase of three books in the series, they are collected. Library of America Official website Éditions Gallimard
Jean Sibelius, born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius, was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods. He is recognized as his country's greatest composer and, through his music, is credited with having helped Finland to develop a national identity during its struggle for independence from Russia; the core of his oeuvre is his set of seven symphonies, like his other major works, are performed and recorded in his home country and internationally. His other best-known compositions are Finlandia, the Karelia Suite, Valse triste, the Violin Concerto, the choral symphony Kullervo, The Swan of Tuonela. Other works include pieces inspired by nature, Nordic mythology, the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala, over a hundred songs for voice and piano, incidental music for numerous plays, the opera Jungfrun i tornet, chamber music, piano music, Masonic ritual music, 21 publications of choral music. Sibelius composed prolifically until the mid-1920s, but after completing his Seventh Symphony, the incidental music for The Tempest and the tone poem Tapiola, he stopped producing major works in his last thirty years, a stunning and perplexing decline referred to as "The Silence of Järvenpää", the location of his home.
Although he is reputed to have stopped composing, he attempted to continue writing, including abortive efforts on an eighth symphony. In life, he wrote Masonic music and re-edited some earlier works while retaining an active but not always favourable interest in new developments in music; the Finnish 100 mark note featured his image until 2002. Since 2011, Finland has celebrated a Flag Day on 8 December, the composer's birthday known as the "Day of Finnish Music". In 2015, the 150th anniversary of the composer's birth, a number of special concerts and events were held in the city of Helsinki. Sibelius was born on 8 December 1865 in Hämeenlinna in the Grand Duchy of Finland, an autonomous part of the Russian Empire, he was the son of the Swedish-speaking medical doctor Christian Gustaf Sibelius and Maria Charlotta Sibelius née Borg. The family name stems from the Sibbe estate in Eastern Uusimaa, which his paternal great-grandfather owned. Sibelius's father died of typhoid in July 1868; as a result, his mother—who was again pregnant—had to sell their property and move the family into the home of Katarina Borg, her widowed mother, who lived in Hämeenlinna.
Sibelius was therefore brought up in a decidedly female environment, the only male influence coming from his uncle, Pehr Ferdinand Sibelius, interested in music the violin. It was he who gave the boy a violin when he was ten years old and encouraged him to maintain his interest in composition. For Sibelius, Uncle Pehr not only acted as a musical adviser. From an early age, Sibelius showed a strong interest in nature walking around the countryside when the family moved to Loviisa on the coast for the summer months. In his own words: "For me, Loviisa represented sun and happiness. Hämeenlinna was, it was in Hämeenlinna, when he was seven, that his aunt Julia was brought in to give him piano lessons on the family's upright instrument, rapping him on the knuckles whenever he played a wrong note. He still learned to read music, he turned to the violin, which he preferred. He participated in trios with his elder sister Linda on piano, his younger brother Christian on the cello. Furthermore, Sibelius played in quartets with neighboring families, adding to his experience in chamber music.
Fragments survive of his early compositions of the period, a trio, a piano quartet and a Suite in D Minor for violin and piano. Around 1881, he recorded on paper his short pizzicato piece Vattendroppar for violin and cello, although it might just have been a musical exercise; the first reference he to himself composing is in a letter from August 1883 in which he writes that he composed a trio and was working on another: "They are rather poor, but it is nice to have something to do on rainy days." In 1881, he started to take violin lessons from the local bandmaster, Gustaf Levander developing a strong interest in the instrument. Setting his heart on a career as a great violin virtuoso, he soon succeeded in becoming quite an accomplished player, performing David's Concerto in E minor in 1886 and, the following year, the last two movements of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in Helsinki. Despite such success as an instrumentalist, he chose to become a composer. Although his mother tongue was Swedish, in 1874 Sibelius attended Lucina Hagman's Finnish-speaking preparatory school.
In 1876, he was able to continue his education at the Finnish-language Hämeenlinna Normal Lyceum where he was a rather absent-minded pupil, although he did quite well in mathematics and botany. Despite having to repeat a year, he passed the school's final examination in 1885, which allowed him to enter a university; as a boy he was known as a colloquial form of Johan. However, during his student years, he adopted the French form Jean, inspired by the business card of his deceased seafaring uncle. Thereafter he became known as Jean Sibelius. After graduating from high school in 1885, Sibelius began to study law at the Imperial Alexander University in Finland but, showing far more interest in music, soon moved to the Helsinki Music Inst
String Quartet (Debussy)
Claude Debussy wrote his String Quartet in G minor, L 85, Op. 10 in 1893 when he was 31 years old. It is Debussy's only string quartet; the previous year Debussy had abandoned the opera Chimène. He planned to write two string quartets; the string quartet was to be dedicated to composer Ernest Chausson, whose personal reservations diverted the composer's original intentions. The quartet received its premiere on December 29, 1893 by the Ysaÿe Quartet at the Société Nationale in Paris to mixed reactions; the work is in four movements: Its sensuality and impressionistic tonal shifts are emblematic of its time and place while, with its cyclic structure, it constitutes a final divorce from the rules of classical harmony and points the way ahead. After its premiere, composer Guy Ropartz described the quartet as "dominated by the influence of young Russia. Pierre Boulez said that Debussy freed chamber music from "rigid structure, frozen rhetoric and rigid aesthetics."Maurice Ravel, an Impressionist composer associated with Debussy wrote a single string quartet, a piece, modeled on Debussy's.
Citations Bibliography Liner notes by Robert Orledge to Recording of the Quartet by Belcea Quartet String Quartet in G Minor: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Performance of String Quartet by the Borromeo String Quartet from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in MP3 format'Debussy Quartet in G minor, Op. 10', lecture by Professor Roger Parker followed by a performance by the Badke Quartet, at Gresham College, 29 January 2008. Notes by Ong Yong Hui Notes by Keith Anderson