Motion sickness occurs due to a difference between actual and expected motion. Symptoms include nausea, cold sweat, sleepiness, loss of appetite, increased salivation. Complications may include dehydration, electrolyte problems, or a lower esophageal tear; the cause of motion sickness is perceived motion. This may include from air travel, sea travel, space travel, or reality simulation. Risk factors include pregnancy and Meniere’s disease; the diagnosis is based on symptoms. Treatment may include behavioral medications. Behavioral measures include focusing on the horizon. Three type of medications are useful: antimuscarinics such as scopolamine, H1 antihistamines such as dimenhydrinate, amphetamines such as dexamphetamine. Side effects, may limit the use of medications. A number of medications used for nausea such as ondansetron are not effective for motion sickness. Nearly all people are affected with sufficient motion. Susceptibility, however, is variable. Women are more affected than men. Motion sickness has been described since at least the time of Hippocrates.
"Nausea" is from the Greek naus meaning ship. Symptoms include nausea, cold sweat, sleepiness, loss of appetite, increased salivation. Tiredness can last for hours to days an episode of motion sickness, known as "sopite syndrome". Severe symptoms such as the inability to walk, ongoing vomiting, or social isolation may occur. Motion sickness can be divided into three categories: Motion sickness caused by motion, felt but not seen, as in terrestrial motion sickness. In these cases, motion is sensed by the vestibular system and hence the motion is felt, but no motion or little motion is detected by the visual system, as in terrestrial motion sickness. A specific form of terrestrial motion sickness, being carsick is quite common and evidenced by disorientation while reading a map, a book, or a small screen during travel. Carsickness results from the sensory conflict arising in the brain from differing sensory inputs. Motion sickness is caused by a conflict between signals arriving in the brain from the inner ear, which forms the base of the vestibular system, the sensory apparatus that deals with movement and balance, which detects motion mechanically.
If someone is looking at a stationary object within a vehicle, such as a magazine, their eyes will inform their brain that what they are viewing is not moving. Their inner ears, will contradict this by sensing the motion of the vehicle. Varying theories exist; the sensory conflict theory notes that the eyes view motion while riding in the moving vehicle while other body sensors sense stillness, creating conflict between the eyes and inner ear. Another suggests the eyes see the interior of the car, motionless while the vestibular system of the inner ear senses motion as the vehicle goes around corners or over hills and small bumps. Therefore, the effect is worse when looking down but may be lessened by looking outside of the vehicle. In the early 20th century, Austro-Hungarian scientist Robert Barany observed the back and forth movement of the eyes of railroad passengers as they looked out the side windows at the scenery whipping by, he called it "railway nystagmus". Called "optokinetic nystagmus".
It causes vomiting. His findings were published in the journal Laeger, 83:1516, Nov.17, 1921. Air sickness is a kind of terrestrial motion sickness induced by certain sensations of air travel, it is considered a normal response in healthy individuals. It is the same as carsickness but occurs in an airplane. An airplane may bank and tilt and unless passengers are sitting by a window, they are to see only the stationary interior of the plane due to the small window sizes and during flights at night. Another factor is that while in flight, the view out of windows may be blocked by clouds, preventing passengers from seeing the moving ground or passing clouds. Seasickness is a form of terrestrial motion sickness characterized by a feeling of nausea and, in extreme cases, vertigo experienced after spending time on a boat, it is the same as carsickness, though the motion of a watercraft tends to be more regular. It is brought on by the rocking motion of the craft or movement while the craft is immersed in water.
As with airsickness, it can be difficult to visually detect motion if one looks outside the boat since water does not offer fixed points with which to visually judge motion. Poor visibility conditions, such as fog, may worsen seasickness; the greatest contributor to seasickness is the tendency for people being affected by the rolling or surging motions of the craft to seek refuge below decks, where they are unable to relate themselves to the boat's surroundings and consequent motion. Some sufferers of carsickness are resistant to seasickness and vice versa. Adjusting to the craft's motion at sea is called "gaining one's sea legs". Rotating devices such as centrifuges used in astronaut training and amusement park rides such as the Rotor, Mission: Space and the Gravitron can cause motion sickness in many people. While the interior of the centrifuge does not appear to move, one will experience a sense of motion. In addition, centrifugal force can cause the vestibular system to give
Tetsuo Sakurai is a Japanese bassist. To date, he has released a total of 37 albums as a member of Casiopea and Jimsaku and solo artist, has made 3 bass instructional videos. Tetsuo Sakurai started playing bass. In 1976, with Issei Noro, founded jazz fusion band Casiopea, he released 19 albums while in Casiopea but left the band with Akira Jimbo in 1989 over musical differences. Both of them went on to form a new jazz fusion supergroup, Jimsaku. Jimsaku was active for nine years, until 1998, when it was disbanded and both Sakurai and Jimbo went on to pursue individual solo careers. Sakurai's third solo album TLM20, released in 2000, was recorded live in a concert with Casiopea members Issei Noro and Minoru Mukaiya, Akira Jimbo, Kazuki Katsuta of Dimension; the fourth solo album Gentle Hearts, released in 2001, was recorded with Greg Howe & Dennis Chambers. The fifth solo album Cartas do Brasil was released in 2003 and was a vocal ballad cover album recorded in Rio de Janeiro with Djavan, Ivan Lins, Rosa Passos.
In 2004, Tetsuo toured with Dennis. The following year, the tour live performances was released on DVD titled Gentle Hearts Tour 2004. Sakurai is composing and playing his own music as a solo artist with domestic and foreign musicians. Casiopea Super Flight Thunder Live Make Up City Eyes of the Mind Cross Point Mint Jams 4x4 Photographs Jive Jive The Soundgraphy Down Upbeat Halle Casiopea Live Sun Sun Casiopea Perfect Live II Platinum Euphony Casiopea World Live'88 Shambara Jimsaku 45°C Jade Viva! 100% Wind Loves Us Navel Blaze of Passion Best Selection Dispensation MEGA db Dewdrops A Gate of the 21st Century TLM 20 ~ Live Memories of 20 years ~ Gentle Hearts Cartas do Brasil ~ブラジルからの手紙~ Gentle Hearts Tour 2004 My Dear Music Life Vital World Tetsuo Sakurai official site Tetsuo Sakurai official MySpace
Pavlo Anatoliyovych Klimkin is a Ukrainian diplomat who from 19 June 2014 until 29 August 2019 served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. A Moscow-educated physicist, he has worked in the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry since 1993, with positions including director of the department for the European Union, as well as deputy foreign minister in the First Azarov Government, where he played a central role in negotiating the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement. Klimkin is a former Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Ukraine to Germany. Pavlo Klimkin was born on 25 December 1967 in the city of Kursk in Russia. Beyond Russian and Ukrainian, Klimkin is fluent in English and German and has a basic knowledge of French and Spanish. In 1991 Klimkin graduated from the department of aerophysics and space research at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, with a specialist degree in physics and mathematics. Klimkin moved to Ukraine at the age of 24, he was a research officer from 1991 to 1993 at the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
In 1993 Klimkin started his career at the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry, where he would hold a variety of positions. Early on he served as an attaché and second secretary in the department of military control and disarmament working in the departments involved with German diplomacy and energy security, economics. By 1997 he was working directly for the future Vice Prime Minister Kostyantyn Gryshchenko, who would appoint Klimkin as his deputy minister. Klimkin was appointed Minister-Counselor of the Ukrainian Embassy in the United Kingdom in 2004, a position he held until 2008. In March 2008 he was named the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry's director for their European Union department. On 21 April 2010 he became Deputy Foreign Minister in the First Azarov Government of Ukraine; as deputy Klimkin played a central role in negotiating the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement in its early stages in 2012. According to Gazeta.ru, during those years Klimkin was "the face of European integration of Ukraine," as he led a delegation of negotiators with the EU.
According to Ukrayinska Pravda, the rejection of European integration with Ukraine in November 2013 was "a personal disappointment to Klimkin, who dedicated many months of his life to issue." He served as both Deputy Foreign Minister and Chief of Staff of the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry until 22 June 2012, when he was appointed Ambassador of Ukraine to Germany. As ambassador he has been influential in a number of international negotiations. According to AFP news agency, "The talks have since produced a peace initiative that includes Poroshenko's ceasefire proposal and the introduction of a new constitution that gives broader rights to Ukraine's regions - a key Moscow demand." AppointmentIn early June 2014, Klimkin's candidacy for the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine was proposed by Petro Poroshenko, the appointed Ukrainian President. On 19 June 2014, 335 MPs of the Verkhovna Rada voted for his appointment; this made his approval unanimous, excluding the 35-member faction "Freedom," which didn't vote entirely.
Klimkin was sworn in that day. His appointment was met with voiced approval by academics such as Hryhoriy Nemyria, that day Klimkin was congratulated by phone by foreign ministers such as Laurent Fabius of France, John Baird of Canada, Frank-Walter Steinmeier of Germany, he met with the OSCE chairman, Heidi Tagliavini. Russia's Deputy Foreign Minister, Grigory Karasin, stated on 19 June that "we wish the new minister success and are ready for contact with him," stating that Klimkin is known in their department as a "skilled diplomat." The following day and the Russian Foreign Minister, Sergei Lavrov, discussed "measures to resolve Ukraine's crisis" on the phone, focusing on Poroshenko's peace plan and controlling the Ukrainian border. Policies as ministerAccording to the AFP news agency, Klimkin's appointment "is seen as a step toward better relations with Russia." According to NBC, Klimkin is "Committed to European integration he has played a key role in negotiating the association and free trade agreements with the European Union, which Ukraine is expected to sign later."On 29 Augustus 2019 Vadym Prystaiko replaced Klimkin as Foreign Minister of Ukraine.
Klimkin was married to a fellow diplomat and has two sons. Natalia Klimkin holds the post of first secretary of the Embassy of Ukraine in the Netherlands and is responsible for policy issues and culture, his second wife is the daughter of a Russian Major General Yury Mykhaylenko. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers Press Releases about Klimkin at the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine Official Twitter page
The Walther Model 1936 Olympia II is a single action semi-automatic handgun manufactured by Walther. The first version was the M1925, formally known as the Automatic Walther Sport Pistol cal.22 LR, was introduced in 1925. It was followed by the M1932, the Olympia Pistole I, used to good effect in the 1932 Olympic Games; the final development Walther made was the M1936 Olympia II that won five Gold Medals at the 1936 Berlin Olympics and ended the Olympic reign of the Colt Woodsman Target model. The pistol continued to be manufactured up until 1944, but no major changes were made during the war. In 1952 the pistol was reintroduced under license by Hämmerli-Walther. In 1957 Smith & Wesson introduced the Model 41, based on the Olympia-Pistole; the Norinco TT Olympia is a Chinese copy of the Walther M1936 Hunter made sometime after 1980. Most variants were chambered for the.22 Long Rifle but the Schnellfeuer version used the.22 short, produced to equip the German team for the Berlin Olympic Games of 1936 for the rapid fire events.
The Olympia pistol is a fixed barrel, internal hammer, open-topped slide design and had a large contoured wooden grip which extended well below the bottom of the butt frame causing the necessity of the magazine bottom plate to be fitted with a wooden block extension. Once World War II started, the need for weapons shifted from competition and sport to the military, thus Olympia production slowed; the Model 1936 Olympia II was released in four versions during the production run of 1936 - 1944. Variations within models may include: barrel lengths and designs, grip designs and slides made steel or aluminum-alloy. Three variants used cal.22 long rifle ammunition and the Schnellfeuer version used a different barrel for the cal.22 short. All models have an alignment groove and holes drilled in front of the trigger guard for competition weights. Between 1936-37 the barrel was round and barrel weights were hooked over the muzzle and after 1937 the barrel was flat-sided and included an underside groove for front weights.
Sport Modell Cal.22 Long Rifle, 190mm ” barrel, 10 cartridge magazine, 31 oz. It came with adjustable target sights and a blued barrel. Pre 1937 versions have a round barrel and post; the Olympia Sport and Rapid Fire could be fitted with up to four barrel weights: they have a groove in the underside of the barrel to attach the weights and two holes are drilled in front of the trigger guard to attach frame weights. Fünfkampf Cal.22 L. R. 240mm barrel with optional threaded muzzle break giving it an overall length of 33cm. Grooved and tapped holes for barrel & frame weights. Includes a loaded chamber indicator. Front sight has white ivory insert. Jägerschaftspistole Cal.22 L. R. 120mm barrel, slender grips, 27 ounces. Seat for front sight has curved ramp, not a stepped ramp. Introduced in 1938, the Jägerschaft model was designed for the German Hunters Association competition and features a 2-position safety. Schnellfeuer Cal.22 Kurz, 190mm barrel, aluminum-alloy slide, 6 cartridge magazine, 29 oz.. Grooves and tapped holes for barrel and frame weights.
Barrel WeightsThere are four patterns for barrel weights, one weight fits into a groove beneath the barrel and a second weight with rounded corners can be bolted onto the first for additional stability. The main weight can be screwed into two holes tapped in front of the trigger, with a small add-on weight that can be screwed into the main weight. Weights maybe numbered with two digits to indicate. SlideThe slide is made of steel when chambered for cal.22 long rifle ammunition and aluminum-alloy for cal.22 short. The aluminum-alloy slide has either a dark-bronze anodized finish or was painted matte-black after 1939. TriggerTrigger weight had to be 500 grams for.22 short in ISSF regulations, compared to 1,360 grams for.22LR in the 1930s. Nowadays.22LR is reduced to 1,000 grams. Some trigger guards were drilled for a set screw to restrict rearward movement, thereby increasing speed in the Rapid Fire events. GripsThere are two types of a partial thumb swell and full thumb swell. There were left and right handed grips, to accommodate the thumb swell.
Both sides of the grips may be stamped with the serial number of the pistol on the inside of the shell. Frame & Slide MarkingsLeft side markings: Walther Waffenfabrik Walther Zella-Mehlis Walthers Patent OLYMPIA-PISTOLE. Right side markings: CAL.22 long rifle or CAL.22 kurz. Proof stamps on the barrel and frame are marked on the right side; the right side may include the word SWEDEN. Pistols imported to the USA will include the importer's state stamped on the frame. WWII ‘Bring backs’ do not have an importer stamp but were issued with an import letter to military personnel by the US Army. Proof StampsBefore 1939, the frame and detachable slide are proof-stamped with a Krone above a letter; the frame has two letters, the slide three letters, the barrel has four letters, The letters refer to a process: Krone G: Gezogener Lauf, Krone N: Nitropulver Krone B:??? Krone U: Untersuchungsbeschuß, the final stamp, representing the Committee for Inquiry. After 1939 the frame and slide were stamped with the Eagle over N.
Every frame-barrel connection has a thin punch line verifying the matched alignment. MagazineThe cal; the cal.22 short magazine has a removable pin inside the block
REX or Radio Science Experiment is an experiment on the New Horizons space probe to determine various aspects of the atmosphere of Pluto during the 2015 flyby. It is an experiment designed with several goals including to determine the pressure and temperature of Plutonian atmosphere, to measurements of a possible ionosphere of Pluto and/or Charon, to record thermal emission temperatures, to take more accurate chord lengths of Charon and Pluto. To accomplish the objectives, as the spacecraft passes by Pluto, it is targeted on a path that takes it behind the dwarf planet in relation to where Earth is, at that time radio signals from the flyby spacecraft pass through atmosphere of body, from this various aspects can be determined. REX is designed to take measurements of the atmospheric conditions at Pluto's moon Charon as part of the mission. REX utilizes an ultrastable oscillator, various electronics, radio hardware aboard the New Horizons spacecraft. REX utilizes the X-band radio uplink on the spacecraft.
REX hardware weights consumes 1.6 watts of spacecraft electrical power. It makes use of other NH hardware, overall key hardware components for REX include: high-gain antennalow-noise X-band receiverultrastable oscillatorTo take the measurements, REX communicates with the Deep Space Network back on Earth. REX can directly measure the thermal radiation of Pluto at 4.2 cm wavelength. Observation goals: temperature profiles of Pluto's atmosphere pressure profiles of Pluto's atmosphere radiometric temperature gravitational moments ionosphere structure REX is planned for use in the New Horizon's post Pluto extended mission, including the 486958 Arrokoth flyby. REX will be used to take thermal measurements of the Kuiper belt body during the planned flyby. REX is used to study the amount of electrons in outer space in the Kuiper belt region; the Kuiper belt is a ring of orbiting bodies between 30 to 55 AU, home to Pluto and short-period comets it is estimated to consist of hundreds of thousand if not millions of small icy objects.
The belt was discovered starting in 1992, can be studied more by the New Horizons mission, passing through it starting in the late 2010s. During the post Pluto cruise, REX is turned on monthly to measure the electron density of the solar wind between Earth and the spacecraft; when New Horizons flew by Pluto in 2015, it was at about 32.9 AU from the Sun, about 43.6 AU for the New Year's Day 2019 flyby of Arrokoth. The timing of the Arrokoth flyby was adjusted in part to aid the use of the REX experiment, in particular time it so more radar dishes on Earth could be used for this experiment. Using REX radio occultation data the diameter of Pluto was found to be 2376.6±3.2 km in a 2017 paper. Gravity science Mariner 4 NASA - REX
The Swedish health care system is government-funded, universal for all citizens and decentralized, although private health care exists. A shortage of medical personnel is a major problem; the health care system in Sweden is financed through taxes levied by county councils and municipalities. A total of 21 councils are in charge with primary and hospital care within the country. Private healthcare is a rarity in Sweden, those private institutions work under the mandated city councils; the city councils regulates the establishment of potential private practices. Although in most countries care for the elderly or those who need psychiatric help is conducted in Sweden local, publicly funded authorities are in charge of this type of care; the Swedish government makes an effort to limit private firms in healthcare. The government takes precautions to eliminate profit seeking in the welfare/public health sector. Sweden's health care system is organized and managed on three levels: national and local. At the national level, the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs establishes principles and guidelines for care and sets the political agenda for health and medical care.
The ministry along with other government bodies supervises activities at the lower levels, allocates grants and periodically evaluates services to ensure correspondence to national goals. At the regional level, responsibility for financing and providing health care is decentralized to the 21 county councils. A county council is a political body whose representatives are elected by the public every four years on the same day as the national general election; the executive board or hospital board of a county council exercises authority over hospital structure and management, ensures efficient health care delivery. County councils regulate prices and level of service offered by private providers. Private providers are required to enter into a contract with the county councils. Patients are not reimbursed for services from private providers who do not have an agreement with the county councils. According to the Swedish health and medical care policy, every county council must provide residents with good-quality health services and medical care and work toward promoting good health in the entire population.
At the local level, municipalities are responsible for maintaining the immediate environment of citizens such as water supply and social welfare services. Post discharge care for the disabled and elderly, long term care for psychiatric patients was decentralized to the local municipalities. County councils have considerable leeway in deciding how care should be delivered; this explains the wide regional variations. It is informally divided into 7 sections: "Close-to-home care", emergency care, elective care, in-patient care, out-patient care, specialist care, dental care. All citizens are to be given on line access to their own electronic health records by 2020. Many different record systems are used. A national patient portal, ‘1177.se’ is used by all systems, with both telephone and online access. At June 2017 about 41% of the population had set up their own account to use personal e-services using this system. A national Health Information Exchange platform provides a single point of connectivity to the many different systems.
There is not yet a national regulatory framework for patients’ direct access to their health information. Private companies in 2015 provide about 20% of public hospital care and about 30% of public primary care, although in 2014 a survey by the SOM Institute found that 69% of Swedes were opposed to private companies profiting from providing public education and social care, with only about 15% in favour. In April 2015 Västernorrland County ordered its officials to find ways to limit the profits private companies can reap from running publicly funded health services. Costs for health and medical care amounted to 9 percent of Sweden’s gross domestic product in 2005, a figure that remained stable since the early 1980s. By 2015 the cost had risen to 11.9% of GDP -the highest in Europe. Seventy-one percent of health care is funded through local taxation, county councils have the right to collect income tax; the state finances the bulk of health care costs, with the patient paying a small nominal fee for examination.
The state pays for 97% of medical costs. When a physician declares a patient to be ill for whatever reason, the patient is paid a percentage of their normal daily wage from the second day. For the first 14 days, the employer is required to pay this wage, after that the state pays the wage until the patient is declared fit. According to OECD the Swedish health system is one of the best in the world; the Funding and cost of keeps healthcare accessible to all Swedish citizens. Local taxes equate for about 70% of the budgets for councils and municipalities, while overall 85% of the total health budget come from public funding; the Swedish government takes about half of the workers' paychecks but single payer healthcare and higher pensions than most countries make this cost viable for each citizen. Doctors and staff members are placed on salary instead of fluctuating financial incentives that doctors and staff in other countries are allowed; the budgeting manages cost control for health needs and eliminates welfare for private firms or employers who provide service within the public sector.
Prescription drugs are not free but fees to the user are capped at 2,200 kr per annum. Once a patient's prescriptions reach this amount, the government covers