A body kit or bodykit is a set of modified body parts or additional components that install on a stock car. Composed of front and rear bumpers, side skirts, spoilers and sometimes front and rear side guards and roof scoops. There are many companies. Body kits components are designed to work together as a complete design. Despite this, the'mix and match' approach is seen on cars, where the front of one body kit will be matched with the rear of another, for example. Automotive body kits are constructed of either fiberglass, polyurethane, or in some cases carbon fiber. Fiberglass is cheap and available, although it can crack upon impact. Polyurethane is popular. Carbon fiber body kits are rare, due to the cost of the materials, are seen on street-legal vehicles. Factory-fitted body kits are now becoming more common in response to the growth of the aftermarket tuning industry in the late 1990s and onwards. Many manufacturers now work in-house with their motor sport divisions to develop styling upgrades.
The roots of the modern body kits go the beginning of the first part of the 20th century. With growing popularity of custom cars in America many car enthusiasts were looking to alter the appearance of their vehicles in order to improve the performance characteristics or make a car look different from the others. Motorsport engineering influenced the development of vehicle's body modifications, because certain changes in the construction of stock body parts allowed to achieve better results in terms of performance. Bumpers with bigger air dams and hood scoops deliver more fresh air to the engine which results in better performance output and heat reduction. Wide fenders or bolt-on flares allow to clear wider wheels. Trunk spoilers, bumper lips and bumper splitters reduce or properly distribute the down force which improves the overall air dynamics of a vehicle. Body kits are used on SUV and trucks. Front and rear bumper Side skirts Bumper lips Bumper canards Bumper diffusers Bumper splitters Bumper grilles Fenders with vents Fender flares Widebody fenders and quarterpanels Spoilers Custom hoods Hood Scoops Roof scoops Side scoops Window louvers One piece front end One piece rear end In video games like Need for Speed: Underground and beyond, Tokyo Xtreme Racer 3, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, Ridge Racer 7, Juiced series, The Fast And The Furious: Tokyo Drift, MotorStorm: Arctic Edge, Need for speed: No limits and the Forza series etc. the vehicles can be modified in many ways, including with body kits.
An Infiniti G35 upgraded with a Vaydor body kit appeared in the 2016 Batman movie Suicide Squad. Car tuning Hot rod Stance Veilside Import scene SEMA Custom car Aftermarket Downforce Bumper Spoiler Kit car Pimp My Ride, a television series about vehicle restoration and modification that uses body kits extensively
A Molotov cocktail known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili, fire bomb or just Molotov, sometimes shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons. Due to the relative ease of production, Molotov cocktails have been used by street criminals, rioters, criminal gangs, urban guerrillas, hard-line militants, irregular soldiers, or regular soldiers short on equivalent military-issue weapons, they are intended to ignite rather than obliterate targets. The name "Molotov cocktail" was coined by the Finns during the Winter War, called in Finnish: polttopullo or Molotovin koktaili; the name was an insulting reference to Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov, one of the architects of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in late August 1939. The pact with Nazi Germany was mocked by the Finns, as was much of the propaganda Molotov produced to accompany the pact, including his declaration on Soviet state radio that bombing missions over Finland were airborne humanitarian food deliveries for their starving neighbours.
The Finns sarcastically dubbed the Soviet cluster bombs "Molotov bread baskets" in reference to Molotov's propaganda broadcasts. When the hand-held bottle firebomb was developed to attack Soviet tanks, the Finns called it the "Molotov cocktail", as "a drink to go with the food". A Molotov cocktail is a breakable glass bottle containing a flammable substance such as petrol, alcohol or a napalm-like mixture, with some motor oil added, a source of ignition such as a burning cloth wick held in place by the bottle's stopper; the wick is soaked in alcohol or kerosene, rather than petrol. In action, the wick is the bottle hurled at a target such as a vehicle or fortification; when the bottle smashes on impact, the ensuing cloud of fuel droplets and vapour is ignited by the attached wick, causing an immediate fireball followed by spreading flames as the remainder of the fuel is consumed. Other flammable liquids such as diesel fuel, turpentine, jet fuel, isopropyl alcohol have been used in place of, or combined with petrol.
Thickening agents such as solvents, foam polystyrene, baking soda, petroleum jelly, strips of tyre tubing, nitrocellulose, XPS foam, motor oil, rubber cement and dish soap have been added to help the burning liquid adhere to the target and create clouds of thick, choking smoke. In addition, toxic substances are known to be added to the mixture, in order to create a suffocating or poisonous gas on the resulting explosion turning the Molotov cocktail into a makeshift chemical weapon; these include bleach, various strong acids, among others. Improvised incendiary devices of this type were used for the first time in the Spanish Civil War between July 1936 and April 1939, before they became known as "Molotov cocktails." In 1936, General Francisco Franco ordered Spanish Nationalist forces to use the weapon against Soviet T-26 tanks supporting the Spanish Republicans in a failed assault on the Nationalist stronghold of Seseña, near Toledo, 40 km south of Madrid. After that, both sides used petrol-soaked blankets with some success.
Tom Wintringham, a veteran of the International Brigades publicised his recommended method of using them: We made use of "petrol bombs" as follows: take a 2lb glass jam jar. Fill with petrol. Take a heavy curtain, half a blanket, or some other heavy material. Wrap this over the mouth of the jar, tie it round the neck with string, leave the ends of the material hanging free; when you want to use it have somebody standing by with a light. Put a corner of the material down in front of you, turn the bottle over so that petrol soaks out round the mouth of the bottle and drips on to this corner of the material. Turn the bottle right way up again, hold it in your right hand, most of the blanket bunched beneath the bottle, with your left hand take the blanket near the corner, wetted with petrol. Wait for your tank; when near enough, your pal lights the petrol soaked corner of the blanket. Throw the bottle and blanket as soon as this corner is flaring. See that it drops in front of the tank; the blanket should wind itself round an axle.
The bottle will smash, but the petrol should soak the blanket well enough to make a healthy fire which will burn the rubber wheels on which the tank track runs, set fire to the carburetor or frizzle the crew. Do not play with these things, they are dangerous. The Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border conflict of 1939 ostensibly between Mongolia and Manchukuo, saw heavy fighting between Japanese and Soviet forces. Short of anti-tank equipment, Japanese infantry attacked Soviet tanks with gasoline-filled bottles. Japanese infantrymen claimed that several hundred Soviet tanks had been destroyed this way, though Soviet loss records do not support this assessment. On 30 November 1939, the Soviet Union attacked Finland, starting what came to be known as the Winter War; the Finns perfected the design and tactical use of the petrol bomb. The fuel for the Molotov cocktail was refined to a sticky mixture of gasoline, kerosene and potassium chlorate. Further refinements included the attachment of wind-proof matches or a phial of chemicals that would ignite on breakage, thereby removing the need to pre-ignite the bottle, leaving the bottle about one-third empty was found to make breaking more likely.
A British War Office report dated June 1940 noted that: The Finns' policy was to allow the Russian tanks to
Evolution Studios Ltd. was a British video game developer headquartered in Runcorn, Cheshire. The company was founded in 1999 by Martin Kenwright and Ian Hetherington, following the purchase of their studio Digital Image Design's publisher Ocean Software by Infogrames. Kenwright left Digital Image Design with six members of staff to form Evolution Studios. Based in Frodsham, Cheshire, it developed a racing demo on PC, depicting multiple rally cars racing on a circuit with cockpit views, subsequently picked up by Sony as it was interested in a PlayStation 2 game based on the World Rally Championship licence. Both Evolution and their satellite studio, Bigbig Studios, in Warwickshire were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment in September 2007. At this point and Hetherington left the company, with its co-founder Mick Hocking taking over, running Evolution, Bigbig and SCE Studio Liverpool as Group Studio Director. Hocking was subsequently promoted to Vice President of the Studio Group in April 2011.
The developer's last game was Driveclub. It was scheduled as a PlayStation 4 launch title, although it was delayed, until October 2014, they claim they had trademarked the name of the game 10 years ago, but were waiting for the technology to create their vision of the game. On 23 March 2015, 55 staff members were cut from Evolution Studio, which sources say is half the studio; the redundancies have been described by Sony as a way to focus the studio on developing Driveclub as a service. On 22 March 2016, Sony announced. On 11 April 2016, the development team joined Codemasters. Codemasters' CEO Frank Sagnier said that the acquisition of the fifteen year-long development practice of Evolution Studios allows the two racing game developers to pool their "shared DNA, passion and talents". Codemasters has allowed the previous employees of Evolution Studios to retain their own unique style. After the disappointing sales of their next game Onrush, several members of the Codemasters EVO development division were let go in redundancies, including game director Paul Rustchynsk and the division was shifted to a support role for other Codemasters titles.
Official website Evolution Studios at MobyGames
Muscle car is an American term for high-performance cars rear-wheel drive and fitted with a large and powerful V8 engine. The term originated for 1960s and early 1970s special editions of mass-production cars which were designed for drag racing; the definition of muscle car is subjective and debated. Muscle cars have many of the following characteristics: A large V8 engine in the most powerful configuration offered for a particular model Rear-wheel drive Being manufactured in the United States in the 1960s or early 1970s A lightweight two-door body An affordable price Being designed for straight-line drag racing, while remaining street legal. High-power pony cars are sometimes considered muscle cars, however personal luxury cars and grand tourer cars are too expensive to be considered muscle cars. Sports cars and sports sedans are not considered muscle cars, since they are associated with circuit racing rather than drag racing. Muscle cars are an extension of the hot rodding philosophy of taking a small car and putting a large-displacement engine in it, for the purpose of increased straight-line speed.
Muscle cars were referred to as "Supercars" in the United States spelled with a capital S." From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, "dragstrip bred" mid-size cars were equipped with large, powerful V8 engines and rear-wheel drive were referred to as Supercars more than muscle cars. An early example is the 1957 Rambler Rebel, described as a "potent mill turned the lightweight Rambler into a veritable supercar."In 1966, the supercar became an official industry trend" as the four domestic automakers "needed to cash in on the supercar market" with eye-catching, heart-stopping cars. Examples of the use of the supercar description for the early muscle models include the May 1965 Car Life road test of the Pontiac GTO along with how "Hurst puts American Motors into the Supercar club with the 390 Rogue" to fight in "the Supercar street racer gang" market segment, with the initials "SC" signifying SuperCar; the supercar market segment in the U. S. at the time included special versions of regular production models that were positioned in several sizes and market segments, as well as limited edition, documented dealer-converted vehicles.
However, the supercar term by that time "had been diluted and branded with a meaning that did not respect the unique qualities of the'muscle car'." Opinions on the origin of the muscle car vary, but the 1949 Oldsmobile Rocket 88, is cited as the first muscle car. The Rocket 88 was the first time a powerful V8 engine was available in a smaller and lighter body style; the Rocket 88 produced 135 hp at 3,600 rpm and 263 lb⋅ft at 1800 rpm and won eight out of ten races in the 1950 NASCAR season. The Rocket 88's Oldsmobile 303 V8 engine are stated to have "launched the modern era of the high-performance V-8."Another predecessor to the muscle car was the Hudson Hornet, introduced in 1951. The 1954 Hornet with the "Twin-H-Power" option of dual carburetors producing 170 hp from its 308 cu in six-cylinder engine. In 1955, the Chrysler C-300 was introduced, which produced 300 hp from its 331 cu in V8 engine, was advertised as "America's Most Powerful Car". Capable of accelerating from 0 to 60 mph in 9.8 seconds and reaching 130 miles per hour, the 1955 Chrysler 300 is recognized as one of the best-handling cars of its era.
The Rambler Rebel, introduced in 1957, is the first intermediate-sized car to be available with a big-block V8 engine. It is therefore considered by some to be the first muscle car. With a 327 cu in V8 engine producing 255 hp, its 0-60 mph acceleration of 7.5 seconds made it the fastest stock American sedan at the time. The popularity and performance of muscle cars grew in the early 1960s, as Mopar and Ford battled for supremacy in drag racing; the 1961 Chevrolet Impala offered an SS package for $53.80, which consisted of a 409 cu in V8 engine producing 425 hp and upgraded brakes and suspension. The 1962 Dodge Dart 413 had a 413 cu in V8 which produced 420 hp and could cover the quarter mile in under 13 seconds. In 1963, two hundred Ford Galaxie "R-code" cars were factory built for drag racing, resulting in a full-size car which could cover the quarter mile in a little over 12 seconds. Upgrades included fiberglass panels, aluminum bumpers, traction bars and a 427 cu in racing engine conservatively rated at 425 hp.
The road legal version of the Galaxie 427 used the "Q-code" engine. The following year, Ford installed 427 engine in the smaller and lighter Fairlane body, creating the Ford Thunderbolt; the Thunderbolt included several weight-saving measures and a stock Thunderbolt could cover the quarter-mile in 11.76 seconds. The Thunderbolt was technically road legal, however it was considered unsuitable for "for driving to and from the strip, let alone on the street in everyday use". A total of 111 Thunderbolts were built; the General Motors competitor to the Thunderbolt was the Z-11 option package for the full-size Chevrolet Impala co
The PlayStation 3 is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation 2, is part of the PlayStation brand of consoles, it was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, November 17, 2006, in North America, March 23, 2007, in Europe and Australia. The PlayStation 3 competed against consoles such as Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles; the console was first announced at E3 2005, was released at the end of 2006. It was the first console to use Blu-ray Disc as its primary storage medium; the console was the first PlayStation to integrate social gaming services, including the PlayStation Network, as well as the first to be controllable from a handheld console, through its remote connectivity with PlayStation Portable and PlayStation Vita. In September 2009, the Slim model of the PlayStation 3 was released, it no longer provided the hardware ability to run PS2 games. It was lighter and thinner than the original version, featured a redesigned logo and marketing design, as well as a minor start-up change in software.
A Super Slim variation was released in late 2012, further refining and redesigning the console. During its early years, the system had a critically negative reception, due to its high price, a complex processor architecture and a lack of quality games, but was praised for its Blu-ray capabilities and "untapped potential"; the reception would get more positive over time. The system had a slow start in the market but managed to recover after the introduction of the Slim model, its successor, the PlayStation 4, was released in November 2013. On September 29, 2015, Sony confirmed that sales of the PlayStation 3 were to be discontinued in New Zealand, but the system remained in production in other markets. Shipments of new units to Europe and Australia ended in March 2016, followed by North America which ended in October 2016. Heading into 2017, Japan was the last territory where new units were still being produced until May 29, 2017, when Sony confirmed the PlayStation 3 was discontinued in Japan.
The PlayStation 3 began development in 2001 when Ken Kutaragi the President of Sony Computer Entertainment, announced that Sony, IBM would collaborate on developing the Cell microprocessor. At the time, Shuhei Yoshida led a group of programmers within this hardware team to explore next-generation game creation. By early 2005, focus within Sony shifted towards developing PS3 launch titles. Sony unveiled PlayStation 3 to the public on May 16, 2005, at E3 2005, along with a boomerang-shaped prototype design of the Sixaxis controller. A functional version of the system was not present there, nor at the Tokyo Game Show in September 2005, although demonstrations were held at both events on software development kits and comparable personal computer hardware. Video footage based on the predicted PlayStation 3 specifications was shown; the initial prototype shown in May 2005 featured two HDMI ports, three Ethernet ports and six USB ports. Two hardware configurations were announced for the console: a 20 GB model and a 60 GB model, priced at US$499 and US$599, respectively.
The 60 GB model was to be the only configuration to feature an HDMI port, Wi-Fi internet, flash card readers and a chrome trim with the logo in silver. Both models were announced for a simultaneous worldwide release: November 11, 2006, for Japan and November 17, 2006, for North America and Europe. On September 6, 2006, Sony announced that PAL region PlayStation 3 launch would be delayed until March 2007, because of a shortage of materials used in the Blu-ray drive. At the Tokyo Game Show on September 22, 2006, Sony announced that it would include an HDMI port on the 20 GB system, but a chrome trim, flash card readers, silver logo and Wi-Fi would not be included; the launch price of the Japanese 20 GB model was reduced by over 20%, the 60 GB model was announced for an open pricing scheme in Japan. During the event, Sony showed 27 playable PS3 games running on final hardware. PlayStation 3 was first released in Japan on November 11, 2006, at 07:00. According to Media Create, 81,639 PS3 systems were sold within 24 hours of its introduction in Japan.
Soon after its release in Japan, PS3 was released in North America on November 17, 2006. Reports of violence surrounded the release of PS3. A customer was shot, campers were robbed at gunpoint, customers were shot in a drive-by shooting with BB guns, 60 campers fought over 10 systems; the console was planned for a global release through November, but at the start of September the release in Europe and the rest of the world was delayed until March. With it being a somewhat last-minute delay, some companies had taken deposits for pre-orders, at which Sony informed customers that they were eligible for full refunds or could continue the pre-order. On January 24, 2007, Sony announced that PlayStation 3 would go on sale on March 23, 2007, in Europe, the Middle East and New Zealand; the system sold about 600,000 units in its first two days. On March 7, 2007, the 60 GB PlayStation 3 launched in Singapore with a price of S$799; the console was launched in South Korea on June 16, 2007, as a single version equipped with an 80 GB hard drive and IPTV.
Following speculation that Sony was working on a'slim' model, Sony announced the PS3 CECH-2000 model on August 18, 2009, at the Sony Gamescom press conference
The PlayStation 2 is a home video game console, developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the original PlayStation console and is the second iteration in the PlayStation lineup of consoles, it was released in 2000 and competed with Sega's Dreamcast, Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox in the sixth generation of video game consoles. Announced in 1999, the PlayStation 2 offered backwards compatibility for its predecessor's DualShock controller, as well as for its games; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 155 million units, with 150 million confirmed by Sony in 2011. More than 3,874 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch, more than 1.5 billion copies have been sold. Sony manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as Slimline models in 2004. In 2006, Sony announced and launched its successor, the PlayStation 3. With the release of its successor, the PlayStation 2 remained popular well into the seventh generation and continued to be produced until January 4, 2013, when Sony announced that the PlayStation 2 had been discontinued after 12 years of production – one of the longest runs for a video game console.
Despite the announcement, new games for the console continued to be produced until the end of 2013, including Final Fantasy XI: Seekers of Adoulin for Japan, FIFA 13 for North America, Pro Evolution Soccer 2014 for Europe. Repair services for the system in Japan ended on September 7, 2018. Though Sony has kept details of the PlayStation 2's development secret, work on the console began around the time that the original PlayStation was released. Insiders stated that it was developed in the U. S. West Coast by former members of Argonaut Software. By 1997 word had leaked to the press that the console would have backwards compatibility with the original PlayStation, a built-in DVD player, Internet connectivity. Sony announced the PlayStation 2 on March 1, 1999; the video game console was positioned as a competitor to Sega's Dreamcast, the first sixth-generation console to be released, although the main rivals of the PS2 were Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox. The Dreamcast itself launched successfully in North America that year, selling over 500,000 units within two weeks.
Soon after the Dreamcast's North American launch, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 2 at the Tokyo Game Show on September 20, 1999. Sony showed playable demos of upcoming PlayStation 2 games including Gran Turismo 2000 and Tekken Tag Tournament – which showed the console's graphic abilities and power; the PS2 was launched in March 2000 in Japan, October in North America, November in Europe. Sales of the console and accessories pulled in $250 million on the first day, beating the $97 million made on the first day of the Dreamcast. Directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves due to manufacturing delays. Another option was purchasing the console online through auction websites such as eBay, where people paid over a thousand dollars for the console; the PS2 sold well on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and the console's backward compatibility, selling over 980,000 units in Japan by March 5, 2000, one day after launch. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation – another major selling point over the competition.
Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers. The PS2's built-in functionality expanded its audience beyond the gamer, as its debut pricing was the same or less than a standalone DVD player; this made the console a low cost entry into the home theater market. The success of the PS2 at the end of 2000 caused Sega problems both financially and competitively, Sega announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast in March 2001, just 18 months after its successful launch; the PS2 remained as the only active sixth generation console for over 6 months, before it would face competition from newer rivals. Many analysts predicted a close three-way matchup among the three consoles. While the PlayStation 2 theoretically had the weakest specification of the three, it had a head start due to its installed base plus strong developer commitment, as well as a built-in DVD player. While the PlayStation 2's initial games lineup was considered mediocre, this changed during the 2001 holiday season with the release of several blockbuster games that maintained the PS2's sales momentum and held off its newer rivals.
Sony countered the Xbox by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Sony cut the price of the console in May 2002 from US$299 to $199 in North America, making it the same price as the GameCube and $100 less than the Xbox, it planned to cut the price in Japan around that time. It cut the price twice in Japan in 2003. In 2006, Sony cut the cost of the console in anticipation of the release of the PlayStation 3. Sony, unlike Sega with its Dreamcast placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first few years, although that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Coinciding with the release of Xbox Live, Sony released the PlayStation Network Adapter in late 2002, with several online first–party titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM: U. S. Navy SEALs to demon
Rally is a form of motorsport that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars. It is distinguished by running not on a circuit, but instead in a point-to-point format in which participants and their co-drivers drive between set control points, leaving at regular intervals from one or more start points. Rallies may be won by pure speed within the stages or alternatively by driving to a predetermined ideal journey time within the stages; the term "rally", as a branch of motorsport dates from the first Monte Carlo Rally of January 1911. Until the late 1920s, few if any other events used the term. Rallying itself can be traced back to the 1894 Paris–Rouen Horseless Carriage Competition, sponsored by a Paris newspaper, Le Petit Journal, which attracted considerable public interest and entries from leading manufacturers. Prizes were awarded to the vehicles by a jury based on the reports of the observers who rode in each car; this event led directly to a period of city-to-city road races in France and other European countries, which introduced many of the features found in rallies: individual start times with cars running against the clock rather than head to head.
The first of these great races was the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race of June 1895, won by Paul Koechlin in a Peugeot, despite arriving 11 hours after Émile Levassor in a Panhard et Levassor. Levassor's time for the 1,178 km course, running without a break, was 48 hours and 48 minutes, an average speed of 24 km/h. From 24 September-3 October 1895, the Automobile Club de France sponsored the longest race to date, a 1,710 km event, from Bordeaux to Agen and back; because it was held in ten stages, it can be considered the first rally. The first three places were taken by a Panhard, a Panhard, a three-wheeler De Dion-Bouton. In the Paris–Madrid race of May 1903, the Mors of Fernand Gabriel took just under five and a quarter hours for the 550 km to Bordeaux, an average of 105 km/h. Speeds had now far outstripped the safe limits of dusty highways thronged with spectators and open to other traffic and animals; the French government banned this style of event. From on, racing in Europe would be on closed circuits on long loops of public highway and in 1907, on the first purpose-built track, England's Brooklands.
Racing was going its own separate way. One of the earliest of road races, the Tour de France of 1899, was to have a long history, running 18 times as a reliability trial between 1906 and 1937, before being revived in 1951 by the Automobile Club de Nice. Italy had been running road competitions since 1895, when a reliability trial was run from Turin to Asti and back; the country's first true motor race was held in 1897 along the shore of Lake Maggiore, from Arona to Stresa and back. This led to a long tradition of road racing, including events like Sicily's Targa Florio and Giro di Sicilia, which went right round the island, both of which continued on and off until after World War II; the first Alpine event was held in 1898, the Austrian Touring Club's three-day Automobile Run through South Tyrol, which included the infamous Stelvio Pass. In Britain, the legal maximum speed of 12 mph precluded road racing, but in April and May 1900, the Automobile Club of Great Britain organised the Thousand Mile Trial, a 15-day event linking Britain's major cities, in order to promote this novel form of transport.
Seventy vehicles took part, the majority of them trade entries. They had to complete thirteen stages of route varying in length from 43 to 123 miles at average speeds of up to the legal limit of 12 mph, tackle six hillclimb or speed tests. On rest days and at lunch halts, the cars were shown to the public in exhibition halls; this was followed in 1901 by a five-day trial based in Glasgow The Scottish Automobile Club organised an annual Glasgow–London non-stop trial from 1902 to 1904 the Scottish Reliability Trial from 1905. The Motor Cycling Club allowed cars to enter its trials and runs from 1904. In 1908 the Royal Automobile Club held its 2,000 mi International Touring Car Trial, 1914 the important Light Car Trial for manufacturers of cars up to 1400 cc, to test comparative performances and improve the breed. In 1924, the exercise was repeated as the Small Car Trials. In Germany, the Herkomer Trophy was first held in 1905, again in 1906; this challenging five-day event attracted over 100 entrants to tackle its 1,000 km road section, a hillclimb and a speed trial, but sadly it was marred by poor organisation and confusing regulations.
One participant had been Prince Henry of Austria, inspired to do better, so he enlisted the aid of the Imperial Automobile Club of Germany to create the first Prinz Heinrich Fahrt in 1908. Another trial was held in 1910; these were successful, attracting top drivers and works cars from major teams – several manufacturers added "Prince Henry" models to their ranges. The first Alpine Trial was held in 1909, in Aus