United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century; the Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were small operations in a peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century; the Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform. The 19th century was an era of rapid economic modernisation and growth of industry and finance, in which Britain dominated the world economy. Outward migration was heavy to the United States; the empire was expanded into much of South Asia. The Colonial Office and India Office ruled through a small number of administrators who managed the units of the empire locally, while democratic institutions began to develop.
British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In overseas policy, the central policy was free trade, which enabled British and Irish financiers and merchants to operate in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. London formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, moved closer to the United States. Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, the state was renamed to the current "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" in 1927; the modern-day United Kingdom is the same country as the one from this period—a direct continuation of what remained after the secession—not an new successor state. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which occurred during the British war with revolutionary France.
The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801; the Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. During the War of the Second Coalition, Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch overseas possessions, the Netherlands having become a satellite state of France in 1796, but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops; when the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy, in a personal union with the United Kingdom.
In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Great Britain failed, chiefly due to the inferiority of his navy, in 1805 a Royal Navy fleet led by Nelson decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System; this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. The British Army remained a minimal threat to France. Although the Royal Navy disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, but it was smaller in terms of industry, mercantile marine and naval strength.
Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. On the contrary Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in the world, its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions and the United States; the Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington pushed the French out of Spain, in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. Napoleon reappeared in 1815; the Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo. To defeat France, Britain put heavy pressure on the Americans
A torpedo boat is a small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle. The first designs rammed enemy ships with explosive spar torpedoes, designs launched self-propelled Whitehead torpedoes, they were created to counter battleships and other slow and armed ships by using speed and the power of their torpedo weapons. A number of inexpensive torpedo boats attacking en masse could overwhelm a larger ship's ability to fight them off using its large but cumbersome guns. An inexpensive fleet of torpedo boats could pose a threat to much larger and more expensive fleets of capital ships, albeit only in the coastal areas to which their small size and limited fuel load restricted them; the introduction of fast torpedo boats in the late 19th century was a serious concern to the era's naval strategists. In response, navies operating large ships introduced smaller ships to counter torpedo boats, mounting light quick-firing guns; these ships, which came to be called "torpedo boat destroyers" and simply "destroyers", became larger and took on more roles, making torpedo attacks as well as defending against them, defending against submarines and aircraft.
The destroyer became the predominant type of surface warship in the guided missile age. In the modern era, the old concept of a small and cheap surface combatant with powerful offensive weapons is taken up by the "fast attack craft"; the American Civil War saw a number of innovations in naval warfare, including an early type of torpedo boat, armed with spar torpedoes. In 1861 President Lincoln instituted a naval blockade of Southern ports, which crippled the South's efforts to obtain war materiel from abroad; the South lacked the means to construct a naval fleet capable of taking on the Union Navy on terms. One strategy to counter the blockade saw the development of torpedo boats, small fast boats designed to attack the larger capital ships of the blockading fleet as a form of asymmetrical warfare; the David class of torpedo boats were steam powered with a enclosed hull. They were not true were semi-submersible. CSS Midge was David-class torpedo boats. CSS Squib and CSS Scorpion represented another class of torpedo boats that were low built but had open decks and lacked the ballasting tanks found on the Davids.
The Confederate torpedo boats were armed with spar torpedoes. This was a charge of powder in a waterproof case, mounted to the bow of the torpedo boat below the water line on a long spar; the torpedo boat attacked by ramming her intended target, which stuck the torpedo to the target ship by means of a barb on the front of the torpedo. The torpedo boat would back away to a safe distance and detonate the torpedo by means of a long cord attached to a trigger. In general, the Confederate torpedo boats were not successful, their low sides made them susceptible to swamping in high seas, to having their boiler fires extinguished by spray from their own torpedo explosions. Torpedo misfires and duds were common. In 1864 Union Naval Lieutenant Cushing fitted a steam launch with a spar torpedo to attack the Confederate ironclad Albemarle; the same year the Union launched USS Spuyten Duyvil, a purpose-built craft with a number of technical innovations including variable ballast for attack operations and an extensible and reloadable torpedo placement spar.
A prototype self-propelled torpedo was created by a commission placed by Giovanni Luppis, an Austrian naval officer from Rijeka a port city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Robert Whitehead, an English engineer, the manager of a town factory. In 1864, Luppis presented Whitehead with the plans of the salvacoste, a floating weapon driven by ropes from the land, dismissed by the naval authorities due to the impractical steering and propulsion mechanisms. Whitehead was unable to improve the machine since the clockwork motor, attached ropes, surface attack mode all contributed to a slow and cumbersome weapon. However, he kept considering the problem after the contract had finished, developed a tubular device, designed to run underwater on its own, powered by compressed air; the result was a submarine weapon, the Minenschiff, the first modern self-propelled torpedo presented to the Austrian Imperial Naval commission on December 21, 1866. The first trials were not successful as the weapon was unable to maintain a course on a steady depth.
After much work, Whitehead introduced his "secret" in 1868. It was a mechanism consisting of a hydrostatic valve and pendulum that caused the torpedo's hydroplanes to be adjusted so as to maintain a preset depth. During the mid-19th century, the ships of the line were superseded by large steam powered ships with heavy gun armament and heavy armour, called ironclads; this line of development led to the dreadnought class of all-big-gun battleship, starting with HMS Dreadnought. At the same time, the weight of armour slowed down the speed of the battleships, the huge guns needed to penetrate enemy armour fired at slow rates; this allowed for the possibility of a small and fast ship that could attack the battleships, at a much lower cost. The introduction of the torpedo provided a weapon that could cripple, or sink, any battleship; the first warship of any kind to carry self-propelled torpedoes was HMS Vesuvius of 1873. The first seagoing vessel designed to fire the self-propelled Whitehead torpedo was HMS Lightning.
The boat was built by John Thornycroft at Church Wharf in Chiswick for the Royal Navy. It entered service in 1876 and was armed with self-propelled Wh
Type Two 63 ft HSL
The Type Two HSL was a 63 feet high speed launch craft made by British Power Boat Company. The craft were used during the Second World War for air-sea rescue operations to save Allied aircrew from the sea; the Type Two superseded the 64 feet high speed launch, itself was replaced by the 68 feet Type Three HSL built by the BPBC. It was nicknamed the'Whaleback' due to the distinctive curve to its humped cabin; the Type Two was designed in 1937 by Hubert Scott-Paine, founder of the British Power Boat Company at Hythe. Scott-Paine had owned the Supermarine Aviation Company builders of the Supermarine Spitfire and several flying boat types. A low set cabin contained chart room and a sickbay. For defence against enemy aircraft, on top of the cabin were two aircraft-style turrets made by Armstrong-Whitworth with a single.303 in Vickers machine gun or Lewis gun. The mahogany hull was of the hard chine. During the Second World War, the retrieval of pilots and aircrew, shot down over, or who had had to ditch in, the sea around the British Isles was the responsibility of the Royal Air Force Marine Branch.
Rescue of downed aircrew was coordinated using RAF aircraft, aircraft operated by Coastal Command and the Royal Navy and rescue launches operated by the RAF Marine Branch and the Royal Navy. The Type Two was supplied to RAF marine craft units from the middle of 1940. In total 69 craft were manufactured between 1940 and 1942. Post war a number of the Type Two craft were transferred to the Royal Navy and a small number were given to the Italian Air Force; the vast majority of the Type Two craft belonging to the Admiralty were subsequently stored and sold off as houseboats. None are owned by any museum or trusts. Following their performance during the Dieppe raid in August 1942, the Type Two was modified. Extra armament was fitted — paired.303 in machine guns mounted either side of the wheel-house and a single 20 mm Oerlikon on the rear deck. Protection was improved by adding anti-shrapnel padding around the forward cabin area. Crash rescue boat Motor launch For Those in Peril - 1944 British propaganda film, based on the RAF air-sea rescue service featuring Type Two craft.
The Sea Shall Not Have Them Comprehensive list of RAF boats A photograph of High Speed Launch HSL 164 at speed
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Coastal Motor Boat
During the First World War, following a suggestion from three junior officers of the Harwich destroyer force that small motor boats carrying a torpedo might be capable of travelling over the protective minefields and attacking ships of the Imperial German Navy at anchor in their bases, the Admiralty gave tentative approval to the idea and, in the summer of 1915, produced a Staff Requirement requesting designs for a Coastal Motor Boat for service in the North Sea. These boats were expected to have a high speed, making use of the lightweight and powerful petrol engines available; the speed of the boat when loaded was to be at least 30 knots and sufficient fuel was to be carried to give a considerable radius of action. They were to be armed with torpedoes, depth charges or for laying mines. Secondary armament would have been provided by light machine guns, such as the Lewis gun; the weight of a loaded boat, complete with 18-inch torpedo, was to not exceed the weight of the 30-foot long motor boat carried in the davits of a light cruiser, i.e. 4.5 tons.
The CMBs were designed by Thornycroft. Engines were not proper maritime internal combustion engines but adapted aircraft engines from firms such as Sunbeam and Napier. In 1910, Thornycroft had designed and built a 25 ft speedboat called Miranda IV, she was a single-step hydroplane powered by a 120 hp Thornycroft petrol engine and could reach 35 knots. A 40 ft boat based on Miranda IV was accepted by the Admiralty for trials. A number of these boats were built and had a distinguished service history, but in hindsight they were considered to be too small to be ideal in how their payload was limited to a single 18-inch torpedo. Several companies were approached, but only Thornycroft considered it possible to meet such a requirement. In January 1916, twelve boats were ordered, all of which were completed by August 1916. Further boats were built, to a total of 39; the restriction on weight meant the torpedo could not be fired from a torpedo tube, but instead was carried in a rear-facing trough. On firing it was pushed backwards by a cordite firing pistol and a long steel ram, entering the water tail-first.
A trip-wire between the torpedo and the ram head would start the torpedo motors once pulled taut during release. The CMB would turn hard over and get out of its path. There is no record of a CMB being hit by its own torpedo, but in one instance the firing pistol was triggered prematurely and the crew had a tense 20 minutes close to the enemy whilst reloading it. Losses 1917 Zeebrugge actionIn December 1916, the 3rd CMB Division proceeded to Dunkirk under the command of Lieutenant W. N. T. Beckett of CMB4 and operated on the Belgian coast. On 7 April 1917, the 3rd CMB Division attacked a group of German destroyers anchored at Zeebrugge; as a result, one destroyer was sunk and one seriously damaged. For these actions Beckett was mentioned in Despatches and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.1919 Baltic actions against the Soviet Red forces. In June 1919 a force of two CMBs sank the cruiser Oleg. Lt. Augustus Agar of CMB4 won his Victoria Cross in this operation. In August, a larger combined operation with aircraft managed to damage one battleship and sink a depot ship.
There were casualties. Lt. Agar won a DSO to accompany his VC.1919-1920 British Caspian FlotillaIn January 1919 a force of 12 CMBs was dispatched to the Caspian Sea to join a British naval unit supporting the anti-Bolshevik governments of Armenia and Georgia. The hull of CMB 4 in which Augustus Agar won his VC for the attack on Kronstadt naval base in 1919 and sank the cruiser Oleg was, for many years, at the Vosper Thornycroft works on Platt's Eyot on the Thames near Kingston; when these works closed it was restored and can now be seen at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford with details of these boats and the action. Agar’s VC is at the War Museum in London. CMB 9 is based at Avonmouth near Bristol, she took part in the 2014 Remembrance Day events in Bristol. CMB 9 was converted to a Distance Control Boat in 1918, the first CMB so converted and in so doing became DCB1, it is in her DCB outfit that the vessel exists. Larger versions of the 40-footer were ordered in 1916In 1917 Thornycroft produced an enlarged 60-foot overall version.
This allowed a heavier payload, now two torpedoes could be carried. A mixed warload of a single torpedo and four depth charges could be carried, the depth charges released from individual cradles over the sides, rather than a stern ramp. Speeds from 35–41 knots were possible, depending on the various petrol engines fitted. At least two unexplained losses due to fires in port are thought to have been caused by a build-up of petrol vapour igniting, it was these larger boats that entered the harbour during the Kronstadt raid and torpedoed the Soviet ships. The design was so successful that more were built during World War II; the last survivor, MTB 331, is of this group, built in 1941. MTB 331, owned by Hampshire County Council and on-loan to the British Military Powerboat Trust at Marchwood, is the sole surviving 55' CMB. Built in 1941, the penultimate 55' built, her design was based on that of the CMBs of 1917 with two V12 engines, her post-war history is incomplete, but she was registered as the Jonrey at Teignmouth later at Bristol.
She was acquired by the Council around 1990. Some restoration after this was carried out at Priddy's Hard she was transported by road to BMPT Marchwood in March 2000. Twelve 72 ft long CMBs we
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Isotta Fraschini was an Italian luxury car manufacturer, company produced trucks, engines for marine and aviation use. Founded in Milan, Italy, in 1900 by Cesare Isotta and the brothers Vincenzo and Oreste Fraschini, in 1955 it was merged with engine manufacturer Breda Motori and was renamed F. A. Isotta Fraschini e Motori Breda; the company went bankrupt in 1999. In 2000, a new company was founded as a subsidiary of Fincantieri, under the name of Isotta Fraschini Motori based in Bari; the firm was named for its founders, Cesare Isotta and Vincenzo Fraschini, as Società Milanese Automobili Isotta, Fraschini & C. on 27 January 1900. The motto was "Import, repair cars". Prior to establishing their own company in 1904, Isotta and Fraschini assembled Renaults; the first automobile bearing this marque featured a four-cylinder engine with an output of 24 horsepower. The car, driven by Vincenzo Fraschini, appeared in several races. In 1905, Isotta Fraschini gained notoriety in the Coppa Florio, where they entered a Tipo D with a 17.2-litre 100 horsepower engine.
For a short time in 1907, Isotta Fraschini merged with French automobile company Lorraine-Dietrich. The firm started making race cars using this same 100 horsepower engine, establishing the company's reputation and giving its name considerable cachet, it was one of the first cars with four-wheel brakes, following their invention by Arrol-Johnston of Scotland in 1909. They were among the early pioneers of overhead cam, with an engine designed by Giustino Cattaneo. Isotta Fraschini introduced their Tipo 8, the first production automobile to be powered by a straight-eight engine, at the Paris Salon in 1919 and began delivering them to customers in 1920. With the growth of the wealthy middle class in North America in the 1920s, Isotta Fraschini marketed deluxe limousines to the new American aristocracy. Early film stars Clara Rudolph Valentino drove Isotta Fraschinis. A 1929 Tipo 8A Castagna Transformable is featured in the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard and another appears in the 1934 film Death Takes a Holiday with Fredric March.
An Isotta Fraschini makes a featured appearance in the 1946 film Without Reservations with John Wayne and Claudette Colbert. An Isotta Fraschini was gigolo Lindsay Marriott's car in Raymond Chandler's book Farewell, My Lovely, made into the motion picture Murder, My Sweet, starring Dick Powell and Claire Trevor; the grille of the Isotta Fraschini with the lightning bolt insignia is seen parked in a ravine, right before Lindsay Marriott gets zapped to death. An oversized Isotta Fraschini is the vehicle of choice for Dick and Nicole Diver in F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1933 novel Tender is the Night. Affected by the economic crisis of the 1930s and by the disruptions of World War II, Isotta Fraschini stopped making cars after the war. Only five of the last model, the Monterosa, were produced; the plants were converted to produce marine engines. The company was left on the company register and in 1955 it was merged with engine manufacturer Breda Motori and named F. A. Isotta Fraschini e Motori Breda; the company started to produce trolley buses again and in 1960s built a new diesel engine factory in Bari.
In the 1980s, the company was renamed Isotta Fraschini Motori SpA and it became part of Fincantieri group, with administrative headquarters in the old factory in Bari. In the 1990s, attempts to revive the automotive industry of Isotta Fraschini were made. Concept-car coupe and roadster Isotta Fraschini T8 were built in 1996, concept-car roadster Isotta Fraschini T12 was built in 1998; the company never went into production and closed for bankruptcy in 1999. Isotta Fraschini A.120 R. C.40 – Isotta Fraschini L.121 R. C.40 – Isotta Fraschini L.170 Isotta Fraschini L.180 I. R. C. C.15/40 inverted W-18 Isotta Fraschini L.180 I. R. C. C.45 inverted W-18 Isotta Fraschini Asso 80Isotta Fraschini Asso 80 R. I. Isotta Fraschini Asso 120 R. C.40 Isotta Fraschini Asso 200 Isotta Fraschini Asso 250 misidentification or variant of Asso 200 Isotta Fraschini Asso 500 Isotta Fraschini Asso 500 AQ Isotta Fraschini Asso 750 Isotta Fraschini Asso 750 R Isotta Fraschini Asso 750 R. C. Isotta Fraschini Asso 750 R. C.35 Isotta Fraschini Asso IX Isotta Fraschini Asso IX R.
C.45 Isotta Fraschini Asso 1000 Isotta Fraschini Asso Caccia Isotta Fraschini Asso XI Isotta Fraschini Asso Isotta Fraschini Beta Isotta Fraschini Beta R. C.10 Isotta Fraschini GammaIsotta Fraschini Gamma R. C.15I Isotta Fraschini Gamma R. C.35IS Isotta Fraschini Delta Isotta Fraschini ZetaIsotta Fraschini Zeta R. C.25/60 Isotta Fraschini Zeta R. C.35 Isotta Fraschini Zeta R. C.42 Isotta Fraschini Astro 7 C.21 Isotta Fraschini Astro 7 C.40 Isotta Fraschini Astro 14 C.40 Isotta Fraschini Astro 14 R. C.40 Isotta Fraschini V.4 Isotta Fraschini V.5 Isotta Fraschini V.6 Isotta Fraschini 245hp Isotta Fraschini K.14 Isotta Fraschini 80 R Isotta Fraschini 80 T Runabout 1901–1902 Tipo FENC 1908 Tipo KM 1910-1914 Tipo IM 1913 Tipo 8 1919-1924 Tipo 8A 1924-1931 Tipo 8B 1931-1936 Tipo 8C Monterosa 1948-1949 T8 1996 T12 1998 Tipo D 1905 Tipo FE 1908 D80 1934–1955 D65 1940–1955 TS 40F1 F1 Isotta Fraschini is today represented by the following three economic entities. Intrepida Fides, The Isotta Fraschini Foundation, acronym coined by Gabriele D'Annunzio, with registered office in Milan.
Isotta Fraschini Milano s.r.l. with registered office in Milan, active in the field of vehicles, as well as production and marketing of luxury goods. Isotta Fraschini Motori S.p. A.: with registered office in Bari. An engineering firm specializing in diesel products marine engines, industrial engines, rail traction engines, but providing civ