La Cañada Flintridge, California
La Cañada Flintridge is a city in Los Angeles County, with a population of 20,246 in 2010. It is located in the Crescenta Valley and far western end of the San Gabriel Valley, to the northwest of Pasadena, it is the home of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. During the Spanish and Mexican eras, the area was known as Rancho La Cañada. Before the city's incorporation in 1976, it consisted of two distinct communities, La Cañada and Flintridge. La Cañada comes from the Spanish word cañada, meaning gorge, or ravine. Flintridge comprises the southern part of the city, covering the northern flank of the San Rafael Hills, but more including most areas south of Foothill Blvd; the eastern part north of Foothill Blvd. was originally considered Flintridge and is still home to the Flintridge Riding Club and Flintridge Preparatory School. Reference to the entire city is shortened to just "La Cañada" or to just "Flintridge"; the full city name does not have a hyphen in it, to illustrate unity between the two communities that became one.
In a 2015 issue of Forbes, La Cañada Flintridge ranked as the 121st most expensive U. S. city. La Cañada Flintridge is located at 34.207721°N 118.206979°W / 34.207721. The city is situated in far western end of the San Gabriel Valley, it is nestled between the San Gabriel Mountains and Angeles National Forest on the north, in the San Rafael Hills on the south. Most of the city drains southeastward toward Pasadena to Arroyo Seco, but the western part of the city drains southward toward Glendale via Verdugo Canyon. Both drainages join the Los Angeles River north of downtown Los Angeles, it is built of the Angeles Crest, the San Rafeles, the canyon in the middle La Cañada Flintridge varies in elevation from about 970 feet just below Devil's Gate Dam in the Arroyo Seco to about 2400 feet at the highest neighborhood, along the mountain front east of Pickens Canyon, at the upper end of Ocean View Blvd. The city limits extend into the San Gabriel Mountains and reach 3440 feet along Mount Lukens Road, which follows the crest line well above the developed city.
In August 2009, the city came under threat by the Station Fire. The city is home to Descanso Gardens and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; the climate of La Cañada Flintridge is typical of a Southern California inland valley, with mild winters and hot summers. Spring has hazy days, in contrast to the more persistently clear weather of fall. On average, the warmest month is August with high temperatures in the low to mid 90s and lows in the low 70s. December and January are the coolest months with typical highs in the low 70s and lows in the upper-40s. Rainfall occurs during winter, averaging about 22 inches annually. Rainfall is rare in summer; the moderating influence of the ocean is limited due to the city's location inland from the intervening Santa Monica Mountains, the Verdugo Mountains and the San Rafael Hills. Summers are hotter and winters cooler than in coastal parts of metropolitan Los Angeles if winds are calm or blowing offshore. Occasional strong offshore winds, known as the Santa Ana winds, can bring hot air in summer and fall as air from the desert plateaus crosses the mountains and descends, thus warming further by adiabatic heating.
Summer and early fall temperatures are cooler if the prevailing wind is persistently onshore. During a winter storm, the upper elevations of the city may see trace amounts of snow; the small ski resorts Mountain High, Mount Baldy, Mount Waterman are located about 30 miles to the northeast. The 2010 United States Census reported that La Cañada Flintridge had a population of 20,246; the population density was 2,341.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of La Cañada Flintridge was 13,959 White, 109 African American, 24 Native American, 5,214 Asian, 5 Pacific Islander, 245 from other races, 690 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,267 persons; the Census reported that 20,219 people lived in households, 21 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 6 were institutionalized. There were 6,849 households, out of which 2,873 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,029 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 525 had a female householder with no husband present, 214 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 103 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 36 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 924 households were made up of individuals and 559 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95. There were 5,768 families; the population was spread out with 5,315 people under the age of 18, 1,363 people aged 18 to 24, 3,157 people aged 25 to 44, 7,224 people aged 45 to 64, 3,187 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45.9 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males. There were 7,089 housing units at an average density of 820.0 per square mile, of which 6,120 were owner-occupied, 729 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.8%. 18,052 people lived in owner-occupie
Arcadia is a city in Los Angeles County, United States located about 13 miles northeast of downtown Los Angeles in the San Gabriel Valley and at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains. It is the site of the Santa Anita Park racetrack and home to the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden; the city had a population of 56,364 at the 2010 census, up from 53,248 at the 2000 census. The city is named after Greece. In 2016, Arcadia was ranked the 5th most expensive housing market in the United States by Business Insider, with an average list of $1,748,680 for a four-bedroom home. In 2012, Arcadia was ranked 7th in the nation on CNN Money magazine's list of towns with highest median home costs. Arcadia's Upper Rancho neighborhood was ranked the 23rd richest neighborhood in Southern California by Business Insider in 2014, with a mean household income of $310,779. In 2010, Bloomberg Businessweek named Arcadia as one of the "Best Places to Raise Your Kids" for the second year in a row. Located northeast of downtown Los Angeles, Arcadia is bordered by six other communities: Pasadena, Sierra Madre, El Monte, San Marino and Temple City.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.1 square miles. 10.9 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Arcadia had a population of 56,364; the population density was 5,062.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Arcadia was 33,353 Asian, 18,191 White, 681 African American, 186 Native American, 16 Pacific Islander, 2,352 from other races, 1,585 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,799 persons; the Census reported that 55,502 people lived in households, 639 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 223 were institutionalized. There were 19,592 households, out of which 7,336 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 11,703 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,437 had a female householder with no husband present, 865 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 469 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 92 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
3,855 households were made up of individuals and 1,926 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83. There were 15,005 families; the population was spread out with 12,290 people under the age of 18, 4,102 people aged 18 to 24, 13,409 people aged 25 to 44, 17,349 people aged 45 to 64, 9,214 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. There were 20,686 housing units at an average density of 1,858.0 per square mile, of which 12,371 were owner-occupied, 7,221 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 37,000 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 18,502 people lived in rental housing units. These were the ten neighborhoods in Los Angeles County with the largest percentage of Asian residents, according to the 2000 census: For over 8,000 years the site of Arcadia was part of the homeland of the Tongva people, a Californian Native American tribe whose territory spanned the greater Los Angeles Basin, the San Gabriel and San Fernando Valleys.
Their fluid borders stretched between: the Santa Susana Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains in the north. A Tongva settlement site within present-day Arcadia was known as Alyeupkigna; the town's site became part of the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel lands in 1771. After Indian Reductions to become Mission Indians, the Tongva were known as the Gabrieliños after the Mission's name, and under whose control these people worked during the mission period in California. There are 1,700 people self-identifying as members of the Tongva or Gabrieliño tribe; the Mexican land grant for Rancho Santa Anita was issued to Perfecto Hugo Reid and his Tongva wife, Victoria Bartolomea Comicrabit, in 1845. It was named after Anita Cota, on his wife's side. Reid documented the Gabrieliño Native Americans in a series of letters written in 1852, served as a delegate to the 1849 California Constitutional Convention. In 1847, Reid sold Rancho Santa Anita to Henry Dalton; the rancho changed owners several times before being acquired by Gold Rush immigrant and major regional land owner Elias Jackson "Lucky" Baldwin in 1875.
Baldwin purchased 8,000 acres of Rancho Santa Anita for $200,000. Upon seeing the area, he gasped “By Gads! This is paradise!” Upon buying the land, Baldwin chose to make the area his home and started erecting buildings and cultivating the land for farming and ranches. Baldwin built the Queen Anne Cottage for his fourth wife and himself in 1885-1886, now preserved within the Arboretum. In 1885, the main line of the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad, in which Baldwin was a stockholder, was opened through the ranch, making subdivision of part of the land into a town site practical; this rail line became a Santa Fe Railroad line. In 1889, on a site just north of
Maywood is a small Gateway city in Los Angeles County. At 1.18 square miles, Maywood is the third-smallest incorporated city in Los Angeles County. It is bordered by the cities of Bell on the south, Vernon on the north and west, Huntington Park on the southwest, Commerce on the east, it is the most densely-populated city in California, has the highest proportion of Latinos and undocumented immigrants in the county. As of July 1, 2010, Maywood became the first municipality in California to outsource all of its city services, dismantling its police department, laying off all city employees except for the city manager, city attorney and elected officials, contracting with outside agencies for the provision of all municipal services; the population was 27,395 at the 2010 census. The land on which Maywood now stands had been populated by Native American tribes for centuries; the area that would become Maywood was deeded in 1781 by the Spanish monarchy to Spanish War veteran Manuel Nieto. When the settlement of Pueblo de Nuestra Senora de Los Angeles was recorded, it included the cow pasture that turned into a rancho.
In 1919, May Wood, a popular young woman who worked for the real estate corporation developing the 2,300 acres ranch into home tracts, agreed to lend her name to the property. The development of Maywood survived a bitter challenge to dissolve the prospective city in early 1924. On September 2, 1924, Maywood's citizens voted to incorporate and about 300 people turned out for the dedication, including Miss May Wood. By 1924, the population of Maywood had reached 1,000; the city featured stores and a movie theater. In the 1930s, gamblers were removed from the city. Maywood Parks and Recreation built Maywood Park, had its beginnings in the 1930s, when a large meadow was turned into the present day baseball field; the Golden State Baseball Association made Maywood Park its home in the early 1950s. The Chrysler Corporation had an auto assembly plant in Maywood from the 1920s until its closing in July 1971, it was located at 5800 Eastern Avenue at Slauson, was referred to as the "Los Angeles" Plant. When the city of Commerce was incorporated in 1961, that corner was annexed as were several in the surrounding area.
Maywood Assembly was a Ford Motor Company assembly plant located in Maywood, that operated from 1948 until 1957. The address was 5801 S. Eastern Avenue, it was across the street from the Chrysler Assembly factory, built Lincoln and Mercury vehicles; the factory was closed and demolished when operations at Maywood and Long Beach were combined into a new factory in Pico Rivera in 1958. Willys-Overland built its California factory in Maywood, California, in 1929 at the current location of 6201 Randolph Street. Over 900 people were employed at the new $1.5 million assembly plant. Willys-Overland became the second automobile manufacturer to build a major plant in the city. After the United States entered World War II, automobile production for civilians was phased out and in November 1941, automobile assembly at Maywood was stopped. A great many automobile plants were retooled to manufacture war machinery and for three years during the war, the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation rented the plant building from Willys-Overland for that purpose.
Equipment was installed for the manufacture of sub-assemblies for Hudson Bombers until the war ended. Willys-Overland began to manufacture the first Jeeps for civilians in 1945; as the demand for Jeeps increased, the reconditioning of the plant back to automobile assembly began early in 1947 and by November, Willys was building "West Coast" CJ-2As. By the end of November, 108 Jeeps had been assembled. Jeep Trucks and Station Wagons were incorporated into the West Coast Division's "final assemblies" production lines in 1948; the Maywood plant produced the entire CJ-3A model production duration and about 5% of all CJ-3As were assembled in California. In 1952, Willys-Overland introduced a new post-war model car, the Aero, they were assembled in both Maywood and Toledo; the entire plant was shut down in 1954. Maywood officials were given notice in June 2009, that the city would lose its insurance coverage unless they implemented a 20-point performance plan. Maywood owed the California Insurance Authority $927,135 and had been making interest-only payments.
Because of the troubled history, including multiple lawsuits, the dubious reputation of the Maywood Police Department, the city’s Liability and Workers Compensation insurer, notified the city in August 2009, that it would cancel its coverage effective July 1, 2010. When the city was unable to find coverage elsewhere, it disbanded its police department, laid off all city employees, except for the city manager, city attorney and elected officials, contracted with other agencies to provide all municipal services. An outside audit found that Maywood was losing $620,000 annually from its $10 million general fund budget under the previous seven-year contract with nearby Cudahy, because they had neglected to bill Cudahy for administration, vehicle maintenance or insurance; the firm concluded that Maywood was losing about $620,000 a year, or a total of about $4 million in the last six years. George Perez, Cudahy's city manager, said Maywood's "politics have been getting in the way." Perez said that he and then-acting Maywood City Manager, Paul Philips would agree on a new contract, but the Maywood City Council would send Philips back for further negotiation.
Perez said. Councilman Felipe Aguirre said, "We don't want to file for bankruptcy. We don't want to disappear as a city." Aguirre said filing for bankruptcy was not an option for Maywood because
Avalon is the only incorporated city on Santa Catalina Island of the California Channel Islands, the southernmost city in Los Angeles County. The city is a resort community with the waterfront dominated by tourism-oriented businesses; the older parts of the town on the valley floor consist of small houses and two and three-story buildings in various traditional architectural styles. In 1919, William Wrigley, Jr. gained control of Avalon and oversaw much of the development of Avalon, including the construction of the landmark Catalina Casino. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, several different developers tried to develop Avalon into a resort destination community, but most before Wrigley went bankrupt; the population was 3,728 at the 2010 census. Avalon attracts about 1 million visitors a year and is visited by cruise ships. Before European colonization, the island was inhabited by the Tongva people. Prior to the modern era, Avalon Bay was inhabited by people of the Gabrielino/Tongva tribe.
The island was a major source of soapstone to the Tongva, who used the material to make stone vessels for cooking. The Tongva referred to themselves as the Pimugnans. However, by the 1830s, the entire island's native population had either died off, or had been relocated to the mainland to work in the missions or as ranch hands for the many private land owners. In the 1860s, German immigrant Augustus William Timms ran a sheep herding business on Catalina Island. One of his vessels, the Rosita, would ferry pleasure seekers across the channel to Avalon Bay for bathing and fishing; the settlement in Avalon was referred to as Timms's Landing in his honor. By the summer of 1883, there were three wooden buildings at Timms's Landing; the first owner to try to develop Avalon Bay into a resort destination was George Shatto, a real estate speculator from Grand Rapids, Michigan. Shatto purchased the island for $200,000 from the estate of James Lick at the height of a real estate boom in Southern California in 1887.
Shatto created the settlement that would become Avalon, can be credited with building the town's first hotel, the original Hotel Metropole, pier. Though early maps labeled the town Shatto, Shatto's sister-in-law Etta Whitney came up with the permanent name of Avalon in reference from a poem by Lord Tennyson called "Idylls of the King" about the legend of King Arthur. Shatto laid out Avalon's streets, introduced it as a vacation destination to the general public. Despite Shatto's efforts, in a few years he had to default on his loan and the island went back to the Lick estate; the sons of Phineas Banning bought the island in 1891 from the Lick estate and established the Santa Catalina Island Company to develop it as a resort. The Banning brothers fulfilled Shatto's dream of making Avalon a resort community, they built a dance pavilion in the center of town, made additions to the Hotel Metropole and steamer-wharf, built an aquarium, created the Pilgrim Club. Just as the Bannings were anticipating the construction of a new, Hotel Saint Catherine, their efforts were set back on November 29, 1915, when a fire burned half of Avalon's buildings, including six hotels and several clubs.
In 1919, due to debt related to the 1915 fire and a general decline in tourism during World War I, the Bannings were forced to sell the island in shares. In February 1919, chewing gum magnate William Wrigley, Jr. bought a controlling interest in Santa Catalina Island and its associated properties from the Banning Brothers. Wrigley devoted himself to preserving and promoting it, investing millions in needed infrastructure and attractions, including the construction of the new Catalina Casino, completed May 29, 1929. In order to encourage growth, Wrigley purchased additional steamships to service Avalon, including the SS Virginia and the SS Catalina, launched on the morning of May 3, 1924. Wrigley brought attention to the town of Avalon by having his Chicago Cubs use the island for the team's spring training from 1921 to 1951, absent the war years of 1942–45; the ball field was between Tremont Street and the golf course. Following the death of William Wrigley, Jr. in 1932, his son Philip K. Wrigley took over the Santa Catalina Island Company.
Philip continued his father's work in the improvement of the infrastructure of the City of Avalon. During World War II, the island was closed to tourists and used for military training facilities, including a U. S. Maritime Service training facility in Avalon. Catalina's steamships were expropriated for use as troop transports, the U. S. Maritime Service set up a training facility in Avalon; the Maritime Service announced on September 19, 1945, that the facility would soon be abandoned and all apprentice seaman on the west coast trained aboard three ocean-going vessels at Long Beach. In 1975, Philip Wrigley deeded the Wrigley shares in the Santa Catalina Island Company to the Catalina Island Conservancy that he had helped create; the Conservancy now stewards 88 percent of the island outside of the City of Avalon. The Santa Catalina Island Company maintains control of much of its resort properties and operations within the City of Avalon, it still owns and operates many of the main tourist attractions in Avalon, including the Catalina Visitors Country Club, Catalina Island Golf Course, Descanso Beach Club and the Casino Ballroom.
In May 2007, a fire ripped through 4,750 acres of land just outside Avalon's city limits. Over 200 firefighting recruits were brought over by U. S. Marine helicopter to protect the city. Only one residence and six commercial structures were destroyed
Malibu is a beach city in western Los Angeles County, situated about 30 miles west of Downtown Los Angeles. It is known for its Mediterranean climate and its 21-mile strip of the Malibu coast, incorporated in 1991 into the City of Malibu; the area is known for being the home of Hollywood movie stars, people in the entertainment industry, other affluent residents. Most Malibu residents live within a few hundred yards of Pacific Coast Highway, which traverses the city, with some residents living up to a mile away from the beach up narrow canyons; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,645. Nicknamed "the'Bu" by surfers and locals, beaches along the Malibu coast include Surfrider Beach, Zuma Beach, Malibu Beach, Topanga Beach, Point Dume Beach, County Line, Dan Blocker Beach. State parks and beaches on the Malibu coast include Malibu Creek State Park, Leo Carrillo State Beach and Park, Point Mugu State Park, Robert H. Meyer Memorial State Beach, with individual beaches: El Pescador, La Piedra and El Matador.
The many parks within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area lie along the ridges above the city along with local parks that include Malibu Bluffs Park, Trancas Canyon Park, Las Flores Creek Park, Legacy Park. Signs around the city proclaim "21 miles of scenic beauty", referring to the incorporated city limits; the city updated the signs in 2017 from the historical 27-mile length of the Malibu coast spanning from Tuna Canyon on the southeast to Point Mugu in Ventura County on the northwest. For many residents of the unincorporated canyon areas, Malibu has the closest commercial centers and they are included in the Malibu ZIP Codes; the city is bounded by Topanga on the east, the Santa Monica Mountains to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south, Solromar in Ventura County to the west. Malibu is named for the Ventureño Chumash settlement of Humaliwo, which translates to “The Surf Sounds Loudly.” This pre-colonial village is now part of the State Park. Malibu was settled by the Chumash, Native Americans whose territory extended loosely from the San Joaquin Valley to San Luis Obispo to Malibu, as well as several islands off the southern coast of California.
They named it "Humaliwo" or "the surf sounds loudly". The city's name derives from this; the village of Humaliwo was located next to Malibu Lagoon and was an important regional center in prehistoric times. The village, identified as CA-LAN-264, was occupied from 2,500 BCE, it was the second-largest Chumash coastal settlement by the Santa Monica Mountains, with just Muwu being more populated. A total of 118 individuals were baptized in Humaliwo. Humaliwo was considered an important political center, but there were additional minor settlements in today’s Malibu. One village, known as Ta’lopop, was located few miles up Malibu Canyon from Malibu Lagoon. Research have shown that Humaliwo had ties to other villages in pre-colonial times, including Hipuk and Huwam. Explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo is believed to have moored at Malibu Lagoon, at the mouth of Malibu Creek, to obtain fresh water in 1542; the Spanish presence returned with the California mission system, the area was part of Rancho Topanga Malibu Sequit—a 13,000-acre land grant—in 1802.
That ranch passed intact to Frederick Hastings Rindge in 1891. He and his widow, May K. Rindge, guarded their privacy zealously by hiring guards to evict all trespassers and fighting a lengthy court battle to prevent the building of a Southern Pacific railroad line through the ranch. Interstate Commerce Commission regulations would not support a railroad condemning property in order to build tracks that paralleled an existing line, so Frederick H. Rindge decided to build his own railroad through his property first, he died, May K. Rindge followed through with the plans, building the Hueneme and Port Los Angeles Railway; the line started at Carbon Canyon, just inside the ranch's property eastern boundary, ran 15 miles westward, past Pt. Dume. Few roads entered the area before 1929, when the state won another court case and built what is now known as the Pacific Coast Highway. By May Rindge was forced to subdivide her property and begin selling and leasing lots; the Rindge house, known as the Adamson House, is now part of Malibu Creek State Park and is situated between Malibu Lagoon State Beach and Surfrider Beach, beside the Malibu Pier, used to provide transportation to/from the ranch, including construction materials for the Rindge railroad, to tie up the family's yacht.
In 1926, in an effort to avoid selling land to stave off insolvency, May K. Rindge created a small ceramic tile factory. At its height, Malibu Potteries employed over 100 workers, produced decorative tiles which furnish many Los Angeles-area public buildings and Beverly Hills residences; the factory, located one-half mile east of the pier, was ravaged by a fire in 1931. Although the factory reopened in 1932, it could not recover from the effects of the Great Depression and a steep downturn in Southern California construction projects. A distinct hybrid of Moorish and Arts and crafts designs, Malibu tile is considered collectible. Fine examples of the tiles may be seen at the Adamson House and Serra Retreat, a fifty-room mansion, started in the 1920s as the main Rindge home on a hill overlooking the lagoon; the unfinished building was sold to the Franciscan Order in 1942 and is
Hermosa Beach, California
Hermosa Beach is a beachfront city in Los Angeles County, United States. Its population was 19,506 at the 2010 U. S. Census; the city is located in the South Bay region of the Greater Los Angeles area. Hermosa Beach is bordered by the other two, Manhattan Beach to the north and Redondo Beach to the south and east; the city's beach is popular for sunbathing, beach volleyball, paddleboarding, bars and running. The city itself extends only about 15 blocks from east to west and 40 blocks from north to south, with Pacific Coast Highway running down the middle. Situated on the Pacific Ocean, Hermosa's average temperature is 70 °F in the summer and 55 °F in the winter. Westerly sea breezes lessen what can be high summertime temperatures in Los Angeles and elsewhere in the county and help keep the smog away 360 days of the year. A paved path, called The Strand, runs along Hermosa's beach from Torrance Beach in the south twenty miles north to Santa Monica; the Hermosa Beach pier is at the end of Pier Avenue, one of the beach community's main shopping and partying areas.
Hermosa Beach was part of the 1784 Rancho San Pedro Spanish land grant that became the ten-mile Ocean frontage of Rancho Sausal Redondo. In 1900 a tract of 1,500 acres was purchased for $35 per acre from A. E. Pomroy owner of the greater part of Rancho Sausal Redondo. Messrs. Burbank and Baker, bought this land for Sherman and Clark who organized and retained the controlling interest in the Hermosa Beach Land and Water Company, In early days, Hermosa Beach — like so many of its neighboring cities — was one vast sweep of rolling hills covered with fields of grain barley. During certain seasons of the year large herds of sheep were grazed over this land, corrals and large barns for storing the grain, as well as providing shelter for horses and farm implements, were located on the ranch between Hermosa and Inglewood; the Spanish words Rancho Sausal Redondo mean a large circular ranch of pasture of grazing land, with a grove of willow on it. The first official survey was made in the year 1901 for the board walk on the Strand, Hermosa Avenue and Santa Fe Avenue.
In 1904 the first pier was built. It was constructed of wood to the pilings and it extended five hundred feet out into the ocean; the pier was constructed by the Hermosa Beach Water Company. In 1913 this old pier was washed away and torn down and a new one built to replace it; this pier was built of concrete 1,000 feet long, paved with asphalt its entire length. Small tiled pavilions were erected at intervals along the sides to afford shade for fishermen and picnic parties. A bait stand was built out on the end. Soon after, about 1914, an auditorium building was constructed; this pier is municipally owned. The Los Angeles Pacific Railway, a "trolley" system, was the first railway in Hermosa Beach, running the entire length of Hermosa Ave. on its way from L. A. to Redondo Beach. A few years it was merged with most all other "trolley" companies in the region to form the new Pacific Electric Railway Company, informally called the Red Cars; the Santa Fe Railway was next through Hermosa Beach. It was seven blocks from the beach.
The street that led to the tracks was called Santa Fe Avenue, but was renamed Pier Avenue. There was no Santa Fe railway station for Hermosa, but Burbank and Baker built a railway platform on the west side of the tracks near Santa Fe Avenue, the Railroad Company donated an old boxcar to be used as a storage place for freight. In 1926, the Santa Fe Company built a modern stucco depot and installed Western Union telegraph service in it; the first city election for city officers was held December 24, 1906. On January 14, 1907, Hermosa Beach became the nineteenth incorporated city of Los Angeles County. Hermosa is a Spanish word meaning "beautiful". Hermosa Beach is located at 33°51′59″N 118°23′59″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.4 square miles, all of it land. Average air temperature - Average water temperature - 60 °F Hermosa Beach has an average of 325 days of sunshine a year; because of its location, nestled on a vast open bay, morning fog and haze is a common phenomenon in May and early July.
Locals have a particular terminology for this phenomenon: the "May Gray" and the "June Gloom". Overcast skies are common for June mornings, but the strong sun burns the fog off by noon. Nonetheless, it will sometimes stay cloudy and cool all day during June as other parts of the Los Angeles area will enjoy sunny skies and warmer temperatures. At times, the sun shines east of PCH; as a general rule, the temperature is from 5 to 10 degrees. A typical spring day is sunny and about 68 °F. In the summer, which stretches from May to late October, temperatures can reach to the mid-80s Fahrenheit at the beach. In early November, it is about 68 °F. In late January, temperatures are around 63 °F, it is winter, when the hot, dry Santa Ana winds are most common. In mid-December 2004, temperatures soared to 84 °F (
El Segundo, California
El Segundo is a city located in Los Angeles County, United States. El Segundo, from Spanish, means "The Second" in English. Located on the Santa Monica Bay, it was incorporated on January 18, 1917, part of the South Bay Cities Council of Governments; the population was 16,654 at the 2010 census up from 16,033 at the 2000 census. The El Segundo and Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva Native American tribes thousands of years ago; the area was once a part of Rancho Sausal Redondo. Rancho Sausal Redondo extended from Playa Del Rey in the North to Redondo Beach in the South. A Mexican land grant owned by Antonio Ygnacio Avila, the rancho was purchased by a Scottish baronet named Sir Robert Burnett. After his return to Scotland, the property was purchased by current manager of the rancho, Daniel Freeman. Daniel Freeman sold portions of the rancho to several persons. George H. Peck owned the 840 acres of land. Peck developed land in neighboring El Porto where a street still bears his name.
The city earned its name as it was the site of the second Standard Oil refinery on the West Coast, when Standard Oil of California purchased the 840 acres of farm land in 1911. The city was incorporated in 1917; the Standard Oil Company was renamed Chevron in 1984. The El Segundo refinery entered its second century of operation in 2011; the Douglas Aircraft Company plant in El Segundo was one of the major aircraft manufacturing facilities in California during World War II. It was one of the major producers of SBD Dauntless dive bombers, which achieved fame in the Battle of Midway; the facility, now operated by Northrop Grumman, is still an aircraft plant. The north and south boundaries of the town are Los Angeles International Airport and Manhattan Beach, with the Pacific Ocean as the western boundary, its eastern boundary is Aviation Blvd. El Segundo is located at 33°55′17″N 118°24′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, over 99% of, land.
Guinness World Records has listed El Segundo as having the most roads with a grade. The 2010 United States Census reported that El Segundo had a population of 16,654; the population density was 3,047.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of El Segundo was 12,997 White, 337 African American, 68 Native American, 1,458 Asian, 38 Pacific Islander, 799 from other races, 957 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2,609 persons; the Census reported that 16,578 people lived in households, 66 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 10 were institutionalized. There were 7,085 households, out of which 2,183 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,050 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 729 had a female householder with no husband present, 326 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 369 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships. 2,254 households were made up of individuals and 570 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34. There were 4,105 families; the population was spread out with 3,719 people under the age of 18, 1,120 people aged 18 to 24, 5,182 people aged 25 to 44, 4,955 people aged 45 to 64, 1,678 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.8 males. There were 7,410 housing units at an average density of 1,356.1 per square mile, of which 3,034 were owner-occupied, 4,051 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.4%. 8,177 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 8,401 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, El Segundo had a median household income of $84,341, with 4.8% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the 2000 Census, the population density was 2,894.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,261 housing units at an average density of 1,310.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 83.61% White, 1.17% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 6.41% Asian, 0.29% Pacific Islander, 3.51% from other races, 4.55% from two or more races. 11.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,060 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.6% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 38.7% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $61,341, the median income for a family was $74,007.
Males had a median income of $52,486 versus $41,682 for females. The per capita income for