Primal Scream are a Scottish rock band formed in 1982 in Glasgow by Bobby Gillespie and Jim Beattie. The band's current lineup consists of Gillespie, Andrew Innes, Martin Duffy, Simone Butler, Darrin Mooney. Barrie Cadogan has toured and recorded with the band since 2006 as a replacement after the departure of guitarist Robert "Throb" Young. Primal Scream had been performing live from 1982 to 1984, but their career did not take off until Gillespie left his position as drummer of The Jesus and Mary Chain; the band were a key part of the mid-1980s indie pop scene, but moved away from their jangly sound, taking on more psychedelic and garage rock influences, before incorporating a dance music element to their sound with their 1991 album Screamadelica, which broke them into the mainstream. Their latest album Chaosmosis was released on 18 March 2016. Bobby Gillespie moved to Mount Florida in southeastern Glasgow, where he attended Kings Park Secondary School, where he first met Robert Young. Another schoolfriend was Alan McGee, who took Gillespie to a Thin Lizzy concert.
McGee and Gillespie were influenced by punk rock, they joined a local punk band, The Drains, in 1978. The Drains' guitarist was a 15-year-old Andrew Innes; the band was short-lived, Innes and McGee moved to London while Gillespie chose to remain in Glasgow. After the punk movement ended, Gillespie became disenchanted with mainstream new wave music, he met another schoolfriend who shared his outlook, Jim Beattie, they recorded "elemental noise tapes", in which Gillespie would bang two dustbin lids together and Beattie played fuzz-guitar. They soon moved on to The Velvet Underground and The Byrds cover songs before starting to write their own songs, based on Jah Wobble and Peter Hook basslines. Gillespie said that the band "didn't exist, but we did it every night for something to do." They named themselves a term for a type of cry heard in primal therapy. Still a partnership, Primal Scream first played live in 1982, their first recording session, for McGee's independent label Essential Records, produced a single track entitled "The Orchard", with Judith Boyle on vocals.
Beattie claimed that they burned the master tape. After the aborted recording, Gillespie joined The Jesus and Mary Chain as their drummer, alternated between the two bands. While The Jesus and Mary Chain became notorious for their chaotic gigs and Beattie expanded Primal Scream's lineup to include schoolfriend Young on bass, rhythm guitarist Stuart May, drummer Tom McGurk, tambourine player Martin St. John; this lineup was signed to Creation Records, an independent record label founded by Alan McGee, recorded the group's debut single, "All Fall Down", which received positive reviews. After the release of the single, Gillespie was told by The Jesus and Mary Chain leaders William and Jim Reid that he was to either dissolve Primal Scream to join their band full-time or resign. Gillespie chose to remain with Primal Scream. Stuart May was replaced by Paul Harte, the group released a new single, "Crystal Crescent", its B-side, "Velocity Girl", was released on the C86 compilation, which led to their being associated with the scene of the same name.
The band disliked this, Gillespie saying that other groups in that scene "can't play their instruments and they can't write songs."The band toured throughout 1986, Gillespie became disenchanted with the quality of their performances. He said that there "was always something missing, musically or in attitude." They switched to McGee's newly set-up Warner Bros. subsidiary Elevation Records. Before the band entered Rockfield Studios in Wales to record their debut album, McGurk was asked to leave; the group subsequently began recording using session players. They spent four weeks recording with producer Stephen Street before deciding to halt the sessions. May was subsequently dismissed. With their new lineup, the band re-entered the studio, this time in London with producer Mayo Thompson. By the time Sonic Flower Groove was completed, it had cost £100,000; the album reached number 62 on the British charts and received poor reviews, with AllMusic calling it "pristine but dull." The backlash from the album caused internal strife within the band.
Beattie and Skinner subsequently resigned. The band, now consisting of Gillespie and Young, relocated to Brighton to regroup. Young switched to guitar, they recruited bassist Henry Olsen and drummer Phillip "Toby" Tomanov, who had both been in Nico's backing band, The Faction, they traded in their jangle pop sound for a harder rock edge, or as Gillespie said, "e had found rock'n' roll." The band re-signed to Creation Records and released their first single in two years, "Ivy, Ivy". This was followed by Primal Scream; the band's new sound was met with poor reviews, NME called it "confused and lacking in cohesion". Fans responded as unfavourably as the critics, with many of the old fans being disappointed or confused by the new sound; the album featured Felt keyboardist Martin Duffy guesting. The band were first introduced to the acid house scene by McGee in 1988, they were at first sceptical. The band began attending raves; the band met up with DJ Andrew Weatherall at a rave, he was given a copy of "I'm Losing More Than I'll Ever Have", a track from Primal Scream, to remix for one of his shows.
Weatherall added a drum loop from an Italian bootleg mix of Edie Brickell's "What I Am", a sample of Gillespie singing a line from Robe
David William "Dave" Edmunds is a Welsh singer/songwriter, guitarist and record producer. Although he is associated with pub rock and new wave, having many hits in the 1970s and early 1980s, his natural leaning has always been towards 1950s style rock and roll. Edmunds was born in Cardiff; as a ten year old, he first played in 1954 with a band called the Edmunds Bros Duo with his older brother Geoff. The brothers were in the Stompers called the Heartbeats formed around 1957 with Geoff on rhythm guitar, Dave on lead guitar, Denny Driscoll on lead vocals, Johnny Stark on drums, Ton Edwards on bass, Allan Galsworthy on rhythm. Dave and Geoff were in The 99ers along with scientist and writer Brian J. Ford. After that Dave Edmunds was in Crick Feather's Hill-Bill's formed in c 1960, with Feathers on lead guitar; the first group that Edmunds fronted was the Cardiff-based 1950s style rockabilly trio The Raiders formed in 1961, along with Brian'Rockhouse' Davies on bass and Ken Collier on drums. Edmunds was the only constant member of the group, which included bassist Mick Still, Bob'Congo' Jones on drums and John Williams on bass.
The Raiders worked exclusively in the South Wales area. In 1966, after a short spell in a Parlophone recording band, the Image, with local drummer Tommy Riley, Edmunds shifted to a more blues-rock sound, reuniting with Congo Jones and bassist John Williams and adding second guitarist Mickey Gee to form the short lived Human Beans, a band that played in London and on the UK university circuit. In 1967, the band recorded a cover of "Morning Dew" on the Columbia label, that failed to have any chart impact. After just eighteen months, the core of'Human Beans' formed a new band called Love Sculpture that again reinstated Edmunds and Williams as a trio. Love Sculpture released their debut single "River to Another Day" in 1968, their second single was a quasi-novelty Top 5, a reworking Khachaturian's classical piece "Sabre Dance" as a speed-crazed rock number, inspired by Keith Emerson's classical rearrangements. "Sabre Dance" became a hit after garnering the enthusiastic attention of British DJ John Peel, so impressed he played it twice in one programme on "Top Gear".
The band issued two albums. After Love Sculpture split, Edmunds had a UK Christmas Number 1 single in 1970 with "I Hear You Knocking", a Smiley Lewis cover, which he came across while producing Shakin' Stevens and the Sunsets' first album entitled A Legend; the recording was the first release on Edmunds' manager's MAM Records label. This single reached No. 4 in the US, making it Edmunds' biggest hit by far on either side of the Pond. It sold over three million copies, was awarded a gold disc. Edmunds had intended to record Wilbert Harrison's "Let's Work Together", but when he was beaten to that song by Canned Heat, he adapted the arrangement he intended to use for it to "I Hear You Knocking", producing a original remake; the success of the single caused EMI's Regal Zonophone Records to use an option that it had to claim Edmunds' album, 1972's Rockpile, the momentum from the single's success on a different label went away. Edmunds' only acting role followed, as a band member in the David Essex movie Stardust.
After learning the trade of producer, culminating in a couple of singles in the style of Phil Spector, "Baby I Love You" and "Born to Be with You", he became linked with the pub rock movement of the early 1970s, producing Brinsley Schwarz, Ducks Deluxe, the Flamin' Groovies, using a stripped down, grittier sound. In this time frame, Edmunds produced the 1972 debut album of the British blues band Foghat. Edmunds had bought a house in Rockfield, Monmouth, a few miles away from Charles and Kingsley Ward's Rockfield Studios where he became an permanent fixture for the next twenty years, his working regime involved arriving at the studio in the early evening and working through till well after dawn locked in the building alone. Applying the layered Spector sound to his own productions it was not unusual for Edmunds to multilayer up to forty separately recorded guitar tracks into the mix, his own solo LP from 1975, Subtle as a Flying Mallet, was similar in style. The Brinsley Schwarz connection brought about a collaboration with Nick Lowe starting with this album, in 1976 they formed the group Rockpile, with Billy Bremner and Terry Williams.
Because Edmunds and Lowe signed to different record labels that year, they could not record as Rockpile until 1980, but many of their solo LPs were group recordings. Edmunds had more UK hits during this time, including Elvis Costello's "Girls Talk", Nick Lowe's "I Knew the Bride", Hank DeVito's "Queen of Hearts", Graham Parker's "Crawling from the Wreckage", Melvin Endsley's "Singing the Blues"; the album Repeat When Necessary received a Silver Certification from the British Phonographic Industry on 20 March 1980. The single "Girls Talk" received a Silver Certificate from the BPI. Unexpectedly, after Rockpile released their first LP under their own name, Seconds of Pleasure, the band split attributed to tensions not between Edmunds and Lowe but between their respective managers. Edmunds and the band, including Lowe, performed
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Kings of Speed
"Kings of Speed" is a 1975 song by the British space rock group Hawkwind. It was released as a single in the UK on 7 March 1975 and was subsequently included on the album Warrior on the Edge of Time, although its B-side, "Motorhead", was not. Although failing the chart in both the U. S. and the U. K. the track became an underground success with significant play in dance clubs. The parent album did well, climbing up the Billboard album chart in the U. S; the lyrics for this song were written by Michael Moorcock, "Frank and Beasley" refer to characters from Moorcock's Cornelius books. Simon King stated that it was intended for inclusion of the Deep Fix album New Worlds Fair. "It's powerful - it's got two drums on it and it sounds fucking great. It's like a Phil Spector thing." - Alan Powell The b-side has become one of Hawkwind's best-known songs, in large part because Lemmy, who wrote it, named his subsequent band after it. It is notable; the lyrics "Sun rise wrong side of another day, sky high and six thousand miles away" are explained as: "I was on tour with Hawkwind in 1974, we were staying at the Riot House and Roy Wood and Wizzard were in town.
I got this urge to write a song in the middle of the night. I ran downstairs to the Wizzard room, got Roy's Ovation acoustic guitar hurried back to mine. I howled away for four hours. Cars were stopping and the drivers were listening driving off, there I was yelling away at the top of my voice." - Lemmy, Riffs that Changed the World Neither song made it into the live set. It would be years until "King of Speed" would surface for a 1989 tour, while "Motorhead" has only been added to the band's current retro-show, with Alan Davey playing the part of Lemmy; the original backing tracks were taken by Brock from this Olympic Studio session, he added overdubs and released them through independent record companies. "Kings of Speed" was released as an instrumental on the Hawkwind Zoo 12" EP. "Motorhead" was released as the A-side to a 7" and 12" single, this time having a Brock vocal and synthesizer overdubs. Motörhead released their version of "Motorhead" in 1977 as a single and on their debut Motörhead album, a live version in 1981 as a single and on the No Sleep'til Hammersmith album.
Cover versions of "Motorhead" have been recorded by Corduroy in 1993 as a single and on their Out Of Here album, by Primal Scream on their 1997 Vanishing Point album, by Lawnmower Deth on their 1990 album Ooh Crikey... It's Lawnmower Deth. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Motörhead is the self-titled debut studio album by the band Motörhead, released on 21 August 1977, on Chiswick Records, one of the first for the label. It is regarded as the band's debut album, though an album was recorded in 1975 for United Artists, shelved, was only released in 1979 after the band had established themselves commercially; this would be the first album to feature what would become the "classic" Motörhead lineup of Lemmy Kilmister, "Fast" Eddie Clarke and Philthy Animal Taylor and their only release under Chiswick, as they were signed to the larger Bronze Records by early 1978. Motörhead hired lead guitarist "Fast" Eddie Clarke in early 1977, he was to serve as the band's second guitarist along with Larry Wallis in what was intended to be a four-piece lineup, but Wallis left shortly after for his own reasons. Sensing that the fledgling band had dim prospects for success, Motörhead decided to disband after playing one final show at the Marquee Club in London that year. Ted Carroll, founder of the upstart Chiswick Records label, knew Lemmy well from his rare 45 Record's store in London which Lemmy was a frequent customer of.
Carroll decided to give the band a break and hosted what was to be their final performance at the Marquee. The decision was made to record the gig; as Clarke recalls in the documentary The Guts and the Glory: It was going to be our farewell gig. I said, Let's get a mobile down at least to record the fuckin' year and a half we've been together and put something on the fuckin' tape, you know? The problem with the Marquee was. Well, out of the question in those days. Feeling that the band had seen its share of adversity, Carroll offered the band two days of studio time at Escape Studios in Kent, England, to record a single with producer John "Speedy" Keen; as Clarke explained to John Robinson of Uncut in 2015, the band finished the gig at the Marquee and drove straight to the studio in Kent for a weekend of recording: That was Friday night, so we had all Saturday and Sunday. We'd been playing these songs for a year, so we thought fuck it, we can do an album. In a few hours we had all the backing tracks down.
Put the vocals down. Bit more speed, put some more guitars on. Few more beers – we were fucking steaming. Come Saturday night, we'd nearly finished it; as biographer Joel McIver recalls in his book Overkill: The Untold Story of Motörhead: As the story goes, by the time Carroll came back to the studio to hear the results, the band had recorded no fewer than 11 tracks. Impressed, he paid for more studio time to allow them to complete an album; the album did well enough to ensure the band would remain together, but it would be their next album, 1979's Overkill, that proved to be their true breakthrough. Due to the limited studio time afforded the band, the decision was made to re-record the unreleased United Artists album in its entirety. In addition, two new self-penned compositions, "White Line Fever" and "Keep Us on the Road", were added, as well as a cover of John Mayall's "Train Kept A-Rollin". Three tracks on the album were composed by Lemmy while he was still a member of Hawkwind, "Motorhead", "Lost Johnny," and "The Watcher," the latter a psychedelic acoustic piece.
Like the band name itself, the song "Motorhead" is a reference to speed – Lemmy's drug of choice at that time- and was coupled with the non-album track "City Kids" for release as 7" and 12" singles. In his autobiography White Line Fever, Lemmy recalls working with producer Speedy Keen and engineer John Burns and the challenges arising from a lack of time: " were speeding out of their heads because they couldn't afford to go to sleep – they didn't have time, they wanted to make an album as much as we did, they mixed twenty-four versions of Motörhead alone!" The band members were less than pleased with the finished product, guitarist Clarke has referred to the album's muddled sound as "pretty dreadful". Four remaining tracks from the session were shelved until 1980, when they were released as the Beer Drinkers and Hell Raisers EP. In his memoir Lemmy noted: "Once again it was cash-in time – for the record labels, at least. I've never recorded more than we need since! But having said that, I don't begrudge Ted Carroll that – he saved my band."
The B-side and the EP tracks were added as bonus material on the CD release. The sleeve artwork featured War-Pig, the fanged face that would become an icon of the band, created by artist Joe Petagno, who had worked with Storm Thorgerson of Hipgnosis and had designed the Swan Song Records logo for Led Zeppelin, it is supposed to be a combination of a bear, a wolf and a dog skull with boar tusks, according to Petagno. The original version had a swastika on the spike of the helmet; the inner sleeve featured old and new photographs of the band and friends by long time friend Motorcycle Irene, who took most of the 70's pictures of Motörhead, plus letters of thanks from Lemmy and Phil. Advertisements for the album and tour bore the words "Achtung! This Band Takes No Prisoners". 21 August 1977 – UK vinyl – Chiswick, WIK2 – First 1000 printed black on silver foil sleeve. With inner sleeve. 10 November 1979 – UK vinyl – Chiswick/EMI, CWK3008 – The first 10,000 copies pressed on white vinyl, with "White vinyl fever" written on cover.
Versions had a gold stamped promo sleeve. 1981 – UK vinyl – Big Beat, WIK 2 – Red "Motörhead" lettering and "Includes inner sleeve with rare pix" written on cover. With inner sleeve. Black and red vinyl editions. Big Beat have issued a Direct Metal Mastered LP edition. One-
Rhythm game or rhythm action is a genre of music-themed action video game that challenges a player's sense of rhythm. Games in the genre focus on dance or the simulated performance of musical instruments, require players to press buttons in a sequence dictated on the screen. Doing so causes the game's protagonist or avatar to dance or to play their instrument which increases the player's score. Many rhythm games include multiplayer modes in which players compete for the highest score or cooperate as a simulated musical ensemble. While conventional control pads may be used as input devices, rhythm games feature novel game controllers that emulate musical instruments. Certain dance-based games require the player to physically dance on a mat, with pressure-sensitive pads acting as the input device; the 1996 title PaRappa the Rapper has been deemed the first influential rhythm game, whose basic template formed the core of subsequent games in the genre. In 1997, Konami's Beatmania sparked an emergent market for rhythm games in Japan.
The company's music division, released a series of music-based games over the next several years. The most successful of these was the 1998 dance mat game Dance Dance Revolution, the only Bemani title to achieve large-scale success outside Japan, would see numerous imitations of the game from other publishers. Other Japanese games Guitar Freaks, led to development of Guitar Hero and Rock Band series that used instrument-shaped controllers to mimic the playing of actual instruments. Spurred by the inclusion of popular rock music, the two series revitalized the rhythm genre in the Western Market expanded the console video game market and its demographics; the games provided a new source of revenue for the artists. The release of Rock Band 3 as well as the later Rocksmith would allow players to play the songs using a real electric guitar. By 2008, rhythm games were considered to be one of the most popular video game genres, behind other action games. However, by 2009, the market was saturated by spin-offs from the core titles, which led to a nearly 50% drop in revenue for music game publishers.
Despite these setbacks, the rhythm game market continues to expand, introducing a number of dance-based games like Ubisoft's Just Dance and Harmonix's Dance Central that incorporate the use of motion controllers and camera-based controls like the Kinect. Existing games continue to thrive on new business models, such as the reliance on downloadable content to provide songs to players; the introduction of the new generation of console hardware has spurred return of Activision's Guitar Hero and Harmonix's Rock Band titles in late 2015. Rhythm game, or rhythm action, is a subgenre of action game that challenges a player's sense of rhythm; the genre includes dance games such as Dance Dance Revolution and music-based games such as Donkey Konga and Guitar Hero. Games in the genre challenge the player to press buttons at precise times: the screen shows which button the player is required to press, the game awards points both for accuracy and for synchronization with the beat; the genre includes games that measure rhythm and pitch, in order to test a player's singing ability, games that challenge the player to control their volume by measuring how hard they press each button.
While songs can be sight read, players practice to master more difficult songs and settings. Certain rhythm games offer a challenge similar to that of Simon says, in that the player must watch and repeat complex sequences of button-presses. Rhythm-action can take a minigame format with some games blending rhythm with other genres or comprising minigame collections. In some rhythm games, the screen displays an avatar who performs in reaction to the player's controller inputs. However, these graphical responses are in the background, the avatar is more important to spectators than it is to the player. In single-player modes, the player's avatar competes against a computer-controlled opponent, while multiplayer modes allow two player-controlled avatars to compete head-to-head; the popularity of rhythm games has created a market for speciality input devices. These include controllers that emulate musical instruments, such as guitars, maracas. A dance mat, for use in dancing games, requires the player to step on pressure-sensitive pads.
However, most rhythm games support more conventional input devices, such as control pads. In the early 1970s, Kasco created a rhythm-based electro-mechanical arcade game, designed by Kenzou Furukawa and produced by Kenji Nagata. According to Nagata, it was Furukawa's "idea for a game where you’d lift girls skirts in time to some rhythm", inspired by the 1969 Japanese Oh! Mouretsu commercials; the arcade game was released in Japan. Another early rhythm-based electronic game was the handheld game Simon, created in 1978 by Ralph Baer and Howard Morrison; the game used the "call and response" mechanic, in which players take turns repeating complicated sequences of button presses. Human Entertainment's Dance Aerobics was an early rhythm-based video game released in 1987, allows players to create music by stepping on Nintendo's Power Pad peripheral for the NES video game console; the 1996 title PaRappa the Rapper has been credited as the first true rhythm game, as one of the first music-based games in general.
It requires players to press buttons in the order that they appear on the screen, a basic mechanic that formed the core of future rhythm games. The success of PaRappa the Rapper sparked the popularity of the m
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro