Ontario Highway 407
King's Highway 407 is a tolled 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. Comprising a leased segment as well as a publicly owned segment, the route spans the entire Greater Toronto Area around the city of Toronto, travelling through the suburbs of Burlington, Mississauga, Vaughan, Pickering and Oshawa before ending in Clarington, north of Bowmanville; the segment between Burlington and Brougham in Pickering is leased to and operated by the 407 ETR Concession Company Limited and is known as the 407 Express Toll Route. It begins at the junction of the Queen Elizabeth Way and Highway 403 in Burlington, travels 107.9 km across the GTA to Brock Road in Pickering. East of Brock Road, the tollway continues east as Highway 407, a toll route operated by the provincial government, for 30.8 km to Taunton Road in Clarington. Major interchanges along the route include the QEW, Highway 403, Highway 401, Highway 410, Highway 427, Highway 400, Highway 404, Highway 412. Highway 407 is the first electronically operated toll highway opened in the world.
Distances are calculated automatically using transponders or licence plates, which are scanned at entrance and exit points. Highway 407 was planned in the late 1950s as a freeway bypassing the Toronto segment of Highway 401, the busiest highway in the world. However, construction did not begin until 1987. During the early 1990s, the provincial government proposed tolling the highway to alleviate a revenue shortfall; the central sections of Highway 407 opened in 1997, the remaining sections were built over the following four years, with the final segment opening in mid-2001. Despite being included in the 400-series network, the Highway 407 ETR section is not considered part of the provincial highway network due to it now being operated; the segment is operated under a 99-year lease agreement with the provincial government, sold in 1998 for about C$3.1 billion to a consortium of Canadian and Spanish investors operating under the name 407 International Inc. The privatization of the Highway 407 ETR section has been the source of significant criticism regarding the increases in tolls, plate denial, false charges.
In addition, the safety of segments constructed following the sale of the freeway has been called into question. Many have come to regard Highway 407 ETR as a luxury, as opposed to the bypass of Highway 401 it was conceived to be; the first phase of a provincially-owned and tolled extension of the route, known as Highway 407, opened to traffic from Brock Road in Pickering to Harmony Road in Oshawa on June 20, 2016. Included as part of this extension was construction of a tolled north-south link between Highways 401 and 407 known as Highway 412. Construction is underway to extend the provincially owned portion of Highway 407 easterly to Highway 35 / Highway 115 in Clarington; this construction is being completed in two stages, with the first phase opening on January 2, 2018 as a 9.6 km extension to Taunton Road, the second phase opening in 2020. This construction includes an additional link to Highway 401 east of Oshawa that will be known as Highway 418. Though the highway does not enter Toronto city proper, Toronto is used as a control city for Highway 407 in Halton and Durham Regions due to the similar sizes of the suburban municipalities the highway passes through.
Highway 407 is a 138.7-kilometre controlled-access highway that encircles the GTA, passing through Burlington, Mississauga, Vaughan, Pickering, Whitby and Clarington, as well as travelling north of Toronto. Although the general public felt that tolling made the highway a luxury rather than its original purpose of relieving traffic on Highway 401, Highway 407 ETR has had average daily trip counts of over 350,000 vehicles in June 2014; the 407 ETR is contractually responsible for maintaining high traffic levels as justification for increasing tolls, but conduct their own traffic studies. Despite increased usage, parallel roads that Highway 407 was intended to supplement continue to grow congested, forcing the MTO to revisit costly widening projects of Highway 401 and the QEW. Highway 407 has been designed with aesthetics and environmental concerns in mind by featuring landscaped embankments, 79 storm drainage ponds, as well as a curb and gutter system. Unlike most other Ontario highways, it features concrete pavement as opposed to top-coated asphalt.
Because of this, the high-mast lighting along the urban portions of the route feature fewer luminaires than asphalt-surfaced freeways. Highway 407 begins in Burlington within Halton Region at the Freeman Interchange between Highway 403 and the QEW, from which it branches off northward; the six-lane route passes under Brant Street, Upper Middle Road, Guelph Line before it interchanges with Dundas Street. It enters greenspace as it curves to the northeast, avoiding the nearby Niagara Escarpment; the route is crossed by Walkers Line, east of which residential subdivisions line the south side and greenspace lines the north. At an interchange with Appleby Line, the highway straightens and travels parallel to Dundas Street before passing over Bronte Creek and under the Canadian National Railway's Halwest Subdivision. East of Bronte Creek, Highway 407 enters an agricultural area, interspersed with woodlots, it enters Oakville at the Tremaine Road (Halton Regional
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011. Motorola Solutions is considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off. Motorola Mobility was sold to Google in 2012, acquired by Lenovo in 2014. Motorola designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers. Motorola's home and broadcast network products included set-top boxes, digital video recorders, network equipment used to enable video broadcasting, computer telephony, high-definition television, its business and government customers consisted of wireless voice and broadband systems, public safety communications systems like Astro and Dimetra. These businesses are now part of Motorola Solutions.
Google sold Motorola Home to the Arris Group in December 2012 for US$2.35 billion. Motorola's wireless telephone handset division was a pioneer in cellular telephones. Known as the Personal Communication Sector prior to 2004, it pioneered the "mobile phone" with DynaTAC, "flip phone" with the MicroTAC, as well as the "clam phone" with the StarTAC in the mid-1990s, it had staged a resurgence by the mid-2000s with the Razr, but lost market share in the second half of that decade. It focused on smartphones using Google's open-source Android mobile operating system; the first phone to use the newest version of Google's open source OS, Android 2.0, was released on November 2, 2009 as the Motorola Droid. The handset division was spun off into the independent Motorola Mobility. On May 22, 2012, Google CEO Larry Page announced that Google had closed on its deal to acquire Motorola Mobility. On January 29, 2014, Page announced that, pending closure of the deal, Motorola Mobility would be acquired by Chinese technology company Lenovo for US$2.91 billion.
On October 30, 2014, Lenovo finalized its purchase of Motorola Mobility from Google. Motorola started in Chicago, Illinois, as Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in 1928 when brothers Paul V. and Joseph E. Galvin purchased the bankrupt Stewart Battery Company's battery-eliminator plans and manufacturing equipment at auction for $750. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation set up shop in a small section of a rented building; the company had $565 in five employees. The first week's payroll was $63; the company's first products were the battery eliminators, devices that enabled battery-powered radios to operate on household electricity. Due to advances in radio technology, battery-eliminators soon became obsolete. Paul Galvin learned that some radio technicians were installing sets in cars, challenged his engineers to design an inexpensive car radio that could be installed in most vehicles, his team was successful, Galvin was able to demonstrate a working model of the radio at the June 1930 Radio Manufacturers Association convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
He brought home enough orders to keep the company in business. Paul Galvin wanted a brand name for Galvin Manufacturing Corporation's new car radio, created the name “Motorola” by linking "motor" with "ola", a popular ending for many companies at the time, e.g. Moviola, Crayola; the company sold its first Motorola branded radio on June 23, 1930, to Herbert C. Wall of Fort Wayne, for $30. Wall went on to become one of the first Motorola distributors in the country; the Motorola brand name became so well known that Galvin Manufacturing Corporation changed its name to Motorola, Inc. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation began selling Motorola car-radio receivers to police departments and municipalities in November 1930; the company's first public safety customers included the Village of River Forest, Village of Bellwood Police Department, City of Evanston Police, Illinois State Highway Police, Cook County Police with a one-way radio communication. In the same year, the company built its research and development program with Dan Noble, a pioneer in FM radio and semiconductor technologies, who joined the company as director of research.
The company produced the hand-held AM SCR-536 radio during World War II, vital to Allied communication. Motorola ranked 94th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Motorola went public in 1943, became Motorola, Inc. in 1947. At that time Motorola's main business was selling televisions and radios. In October 1946 Motorola communications equipment carried the first calls on Illinois Bell telephone company's new car radiotelephone service in Chicago; the company began making televisions in 1947, with the model VT-71 with 7-inch cathode ray tube. In 1952, Motorola opened its first international subsidiary in Toronto, Canada to produce radios and televisions. In 1953, the company established the Motorola Foundation to support leading universities in the United States. In 1955, years after Motorola started its research and development laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona, to research new solid-state technology, Motorola introduced the world's first commercial high-power germanium-based transistor.
Toronto Transit Commission
The Toronto Transit Commission is a public transport agency that operates bus, subway and paratransit services in Toronto, Canada. It is the oldest and largest of the urban transit service providers in the Greater Toronto Area, with numerous connections to systems serving its surrounding municipalities. Established as the Toronto Transportation Commission in 1921, the TTC owns and operates four rapid transit lines with 75 stations, over 149 bus routes, 11 streetcar lines. On an average weekday in 2019, 1.69 million passengers made 2.76 million unlinked trips on the TTC, with the number of trips about evenly divided between the subways and buses and streetcars. The TTC operates door-to-door paratransit service for the elderly and disabled, known as Wheel-Trans; the TTC is the most used urban mass transit system in all of Canada, the third largest in North America, after the New York City Transit Authority and Mexico City Metro. Public transit in Toronto started in 1849 with a operated transit service.
In years, the city operated some routes, but in 1921 assumed control over all routes and formed the Toronto Transportation Commission to operate them. During this period, streetcars provided the bulk of the service. In 1954, the TTC adopted its present name, opened the first subway line, expanded its service area to cover the newly formed municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; the system has evolved to feature a wide network of surface routes with the subway lines as the backbone. On February 17, 2008, the TTC made many service improvements, reversing more than a decade of service reductions and only minor improvements. In addition to buses and subways, the TTC operated the Toronto Island ferry service from 1927 to 1962, when it was transferred to the Metro Parks and Culture department; the TTC operated a suburban and regional intercity bus operator, Gray Coach Lines, from 1927 to 1990. Gray Coach used interurban coaches to link Toronto to points throughout southern Ontario. In addition, Gray Coach operated tour buses in association with Gray Line Tours.
The main terminal was the Metropolitan Toronto Bus Terminal on Elizabeth Street north of Dundas Street, downtown. In 1954, Gray Coach expanded further when it acquired suburban routes from independent bus operators not merged with the TTC as it expanded to cover Metro Toronto. By the 1980s, Gray Coach faced fierce competition in the interurban service in the GTA; the TTC sold Gray Coach Lines in 1990 to Stagecoach Holdings, which split the operation between Greyhound Canada and the government of Ontario three years later. The Gloucester subway cars, the first version of TTC subway cars, known as "red rockets" because of their bright red exterior, have been retired; the name lives on as the TTC uses the phrase to advertise the service, such as "Ride the Rocket" in advertising material, "Rocket" in the names of some express buses, the new "Toronto Rocket" subway cars, which began revenue operation on July 21, 2011. Another common slogan is "The Better Way"; the TTC has recovered about 70% of its operating costs from the fare box in recent years.
From its creation in 1921 until 1971, the TTC was self-supporting both for capital and operations. Through the Great Depression and World War II, it accumulated reserves that allowed it to expand after the war, both with subways and major steady growth of its bus services into the suburbs, it was not until 1971 that the Metro government and the province started to provide operational subsidies, required due to rising costs of delivering transit to low-density suburbs in Metro Toronto and large wage increases. Deficits and subsidies soared throughout the 1970s and 1980s, followed by service cuts and a period of ridership decline in the 1990s attributable to recession; when the Harris Progressive Conservatives ended the provincial subsidies, the TTC cut back service with a significant curtailment put into effect on February 18, 1996, an increased financial burden was placed on the municipal government. Since the TTC has been in financial difficulties. Service cuts were averted in 2007, when Toronto City Council voted to introduce new taxes to help pay for city services, including the TTC.
As a result, the TTC became the largest transit operator in Anglo-America not to receive provincial/state subsidies. The TTC has received federal funding for capital projects from as early as 2009; the TTC is considered one of the costliest transit systems per fare price in North America. For the 2011 operating year, the TTC had a projected operating budget of $1.45 billion. Revenue from fares covered 70% of the budget, whereas the remaining 30% originated from the city. In 2009 through 2011, provincial and federal subsidies amounted to 0% of the budget. In contrast to this, STM Montreal receives 10% of its operating budget from the provincial government, Ottawa Transpo receives 9% of its funding from the province; the fairness of preferentially subsidizing transit in specific Canadian cities has been questioned by citizens. Buses are a large part of TTC operations today. Before about 1960 however, they played a minor role compared to streetcars. Buses began to operate in the city in 1921, became necessary for areas without streetcar service.
After an earlier experiment in the 1920s, trolley buses were used on a number of routes starting in 1947, but all trolley bus routes were converted to bus operation between 1991 and 1993. The TTC always used the term "trolley coach" to refer to its trackless electric vehicles. Hundreds of old buses have been replaced with the low-floor Orion V
Downtown Markham, Ontario
Downtown Markham is the central business district of Markham, Canada being developed. It is proposed to serve as the heart of Markham. Businesses in the district are expected to employ as many as 16,000 individuals, it may house as many as 10,000 residents; the development will have a high density of residential, retail and mixed-use structures. The community is being developed and wholly financed by The Remington Group Inc. Downtown Markham is the largest planned mixed-use development in Canada; the development spans 243 acres and is situated in one of the fastest growing regions in the province. It will be the commercial & financial district within Unionville at the center of the city of Markham, will consist of a mix of residential and retail uses. Two million square feet of retail space will include international retailers, local shops and entertainment venues. Downtown Markham will offer more than 3.4 million square feet of office space in a commercial district adjacent to Highway 407. The vibrant urban centre is being designed and developed following sustainable guidelines, including energy efficient power sources and LEED certified residential and commercial projects.
Aside from allowing greater density, the development enjoys 72 acres of natural and landscaped green space, improved walkability and easy access to public transit, including Viva Rapid Transit and GO Transit. Downtown Markham refers to an area south of Uptown Markham / Highway 7, west of Kennedy Road / Main Street Unionville, east of Warden Avenue, north of Highway 407 ETR. On the other hand, Markham Centre or Unionville refers to a broader area. Markham Centre is bounded north to Apple Creek Boulevard / Carlton Road, east to Kennedy Road, west to Rodick Road, south to 14th Avenue; the current City of Markham was created in 1971 when the former town was expanded by amalgamation with Thornhill and Unionville. With its original historic downtown, Markham Village, being small and situated tn the far eastern part of the amalgamated municipality, the city decided a larger, more centrally-located downtown was needed; the area south of Unionville to the east of Warden Avenue was frozen for development by the province during the planning and construction of express toll road Highway 407.
In 1992, a plan was approved to develop the area with higher commercial density. The Town of Markham has approved the plan, according to Donald Cousens; the community situated in Unionville was planned to be self-sustained and transit-oriented based on smart growth development. Construction began in 2005. Aviva Canada built its second Canadian headquarters on Birchmount Road and a new Cineplex theatre opened on April 4, 2015, it provides a bigger space to include a few VIP theatres, a new gaming corner and much higher capacity than the old Cineplex theatre at First Markham Place. The Marriott hotel and the York condo was constructed on the corner of Enterprise Drive and Birchmount Road, it was finished by the end of 2018. Downtown Markham located in the City of Markham's Unionville Village is using a development strategy named smart growth; the community will try to limit urban sprawl by creating a denser urban centre. The urban centre is planned to be a transit-oriented community, with everything close by and transit dependent.
In addition, the community was planned to be environmentally sustainable as well. The community was planned in co-operation with The Remington Group; the Remington Group is in charge of constructing most of the structures across this new community. According to the plan approved by the city council, the community will contain residential condos and townhouses and retail buildings; some of these structures have begun construction. Updates as to what is built is underway. Downtown Markham in Unionville has been nominated as the country's largest mixed-used development, as well as North America's largest LEED registered development; the primary modes of transportation in Downtown Markham are: Regional Roads, municipal roads, a toll highway, bus rapid transit, GO Trains. The community is bounded with three York Regional Roads, which are numbered as 3, 7, 65. Highway 407 serves the community with exits on Kennedy Road; the highway leads east to west to Burlington. The community is served by the Warden and Unionville stops on the VIVA bus rapid transit system.
Warden and Enterprise are served by three lines: Viva Purple, Viva Green, Viva Pink, while Unionville Station is only served by Viva Pink. As of 2011, Viva Purple is the only line with all-day service, the other lines operate only during rush hour, it is scheduled that when Downtown Markham is functional and occupied, Viva Green will return to full service. The community is anticipated to be dependent on these transit routes, as part of the planned smart growth. Viva Purple connects the locale to York University. Other bus routes that serve the area include: TTC 68 Warden YRT 8 Kennedy YRT 1 Highway 7 GO Transit operates Unionville GO Station on the Stouffville line during peak commuter traffic; the GO train line connects the Downtown Markham to Downtown Toronto. The community reserves 72 acres as a natural reserve, which includes an ecologically sensitive area, Rouge River. There are two recreational facilities in Downtow
Greater Toronto Area
The Greater Toronto Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. It consists of 25 incorporated municipalities within the central city of Toronto and the four regional municipalities which surround it: Durham, Halton and York. According to the 2016 census, the Greater Toronto Area has a population of 6,417,516; the regional span of the Greater Toronto Area is sometimes combined with the city of Hamilton, located west of Halton Region, to form the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. The Greater Toronto Area anchors a much larger urban agglomeration known as the Golden Horseshoe; the term "Greater Toronto" was first used in writing as early as the 1900s, although at the time, the term only referred to the old City of Toronto and its immediate townships and villages, which became Metropolitan Toronto in 1954 and became the current city of Toronto in 1998. The use of the term involving the four regional municipalities came into formal use in the mid-1980s, after it was used in a discussed report on municipal governance restructuring in the region and was made official as a provincial planning area.
However, it did not come into everyday usage until the mid- to late 1990s. In 2006, the term began to be supplanted in the field of spatial planning as provincial policy began to refer to either the "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" or the still-broader "Greater Golden Horseshoe"; the latter includes communities like Barrie, Kitchener-Waterloo and the Niagara Region. The GTA continues, however, to be in official use elsewhere in the Government of Ontario, such as the Ministry of Finance; some municipalities considered part of the GTA are not within the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, whose land area and population is thus smaller than the land area and population of the GTA planning area. For example, Oshawa is the centre of its own CMA, yet deemed part of the Greater Toronto Area, while other municipalities, such as New Tecumseth in southern Simcoe County and Mono Township in Dufferin County are included in the Toronto CMA but not in the GTA; these different border configurations result in the GTA's population being higher than the Toronto CMA by nearly one-half million people leading to confusion amongst people when trying to sort out Toronto's urban population.
Other nearby urban areas, such as Hamilton, Barrie, or St. Catharines-Niagara and Kitchener-Waterloo, are not part of the GTA or the Toronto CMA, but form their own CMAs near the GTA. All the aforementioned places are part of the Greater Golden Horseshoe metropolitan region, an urban agglomeration, the fourth most populous in North America; when the Hamilton and Toronto CMAs are agglomerated with Brock and Scugog, they have a population of 6,170,072. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, containing an estimated 59 million people in 2011; the term "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" refers to the GTA, the City of Hamilton. The term has been adopted by several organizations for the purposes of regional planning; the GTHA and the Regional Municipality of Niagara form the inner ring of the larger Greater Golden Horseshoe region. The Greater Toronto Area was home to a number of First Nations groups who lived on the shore of Lake Ontario long before the first Europeans arrived in the region. At various times the Neutral, Seneca and Huron nations were living in the vicinity.
The Mississaugas arrived in the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century, driving out the occupying Iroquois. While it is unclear as to, the first European to reach the Toronto area, there is no question it occurred in the 17th century; the area would become crucial for its series of trails and water routes that led from northern and western Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Known as the "Toronto Passage", it followed the Humber River, as an important overland shortcut between Lake Ontario, Lake Simcoe and the upper Great Lakes. For this reason area became a hot spot for French fur traders; the French would establish two trading forts, Magasin Royal in the 1720s, although abandoned within the decade and Fort Rouillé in the 1750s, which would be burnt down and abandoned in 1759 by the French garrison, who were retreating from invading British forces. The first large influx of European settlers to settle the region were the United Empire Loyalists arriving after the American Revolution, when various individuals petitioned the Crown for land in and around the Toronto area.
In 1787, the British negotiated the purchase of more than a quarter million acres of land in the area of Toronto with the Mississaugas of New Credit. York County, would be created by Governor John Graves Simcoe in 1792, which would at its largest size, comprise all of what is now Halton Region, Peel Region, York Region and parts of Durham Region; the Town of York would be attacked by American forces in the War of 1812 in what is now known as the Battle of York, in 1813. In 1816, Wentworth County and Halton County were created from York County. York County would serve as the setting for the beginnings of the Upper Canada Rebellion with William Lyon Mackenzie's armed march from Holland Landing towards York Township on Yonge Street leading up to the battle at Montgomery's Tavern. In 1851, Ontario County and Peel County were separated from York; the idea towards a streamlined local government to control local infrastructure was made as early as 1907 by member of federal Parliament, founder of the Toronto Globe, William Findlay Maclean, who called for the expansion of the government of the former City of Toronto in order to c
North York is an administrative division in Toronto, Canada. It is located directly north of Old Toronto, between Etobicoke to the west and Scarborough to the east; as of the 2011 Census, it had a population of 655,913. It was first created as a township in 1922 out of the northern part of the former city of York, a municipality, located along the western border of Old Toronto. Following its inclusion in Metropolitan Toronto in 1954, it was one of the fastest growing parts of the region due to its proximity to Old Toronto, it was declared a borough in 1967, became a city in 1979, attracting high-density residences, rapid transit, a number of corporate headquarters in North York City Centre, its central business district. In 1998, North York was amalgamated with the rest of Metropolitan Toronto to form the new city of Toronto, has since been a secondary economic hub of the city outside Downtown Toronto; the Township of North York was formed on June 13, 1922 out of the rural part of the Township of York.
The growing parts of the township remained in that township. As North York became more populous, it became the Borough of North York in 1967, on February 14, 1979, the City of North York. To commemorate receiving its city charter on Valentine's Day, the city's corporate slogan was "The City with Heart", it now forms the largest part of the area served by the "North York Community Council", a committee of Toronto City Council. North York used to be known as a regional agricultural hub composed of scattered villages; the area boomed following World War II, by the 1950s and 1960s, it resembled many other sprawling North American suburbs. On August 10, 2008, a massive explosion occurred at the Sunrise Propane Industrial Gases propane facility just southwest of the Toronto-Downsview Airport; this damaged several homes nearby. About 13,000 residents were evacuated for several days before being allowed back home. One employee at the company was killed in the blast and one firefighter died while attending to the scene of the accident.
A follow-up investigation to the incident made several recommendations concerning propane supply depots. It asked for a review of setback distances between depots and nearby residential areas but didn't call for restrictions on where they can be located. On April 23, 2018, one of the deadliest attacks in Toronto's history occurred in the North York Centre area, in which a van intentionally hit pedestrians along Yonge Street from Finch Avenue to Sheppard Avenue; the attack resulted in 10 deaths out of a total of 26 people getting hit. The suspect was arrested uninjured after attempting to provoke a police officer to kill him; the incident is the deadliest vehicle-ramming attack in Canadian history. There are plans to erect a permanent memorial in North York Centre to honour the victims of the attack. North York is multicultural and diverse. In 2016, 56% of North York's residents were not born in Canada, 60% were classified as belonging to a visible minority: The neighbourhoods of North York are diverse, inhabited by people of many different cultures.
The North York neighbourhood with the largest percentage of immigrants in is the Bathurst–Steeles area of Westminster–Branson, where 73% of its population were not born in Canada. Furthermore, the neighbourhood of Parkway Forest has the highest percentage of recent immigrants in all of the Greater Toronto Area, with 1 in 4 residents arriving in Canada less than 5 years ago; as a result, the visible minority population in North York has been growing rapidly. Some of the neighbourhoods with the largest percentage of visible minorities in North York include the Yorkwoods-Driftwood area in Jane and Finch at 95%, the Weston-Finch area in Emery at 91%, the Driftwood-Shoreham area in Jane and Finch at 88%, the St. Dennis-Rochefort area in Flemingdon Park at 87%. Chinese cultural groups dominate the central and east end of North York, north of Highway 401 from Yonge Street to Victoria Park Avenue. 31% of the residents in the Don Valley North electoral district are of Chinese descent, the neighbourhood with the largest percentage of Chinese Canadians in North York is the Aspenwood-Cliffwood area in Hillcrest Village at 58%.
Black Canadians are most prominent in the west end of North York along Jane Street and the areas nearby. Most are from the Caribbean, but there is a large African population with many Ghanaians and Nigerians in certain west end neighbourhoods; the Jane & Wilson neighbourhood has the largest Ghanaian community in Toronto. The two census tracts/neighbourhoods with the largest percentage of Black Canadians in all of Toronto are located in North York with the Black Creek–Martha Eaton Way area in Brookhaven-Amesbury at 48%, the Yorkwoods–Driftwood area in Jane and Finch at 47%. North York has large South Asian communities in Flemingdon Park and Emery, with the latter having a large Pakistani and Sikh population; the neighbourhood with the largest percentage of South Asians in North York is the Gateway–Glenway area of Flemingdon Park at 47%. Filipinos are the fastest growing community in North York, is home to the largest Filipino community in Toronto. There is a presence of Filipinos in both west and east ends of North York, however the centre of Toronto's Filipino community is located at Bathurst and Wilson, unofficially known as "Little Manila".
This area hosts every summer the "Taste of Manila", the only Filipino street festival in Toronto. One of the longest running community centres, the Kababayan Multicultural Centre, is located near Bathurst and Finch; the census tract/neighbourhood with the largest percentage of Filipino people in North York and all of Toronto is the Neptune area in Lawrence Manor at 37%, followed by the Branson