Short sentence expressing a motivation A motto is the general motivation or intention of an individual, social group or organization. Mottos are found predominantly in written form, may stem from long traditions of social foundations, or from significant events, such as a civil war or a revolution. A motto may be in any language, but Latin has been used in the Western world. In heraldry, a motto is found below the shield in a banderole. In the case of Scottish heraldry it is mandated to appear above the crest. Spanish coats of arms may display a motto in the bordure of the shield. In heraldic literature, the terms "rallying cry" "battle banner" are common, which date back to the battle cry, is located above the coat of arms. In English heraldry mottos are not granted with armorial bearings, may be adopted and changed at will. In Scottish heraldry, mottos can only be changed by re-matriculation, with the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Although unusual and outside standard heraldic practice, there are some examples of the particular appearance of the motto scroll and letters thereon being blazoned.
Ships and submarines in the Royal Navy each have a badge and motto, as do units of the Royal Air Force. Latin has been common for mottos, but for nation states their official language is chosen. Examples of unusual choices in motto language include: County of Somerset, Sumorsaete ealle, Anglo-Saxon. A canting motto is one. For example, the motto of the Earl of Onslow is Festina lente, punningly interpreting on-slow; the motto of the Burgh of Tayport, Te oportet alte ferri, is a rather terrible cant on "Tayport at auld Tay Ferry" alluding to the local lighthouse. The motto of the U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Bravery, Integrity, is a backronym of the letters F. B. I. United in diversity, the motto of the European Union United we stand, divided we fall In literature, a motto is a sentence, poem, or word prefixed to an essay, novel, or the like suggestive of its subject matter, it is a suggestive expression of a guiding principle for the written material that follows. For example, Robert Louis Stevenson's Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes uses mottos at the start of each section.
"Dona" is a song performed by Macedonian singer-songwriter Kaliopi. The song represented Macedonia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2016; the song was written by Romeo Grill. The official music video for the song was released on 7 March 2016, it was released as a digital download on 21 March 2016 via Kaliopi Music Production. It came 11th in the second semi-final. On 24 November 2015, Macedonian Radio Television announced that it had selected Kaliopi to represent Macedonia at the Eurovision Song Contest 2016. On 16 February 2016, it was announced that Kaliopi would perform the song "Dona" at the Eurovision Song Contest 2016, with music composed by Romeo Grill and lyrics written by Kaliopi herself. "Dona" was presented to the public in a special show titled Kaliopi za Makedonija, which took place on 7 March 2016. Kaliopi performed the song during the second semi-final of the 2016 contest on 12 May 2016 held at the Ericsson Globe in Stockholm, but failed to qualify for the 14 May final
Preventive healthcare consists of measures taken for disease prevention. Disease and disability are affected by environmental factors, genetic predisposition, disease agents, lifestyle choices and are dynamic processes which begin before individuals realize they are affected. Disease prevention relies on anticipatory actions that can be categorized as primal, primary and tertiary prevention; each year, millions of people die of preventable deaths. A 2004 study showed that about half of all deaths in the United States in 2000 were due to preventable behaviors and exposures. Leading causes included cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, unintentional injuries and certain infectious diseases; this same study estimates that 400,000 people die each year in the United States due to poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle. According to estimates made by the World Health Organization, about 55 million people died worldwide in 2011, two thirds of this group from non-communicable diseases, including cancer and chronic cardiovascular and lung diseases.
This is an increase from the year 2000, during which 60% of deaths were attributed to these diseases. Preventive healthcare is important given the worldwide rise in prevalence of chronic diseases and deaths from these diseases. There are many methods for prevention of disease. One of them is prevention of teenage smoking through information giving, it is recommended that adults and children aim to visit their doctor for regular check-ups if they feel healthy, to perform disease screening, identify risk factors for disease, discuss tips for a healthy and balanced lifestyle, stay up to date with immunizations and boosters, maintain a good relationship with a healthcare provider. Some common disease screenings include checking for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, screening for colon cancer, depression, HIV and other common types of sexually transmitted disease such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, colorectal cancer screening, a Pap test, screening for osteoporosis. Genetic testing can be performed to screen for mutations that cause genetic disorders or predisposition to certain diseases such as breast or ovarian cancer.
However, these measures are not affordable for every individual and the cost effectiveness of preventive healthcare is still a topic of debate. Preventive healthcare strategies are described as taking place at the primal, primary and tertiary prevention levels. Although advocated as preventive medicine in the early twentieth century by Sara Josephine Baker, in the 1940s, Hugh R. Leavell and E. Gurney Clark coined the term primary prevention, they worked at the Harvard and Columbia University Schools of Public Health and expanded the levels to include secondary and tertiary prevention. Goldston notes that these levels might be better described as "prevention and rehabilitation", although the terms primary and tertiary prevention are still in use today; the concept of primal prevention has been created much more in relation to the new developments in molecular biology over the last fifty years, more in epigenetics, which point to the paramount importance of environmental conditions - both physical and affective - on the organism during its fetal and newborn life.
Primal prevention has been propounded as a separate category of "health promotion". This health promotion par excellence is based on the'new knowledge' in molecular biology, in particular on epigenetic knowledge, which points to how much affective - as well as physical - environment during fetal and newborn life may determine each and every aspect of adult health; this new way of promoting health consists in providing future parents with pertinent, unbiased information on primal health and supporting them during their child's primal period of life. This includes adequate parental leave - ideally for both parents - with kin caregiving and financial help where needed. Another related concept is primordial prevention which refers to all measures designed to prevent the development of risk factors in the first place, early in life. Primary prevention consists of traditional "health promotion" and "specific protection." Health promotion activities are non-clinical life choices. For example, eating nutritious meals and exercising daily, that both prevent disease and create a sense of overall well-being.
Preventing disease and creating overall well-being, prolongs our life expectancy. Health-promotional activities do not target a specific disease or condition but rather promote health and well-being on a general level. On the other hand, specific protection targets a type or group of diseases and complements the goals of health promotion. Food is much the most basic tool in preventive health care; the 2011 National Health Interview Survey performed by the Centers for Disease Control was the first national survey to include questions about ability to pay for food. Difficulty with paying for food, medicine, or both is a problem facing 1 out of 3 Americans. If better food options were available through food banks, soup kitchens, other resources for low-income people and the chronic conditions that come along with it would be better controlled. A "food desert" is an area with restricted access to healthy foods due to a lack of supermarkets within a reasonable distance. Thes