# Motzkin number

In mathematics, a **Motzkin number** for a given number n is the number of different ways of drawing non-intersecting chords between n points on a circle (not necessarily touching every point by a chord). The Motzkin numbers are named after Theodore Motzkin and have diverse applications in geometry, combinatorics and number theory.

The Motzkin numbers for form the sequence:

- 1, 1, 2, 4, 9, 21, 51, 127, 323, 835, 2188, 5798, 15511, 41835, 113634, 310572, 853467, 2356779, 6536382, 18199284, 50852019, 142547559, 400763223, 1129760415, 3192727797, 9043402501, 25669818476, 73007772802, 208023278209, 593742784829, ... (sequence A001006 in the OEIS)

## Contents

## Examples[edit]

The following figure shows the 9 ways to draw non-intersecting chords between 4 points on a circle (*M*_{4} = 9):

The following figure shows the 21 ways to draw non-intersecting chords between 5 points on a circle (*M*_{5} = 21):

## Properties[edit]

The Motzkin numbers satisfy the recurrence relations

The Motzkin numbers can be expressed in terms of binomial coefficients and Catalan numbers:

A **Motzkin prime** is a Motzkin number that is prime. As of October 2013^{[update]}, four such primes are known:

## Combinatorial interpretations[edit]

The Motzkin number for n is also the number of positive integer sequences of length *n* − 1 in which the opening and ending elements are either 1 or 2, and the difference between any two consecutive elements is −1, 0 or 1. Equivalently, the Motzkin number for n is the number of positive integer sequences of length *n* + 1 in which the opening and ending elements are 1, and the difference between any two consecutive elements is −1, 0 or 1.

Also, the Motzkin number for n gives the number of routes on the upper right quadrant of a grid from coordinate (0, 0) to coordinate (n, 0) in n steps if one is allowed to move only to the right (up, down or straight) at each step but forbidden from dipping below the y = 0 axis.

For example, the following figure shows the 9 valid Motzkin paths from (0, 0) to (4, 0):

There are at least fourteen different manifestations of Motzkin numbers in different branches of mathematics, as enumerated by Donaghey & Shapiro (1977) in their survey of Motzkin numbers. Guibert, Pergola & Pinzani (2001) showed that vexillary involutions are enumerated by Motzkin numbers.

## See also[edit]

## References[edit]

- Bernhart, Frank R. (1999), "Catalan, Motzkin, and Riordan numbers",
*Discrete Mathematics*,**204**(1–3): 73–112, doi:10.1016/S0012-365X(99)00054-0 - Donaghey, R.; Shapiro, L. W. (1977), "Motzkin numbers",
*Journal of Combinatorial Theory*, Series A,**23**(3): 291–301, doi:10.1016/0097-3165(77)90020-6, MR 0505544 - Guibert, O.; Pergola, E.; Pinzani, R. (2001), "Vexillary involutions are enumerated by Motzkin numbers",
*Annals of Combinatorics*,**5**(2): 153–174, doi:10.1007/PL00001297, ISSN 0218-0006, MR 1904383 - Motzkin, T. S. (1948), "Relations between hypersurface cross ratios, and a combinatorial formula for partitions of a polygon, for permanent preponderance, and for non-associative products",
*Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society*,**54**(4): 352–360, doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1948-09002-4