Moulin Rouge!

Moulin Rouge! is a 2001 jukebox musical romantic drama film directed, co-produced, co-written by Baz Luhrmann. The film tells the story of a young English poet/writer, who falls in love with the star of the Moulin Rouge, cabaret actress and courtesan Satine, it uses the musical setting of the Montmartre Quarter of France. The film is the third part of Luhrmann's "Red Curtain Trilogy," following Strictly Ballroom and Romeo + Juliet. At the 74th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for eight Oscars, including Best Picture and Best Actress for Nicole Kidman, winning two: for Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design, it was the first musical nominated for Best Picture in 10 years, following Disney's Beauty and the Beast. In BBC's 2016 poll of the greatest films since 2000, Moulin Rouge! Ranked 53rd. In the year 1900, a man named Christian, suffering from depression, begins writing on his typewriter; as Christian narrates, the film flashes back to one year earlier upon Christian's move to the Montmartre district of Paris to become a writer among members of the area's Bohemian movement.

He soon discovers that his neighbours are a loose troupe of performers led by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Toulouse-Lautrec and the others ask for Christian's help, his writing skills allow them to finish their proposed show, Spectacular Spectacular, that they wish to sell to the owner of the Moulin Rouge, Harold Zidler; the group arrives at the Moulin Rouge as Zidler and his "Diamond Dog Dancers" perform for the audience. Toulouse arranges for Christian to see Satine, the star courtesan, in her private quarters to present the work, unaware that Zidler has been promising Satine to the wealthy and psychopathic Duke of Monroth, a potential investor in the cabaret. Satine mistakes Christian for the Duke, dances with him before retiring to her private chamber with him to discuss things confidentially, but soon learns he is just a writer; the Duke interrupts them. With Zidler's help and the rest of the troupe pitch the show to the Duke with an improvised plot about an evil maharajah attempting to woo an Indian courtesan who loves a poor sitar player.

The Duke backs the show on the condition. Satine contemplates Christian and her longing to leave the Moulin Rouge to become "a real actress". Christian goes back to Satine to convince her that they should be together, she falls for him; as the cabaret is converted to a theater and Satine continue seeing each other under the pretense of rehearsing Satine's lines. The Duke becomes suspicious of their frequent meetings and warns Zidler that he may stop financing the show. Zidler makes excuses to the Duke. Zidler learns from the doctor treating Satine that she does not have long to live, but keeps this knowledge from Christian. Satine tells Christian that their relationship endangers the show, but he counters by writing a secret love song to affirm their love; as the Duke watches Christian rehearsing with Satine, Nini, a jealous performer, points out that the play is a metaphor for Christian and the Duke. Enraged, the Duke demands the ending be changed with the courtesan choosing the maharajah. At the Duke's quarters, Satine sees Christian on the streets below, realizes she cannot sleep with the Duke..

The Duke attempts to rape her. Reunited with Christian, he urges her to run away with him; the Duke tells Zidler. Zidler reiterates this warning to Satine, but when she refuses to return, he informs her that she is dying. Zidler tells Satine that to save Christian's life, she has to tell him that she will be staying with the Duke and she doesn't love him. Christian tries following her, but is denied entry to the Moulin Rouge, becomes depressed though Toulouse insists that Satine does love him; the night of the show, Christian sneaks into the Moulin Rouge, intending to pay Satine her fee as a courtesan. He catches Satine before she demands she tell him she does not love him, they find themselves in the spotlight. Christian denounces walks off the stage. From the rafters, Toulouse cries out, "The greatest thing you'll learn is just to love and be loved in return", spurring Satine to sing the song Christian wrote to express their love. Christian returns to the stage, reaffirming his love for her; the Duke orders his bodyguard to kill Christian, but is thwarted, while the Duke's own attempt is stopped by Zidler.

The Duke storms out of the cabaret as Christian and Satine complete their song. After the curtain closes, Satine succumbs to tuberculosis. Before she dies and Satine affirm their love and she tells him to write their story. A year the Moulin Rouge has closed down, Christian finishes writing the tale of his love for Satine, a "love that will li

West Tennessee Raids

Forrest's Expedition into West Tennessee was a raid conducted by Confederate Brigadier General Nathan Bedford Forrest in Tennessee from December 1862 to January 1863, during the American Civil War. Forrest led an expedition of 1,800 to 2,500 men into Union-held West Tennessee to disrupt the supply lines of Major General Ulysses S. Grant, campaigning south along the Mississippi River toward Vicksburg; the Confederate objective was to dismantle segments of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad between Columbus and Jackson, Tennessee in an attempt to slow Grant's advance. In meeting this objective the raid was successful, Forrest returned with more men and supplies than he had started with. However, Grant's army was only marginally delayed, Vicksburg fell to Union forces six months later; the West Tennessee raid consisted of three main actions at Lexington and Parker's Cross Roads. Forrest and his command, 1,800 men and four cannon, left Columbia, Tennessee on December 10 or 11, 1862, under orders from General Braxton Bragg.

They were headed into West Tennessee, facing an area of well-entrenched enemies with ten times their strength in armaments. In writing to his superiors, Forrest made clear the ineffective condition of his arms as well as the fact that his men were supplied with only 10 rounds of caps for their shotguns while many of their flintlock muskets lacked flints; the reply was a curtly couched order to march without delay. Forrest was irritated at being ordered to go into the area without "ferriage." The expedition reached the Tennessee River at Clifton below Double Island on December 13. The precise route Forrest took is not known, but there was a Columbia–Clifton Thoroughfare in existence during the era with a length of 69 miles. Forrest's men spent hours looking to cross the rain-swollen Tennessee River. On December 14, Forrest found a leaky flatboat hidden in the brush, he made this into a pontoon to begin an effective passage across the river. The artillery and wagon trains used this bridge but the horses and men swam across the river in a cold pelting rain without tents or other shelter.

On the 15th, the troops marched 8 miles toward Lexington in Tennessee. On December 16, the expedition continued toward Lexington, making an additional 18 miles before Forrest broke for camp to allow rest, dry clothing and prepare for the upcoming campaign. Upon inspection it was found that the greater part of the small supply of ammunition caps had become wet and unserviceable. However, Forrest had sent agents in behind the enemy lines, which paid off when a citizen returned to the Confederate encampment with 50,000 shotgun and pistol caps. Forrest's unit encountered a Federal force eight miles from Lexington on December 17. Forrest sent Colonel James W. Starnes to engage and remove this obstacle and led the remainder of his command by a road at a gallop to cut off the enemy retreat, he gave the lead to four Alabama companies from his old regiment under the command of Captain Frank B. Gurley; as soon as the artillery crossed a bridge about six miles from Lexington, General Forrest pushed on to where the enemy was found forming a strong position on an elevated ridge.

Positioning George Gibbs Dibrell's 8th and Jacob B. Biffle's 19th Tennessee regiments as well as Gurley's Battalion and his own escort, Forrest attacked the left of the Union line and broke it turned and struck it on the flank again, scattering Colonel Isaac R. Hawkins' Tennessee Federals and leaving the 11th Illinois Cavalry Regiment and artillery to the brunt of the attack. Capt. Gurley, with at most 200 men, captured 150 officers and men, including Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll and Major Lucien H. Kerr, along with 300 small arms Sharps carbines, ammunition, 200 horses and wagons. Captured was the Union artillery, consisting of two equipped 3-inch Ordnance rifles; these were used by General Forrest until the close of the war. Starnes captured an additional fifty federals as well as numerous weapons as the fleeing federals left them upon the road; the federals did slow the Confederates down a little, but Union positions near Beech Creek were overrun. Without further resistance, the Confederates continued toward the town of Jackson, arriving on the afternoon of December 18.

Ingersoll himself seemed to enjoy his captivity until paroled three days later. The citizens of Jackson, supportive of the Confederate cause, reported Union reinforcements were on the way. Therefore, at 8 PM, Forrest detached Col. Dibrell and Maj. Jesse Forrest each with 100 men to move out toward Humboldt to seize the nearest railroad stations, with orders to capture any approaching trains and to destroy any tracks of the Mobile and Ohio line. At the same time, Forrest sent Col. Biffle south to Bolivar to carry out the same mission. Dibrell captured the garrison of 100 men and their supplies by 2 AM, about 8 miles north of Jackson, Maj. Forrest captured his garrison of 75 men and supplies. With all three leaders having destroyed enough railroad track to wreak havoc upon the Mobile and Ohio for the foreseeable future, they returned to the Confederate camp by daybreak on December 19; the spoils of war to this point were distributed to the CSA troops, replacing the inferior supplies with which they had entered the field eight days earlier.

The federal troops in Jackson were no less than 10,000 and as much as 13,000. Local citizens stated the Union force numbered more than 15,000; the Battle of Jackson is the first documented time that Forrest used the ruse of spreading his command thinly over a wide area to make his force appear larger.

European Academy of Microbiology

The European Academy of Microbiology abbreviated as EAM, is a European institution made up of about 150 microbiology scientists, founded in 2009. The main objective of the Academy is to be the authoritative voice of microbiology in Europe and thus enhance the potential of microbiology and microbiologists in Europe and globally; the Federation of European Microbiology Societies founded and supports the EAM, many EAM members collaborate with FEMS in various capacities. The idea of establishing an “Academy” of senior microbiologists within Europe, aimed to be an advisory source both for the Federation and governmental/other bodies, was supported by FEMS executives. For this purpose, an ad-hoc committee for the admission of new member societies was set up to discuss and support this initiative, brought to the attention of the FEMS Council in 2007; the European Academy of Microbiology was established in June 2009 in Gothenburg, with the goal of promoting excellence in microbiology across Europe.

The members of the European Academy of Microbiology are experts in microbiology with a notable record of publications, patents or inventions and important results and contributions to the microbiological community. The recruitment process is selective and based on a peer-review evaluation by the current members to uphold the high scientific standards of the EAM. Members of the EAM include Cecilia Arraiano, Frédéric Barras, Melanie Blokesch, Emmanuelle Charpentier, Petra Dersch, Alain Filloux, Geoff Gadd, David Holden, Stipan Jonjić, Hilary Lappin-Scott, Tracy Palmer, Philippe Sansonetti, Geoffrey L Smith, Victor Sourjik and many more prominent microbiologists. In collaboration with other institutions and societies the Academy is involved in: the organization of high standard meetings and colloquia to discuss critical issues in microbiology. Examples of recent EAM activities are the 2011 meeting ‘EHEC infection and control’ following the European outbreak of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strain O104:H4, attended by world renowned experts in pathogenic E. coli and resulted in an authoritative case report.

In May 2019, EAM and FEMS organized at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France, a tribute to the life and work of Stanley Falkow the founder of molecular microbial pathogenesis. Https://