Mount Adamello

Adamello is a mountain in Lombardy, Italy. With an elevation of 3,539 metres, it is the second highest peak of the Adamello-Presanella Alps, it is located in Lombardy. Douglas Freshfield gives this description from the summit of the Presanella, which he ascended for the first time: The summit of Adamello was conquered for the first time by a young Bohemian climber, Julius von Payer, along with a mountain guide from Val Rendena, Girolamo Botteri, on 16 September 1864; the next day, the two climbers conquered the neighboring Presanella, but were disappointed to find that a team assembled by Douglas Freshfield had preceded them by three weeks. The team that supported Payer and Botteri was composed, in addition to them, by another mountain guide, Giovanni Caturani and a local porter, Antonio Bertoldi; some sources state. The expedition took off on September 8 and mistakenly climbed two secondary peaks of the Adamello massif, the Dosson di Genova, 3419 m, the Corno Bianco, 3434 m, before facing the true summit.

The same route chosen by Payer, Caturani is considered today as one of the easiest, starting from the Val Genova, on the Trentino side, crossing Pian di Neve to the peaks. The first repetition, always in summer, was completed, following a similar path, by a British party, including the Londoner Douglas Freshfield and the famous Francis Fox Tuckett, with François Devouassoud, another Swiss guide, a porter. Although they ran the risk of making mistakes in the choice of the way, they arrived at the summit on July 3 1865, claiming to have been faster than Payer in first ascent the year before. During World War I the front between Austrian and Italian troops ran through the Adamello massif and both sides manned position on the summits all year round. To climb the summit of Adamello's main peak, there is not a single Normal route, it is a short climb from the Pian di Neve to the summit, but the route to reach and cross the Pian di Neve depends on the valley chosen as the starting point. The first climbers went up the Mandrone glacier.

This is still one of the most travelled ways to the top from the Trentino side, apart from the need to use glacier equipment and pay attention to the objective pitfalls that ice implies, it is a long and arduous walk, technically elementary

Edward Palmer (socialist)

Edward Palmer was an American religious enthusiast and advocate of socialist reforms. He lectured against the use of money, his publications include An Address on the Evil Influences of Money. Appletons' Cyclopedia of American Biography wrote of him: "He became a printer in Boston, Mass. and attracted attention by writing and publishing a pamphlet in which he demanded the abolition of slavery and the suppression of capitalized monopolies. Removing to New York city, he associated himself with a coterie of philosophers, under the leadership of Marcus Spring, promulgated many eccentric ideas, he claimed that men should work for higher motives than that of pecuniary gain, emphasized his teachings by refusing to accept money for his services, confining himself to the barest necessities of life. At his death he had passed out of recollection, as he had lived in retirement for nearly a generation."He travelled and lectured extensively and was known to the Transcendentalists and other early utopian socialist experimenters.

On October 14, 1838, Palmer visited with Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emerson made several entries in his journal about Palmer's ideas and his experiences. Emerson described Palmer as "a gentle, sensible, well-balanced man for an enthusiast," and wrote: "He has renounced since a year ago last April the use of money; when he travels he stops at night at a house & asks if it would give them any satisfaction to lodge a traveller without money or price? He presents his views with much gentleness, it is enough for him that he is sure it must fall & that he clears himself of the institution altogether."Palmer attended several public conversations with Amos Bronson Alcott, Alcott described him in 1838: "Palmer is a rare man. Free from all superstitious regard for the past, meek, loving, he seeks for the best in all his thinking, he is a child of Love. He has faith in its might. I have seen him but a few times. My interest in him increases at every interviews. What a noble fact it is that a man, meek, beyond all men, should arise, in these days of gold,to expose the selfishness, injustice, cruelty, to which the demon leads, illustrate the charm and beauty of Love!"

Palmer's views influenced Henry Thoreau as well.

Rao Nara

Rao Nara. Rao Nara was of Rathore lineage and the crown Prince of Nadol, the small kingdom in northwest India in the 15th century. Nadol had been ruled by the Chauhans in the 11th to 14th centuries, but was taken over by the Rathores. Rathores are of the Suryavanshi Kshatriya dynasty, his father was the Raja of Nadol. Rao Nara is significant in the history of India, as he plays a crucial role in the founding of Jodhpur, India in 1459 with Rao Jodha. In 1438, Rao Ranmal was assassinated by the Rana of Rana Kumbha. Rao Ranmal's son, Rao Jodha, with an army of 700 soldiers left but were pursued by Chunda and the Mewar forces. Skirmishes occurred. By the time, Rao Jodha had reached Bhilwara, only a handful of soldiers remained; as Rao Samra was related to Rao Ranmal with both originating from Mandore, Rao Samra allied with Rao Jodha. Rao Samra sent his son, Rao Nara and 50 soldiers with Rao Jodha as a means of escape, while Rao Samra confronted the Mewar forces, but Rao Samra could not hold off the forces and Nadol came under Mewar Rao Nara and Rao Jodha had reached Mandore to find it had been under Rana Kumbha's control.

From a small village close by, Rao Jodha and Rao Nara attacked the Mewar forces under surprise and took control of Mandore. They went on to capture Chaukade, Merta and Kosana. In 1459, Rao Jodha and Rao Nara inaugurated Jodhpur by placing the foundation of Mehrangarh Fort on Bhaurcheeria Hill. Citing his valor, Rao Jodha honored Rao Nara by making him the Pradhan, as Rao Nara no longer had a kingdom to call his own, he made him a Jagirdar, as he gave him seven surrounding areas constituting a large jagir- Babar, Dhundhra, Mazal and Rohat. With much magisterial authority, his descendants continued to be the official Jagirdars & Pradhans of Marwar. Jagirdar is a royal title in princely India; the titles: Jagirdar and Deshmukh are similar to the European counterpart, Count or Duke, depending on the extent of the estate. A list of Rao Nara's direct descendants, the subsequent Jagirdars & Pradhans are noted below. Many were Marwar's illustrious military commanders including Jagirdars Bhawani, Sutaram and Shivchand I.

Rao Nara 1459-1487 Jagirdar Natha 1487-1491 Jagirdar Udai 1491-1515 Jagirdar Goro 1515-1531 Jagirdar Dhano 1562-1583 Jagirdar Luno 1583-1594 Jagirdar Mana 1594-1618 Jagirdar Prithvi Raj 1618-1619 Jagirdar Luna 1619-1624 Jagirdar Raimal 1637-1658 Jagirdar Tarachand 1658 Jagirdar Vithaldas 1698-1704 Jagirdar Khivsi 1704-1708 Rao Raghunath† 1708-1728 Jagirdar Amar Singh 1728-1744 Jagirdar Girdhardas 1744-1748 Jagirdar Manroop 1748-1749 Jagirdar Sutaram 1749-1750 Jagirdar Daulatram 1750-1751 Jagirdar Sawairam 1751-1752 Jagirdar Narsinghdas 1752-1790 Jagirdar Bhawani 1790-1794 Jagirdar Shivchand I 1794-1803 Jagirdar Gangaram 1803-1833 Jagirdar Lakshmichand 1833-1845 Jagirdar Shivchand II 1845-1870 Jagirdar Punamchand 1870-1900 Jagirdar Sajjan Raj 1900-1930 Jagirdar Budh Raj 1930-2011 Jagirdar Vasant Kumar 2011-†With Ajit Singh of Marwar in Delhi, Raghunath ruled Jodhpur as Maharaja in his name from 1713-1724 Following independence from the British in 1947, the jagirs were abolished in 1951.

In 1971, with the addition of the 26th amendment to the Constitution of India, all official symbols of princely India, including titles and remuneration were abolished. Thus, the title has no official status by the Government of India, but the title, Jagirdar & Pradhan, much like Zamindar & Nawab, continue to carry unofficial weight and status