The Canadian Rockies or Canadian Rocky Mountains comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera, a system of multiple ranges of mountains which runs from the Canadian Prairies to the Pacific Coast; the Canadian Rockies mountain system comprises the southeastern part of this system, lying between the Interior Plains of Alberta and Northeastern British Columbia on the east to the Rocky Mountain Trench of BC on the west. The southern end borders Montana of the United States. In geographic terms the boundary is at the Canada/US border, but in geological terms it might be considered to be at Marias Pass in northern Montana; the northern end is at the Liard River in northern British Columbia. The Canadian Rockies have numerous high ranges, such as Mount Robson and Mount Columbia; the Canadian Rockies are composed of limestone. Much of the range is protected by national and provincial parks, several of which collectively comprise a World Heritage Site.
The Canadian Rockies are the easternmost part of the Canadian Cordillera, the collective name for the mountains of Western Canada. They form part of the American Cordillera, an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that runs all the way from Alaska to the tip of South America; the Cordillera, in turn, is the eastern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire that runs all the way around the Pacific Ocean. The Canadian Rockies are bounded on the east by the Canadian Prairies, on the west by the Rocky Mountain Trench, on the north by the Liard River. Contrary to popular misconception, the Rockies do not extend north into Yukon or Alaska, or west into central British Columbia. North of the Liard River, the Mackenzie Mountains, which are a distinct mountain range, form a portion of the border between the Yukon and the Northwest Territories; the mountain ranges to the west of the Rocky Mountain Trench in southern British Columbia are called the Columbia Mountains, are not considered to be part of the Rockies by Canadian geologists.
Mount Robson is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies, but not the highest in British Columbia, since there are some higher mountains in the Coast Mountains and Saint Elias Mountains. Mount Robson lies on the continental divide near Yellowhead Pass, one of the lowest passes in the Canadian Rockies, is close to the Yellowhead Highway, its base is985 m above sea level, with a total vertical relief of 2,969 m. Mount Columbia is the second-highest peak in the Canadian Rockies, is the highest mountain in Alberta. Snow Dome is the hydrological apex of North America. Water flows off Snow Dome into three different watersheds, into the Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean via Hudson Bay; the Canadian Rockies are not the highest mountain ranges in Canada. Both the Saint Elias Mountains and the Coast Mountains have higher summits; the Canadian Rockies are subdivided into numerous mountain ranges, structured in two main groupings, the Continental Ranges, which has three main subdivisions, the Front Range, Park Ranges and Kootenay Ranges, the Northern Rockies which comprise two main groupings, the Hart Ranges and the Muskwa Ranges.
The division-point of the two main groupings is at Monkman Pass northwest of Mount Robson and to the southwest of Mount Ovington. The Canadian Rockies are noted for being the source of several major river systems, for the many rivers within the range itself; the Rockies form the divide between the Pacific Ocean drainage on the west and that of Hudson Bay and the Arctic Ocean on the east. Of the range's rivers, only the Peace River penetrates the range. Notable rivers originating in the Canadian Rockies include the Fraser, North Saskatchewan and Athabasca Rivers; the Canadian Rockies are quite different in appearance and geology from the American Rockies to the south of them. The Canadian Rockies are composed of layered sedimentary rock such as limestone and shale, whereas the American Rockies are made of metamorphic and igneous rock such as gneiss and granite; the Canadian Rockies are overall more jagged than the American Rockies because the Canadian Rockies have been more glaciated, resulting in pointed mountains separated by wide, U-shaped valleys gouged by glaciers, whereas the American Rockies are overall more rounded, with river-carved V-shaped valleys between them.
The Canadian Rockies are cooler and wetter, giving them moister soil, bigger rivers, more glaciers. The tree line is much lower in the Canadian Rockies than in the American Rockies. Five national parks are located within the Canadian Rockies, four of which are adjacent and make up the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks; these four parks are Banff, Jasper and Yoho. The fifth national park, Waterton is not adjacent to the others. Waterton lies farther south, straddling the Canada–US border as the Canadian half of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. All five of these parks, combined with three British Columbia provincial parks, were declared a single UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984 for the unique mountain landscapes found there. Numerous provincial parks are located in the Canadian Rockies, including Hamber, Mount Assiniboine and Mount Robson parks. Throughout the Rockies, in the national parks, the Alpine Club of Canada maintains a series of alpine huts for use by mountaineers and adventurers.
The Canadian Pacific Railway was founded to provide a link from the province of British Columbia to the eastern provinces. The main difficulty in p
Rocky Mountain Foothills
The Rocky Mountain Foothills are an upland area flanking the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, extending south from the Liard River into Alberta. Bordering the Interior Plains system, they are part of the Rocky Mountain System or Eastern System of the Western Cordillera of North America. List of mountain ranges
Rainbow Range (Rocky Mountains)
The Rainbow Range is a small subrange of the Park Ranges subdivisions of the Northern Continental Ranges of the Rocky Mountains on the border between Alberta and British Columbia in Mount Robson Provincial Park. Its highest summit, the highest in the Canadian Rockies, is Mount Robson 3959 m, followed by nearby Resplendent Mountain 3425 m and Mount Kain 2863 m. Ranges of the Canadian Rockies Bivouac - Rainbow Range
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
The Bow Range is a mountain range of the Canadian Rockies in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. The range is named in associated with the Bow River and was adopted on March 31, 1917 by the Geographic Board of Canada, it is a part of the Banff-Lake Louise Core Area of the Southern Continental Ranges, located on the Continental Divide, west of the Bow River valley, in Banff National Park and Kootenay National Park. The Bow Range covers a surface area of 717 km², has a length of 34 km and a maximum width of 43 km; the highest peak is Mount Temple, with an elevation of 3,543 m. The range covers the Valley of the Ten Peaks, with the tallest of the ten being Mount Hungabee at 3492 metres; the range has hiking areas such as the Consolation Lakes, Sentinel Pass-Larch Valley, Wenkchenma Pass-Eiffel Lake, the beehive plain of the Six Glaciers system and Saddle Back Pass. Ranges of the Canadian Rockies Bow Range in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
The Athabasca River originates from the Columbia Glacier of the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park in Alberta, Canada. The impressive and scenic Athabasca Falls is located upstream about 30 km from the Jasper townsite; the name Athabasca comes from the Woods Cree word aðapaskāw, which means " there are plants one after another" a reference to the spotty vegetation along the river. Sekani, Kootenay, Salish and Cree tribes hunted and fished along the river prior to the European colonization. From about 1778, the Athabasca River, the Clearwater River, which enters the Athabasca River from the east at Fort McMurray, the Methye Portage were part of the main fur trade route from the Mackenzie River to the Great Lakes. See Canadian Canoe Routes. David Thompson and Thomas the Iroquois travelled through Athabasca Pass in 1811. In 1862, the Athabasca Springs area was crossed during the Cariboo Goldrush by the Overlander Party; the northern segment of the Athabasca River became part of a major shipping network in 1921 when the Alberta and Great Waterways Railway reached Waterways near Fort McMurray, making it the northernmost point on the North American railroad grid at that time.
Cargo for destinations farther north was shipped to Waterways and transferred to barges, after which fleets of tugboats took them up the river to destinations in the Athabasca and Mackenzie River watersheds. Barge traffic declined after 1964 when Hay River, on Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories, became the northern terminus of the rail grid; this river was designated a Canadian Heritage River for its importance to the fur trade and the construction of railways and roads opening up the Canadian West, as well as for its natural heritage. The Athabasca River originates in Jasper National Park, in an unnamed lake at the toe of the Columbia Glacier within the Columbia Icefield, between Mount Columbia, Snow Dome, the Winston Churchill Range, at an elevation of 1,600 metres; the river flows along icefields and through gorges, offering wildlife habitat on its shores and adjacent marshes. Throughout its course, it flows through or adjacent to numerous national and provincial parks, including Jasper National Park, Fort Assiniboine Sandhills Wildland Provincial Park, Hubert Lake Wildland Provincial Park, La Biche River Wildland Provincial Park, Grand Rapids Wildland Provincial Park, Richardson River Dunes Wildland Provincial Park, Wood Buffalo National Park.
Its course is marked by rapids. The Athabasca River travels 1,231 km before draining into the Peace-Athabasca Delta near Lake Athabasca south of Fort Chipewyan. From there, its waters flow north as Rivière des Rochers joining the Peace River to form the Slave River that empties into Great Slave Lake and discharges through the Mackenzie River system into the Arctic Ocean; the cumulative drainage area is 95,300 km2. Numerous communities are located on the banks of the Athabasca River, including Jasper, Entrance, Whitecourt, Fort Assiniboine, Athabasca, Fort McMurray, Fort McKay. An independent study has concluded that the Athabasca River contains elevated levels of pollution downstream of the Athabasca oil sands. Testing has shown this portion of the river contains mercury, lead and 11 other toxic elements. On October 31, 2013, one of Obed Mountain coal mine's pits failed, from between 600 million to a billion liters of slurry poured into the Plante and Apetowun Creeks; the plume of waste products joined the Athabasca River, travelling downstream for a month before settling in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan, over 500 km away.
Owing to its proximity to the Athabasca Oil Sands, the river has seen significant amounts of energy infrastructure constructed along its course. On June 6, 1970, a pipeline operated by Great Canadian Oil Sands, the precursor to Suncor and the earliest commercial extraction operation, ruptured near the banks of the river; the total spill volume was estimated by Great Canadian Oil Sands at 1,190 barrels of oil. The Canadian Heraldic Authority named the position of Athabaska Herald after the river. Geography of Alberta List of Alberta rivers List of longest rivers of Canada http://www.environment.alberta.ca/apps/OSEM/ Athabasca River Conditions and Use, Government of Alberta http://www.ramp-alberta.org/river.aspx Alberta Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Agency, RAMP, Athabasca River Basin http://www.chrs.ca/Rivers/Athabasca/Athabasca-F_e.php Canadian Heritage Rivers System, Athabasca River http://arbri.athabascau.ca/About-the-Athabasca-River-basin/Index.php About the Athabasca River Basin, Athabasca River Basin Research Institute Kelly, EN.
"Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107: 16178–83. Doi:10.1073/pnas.1008754107. PMC 2941314. PMID 20805486