The Maligne Range is a mountain range of the Canadian Rockies located directly southeast of Jasper townsite in Jasper National Park, Canada. The southern tail-end of the range finishes at Endless Chain Ridge; this range includes the following mountains and peaks
George Mercer Dawson
George Mercer Dawson was a Canadian geologist and surveyor. He was born in Pictou, Nova Scotia, the eldest son of Sir John William Dawson, Principal of McGill University and a noted geologist, his wife, Lady Margaret Dawson. By age 11, he was afflicted with tuberculosis of the spine that resulted in a deformed back and stunted growth. Physical limitations, did not deter Dawson from becoming one of Canada's greatest scientists. Tutors and his father provided his education during his slow recovery from the illness. Dawson attended the High School of Montreal and McGill University before moving to London to study geology and paleontology at the Royal School of Mines in 1869. Dawson graduated after three years with the highest marks in his class. Dawson began his career in the 1870s as a professor of chemistry at Morrin College in Quebec City. From 1873 to 1875, Dawson worked for the British North American Boundary Commission surveying the International Boundary; the result was the 387-page Report on the Geology and Resources of the Region in the Vicinity of the Forty-Ninth parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains, which established Dawson’s reputation as a respected scientist.
Dawson joined the Geological Survey of Canada in 1875 and led many field parties in Canada’s north and west. His work is credited as having laid the foundations of much of our knowledge of the geology and natural history of these regions. For example, during 1883 and 1884, Dawson travelled through the Canadian Rockies where he mapped out the major mountains, mountain passes, rivers; some of the many peaks he discovered were Mount Assiniboine, 3,618 meters, Mount Temple, 3,543 meters. As a result of his field research, a map of his work was published in 1886 covering the Canadian Rockies from the U. S. border to the Red Deer River Kicking Horse Pass. In addition to his geological work, Dawson was keenly interested in the languages and cultures of the First Nations peoples he met in his travels. While studying the coal deposits of the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1878, he prepared a comprehensive report on the Haida people, which included a vocabulary of their language, his photographs of Haida villages and totem poles remain a unique record.
He published papers about the Indigenous peoples of the Yukon and northern British Columbia, the Kwakiutl people of Vancouver Island and the Shuswap people of central British Columbia. The field season of 1887 saw Dawson and his assistant R. G. McConnell exploring northern British Columbia and the headwaters of the Yukon River, during which they made an arduous circuit by separate routes, on foot and by boat, of an area of 63,200 square miles, unknown except for First Nations accounts and those of a few prospectors; the results of the work included some of the first maps of the Yukon. His report was republished ten years to satisfy interest in the region as a result of the Klondike Gold Rush. Dawson City, was named in his honour, as was Dawson Creek, British Columbia. Dawson became assistant director of the GSC in 1883 and was appointed its third director in 1895. Under his leadership, the GSC continued its far-flung expeditions to study all aspects of Canada’s geology and natural history. Reflecting Dawson’s interest in ethnology, the GSC’s museum increased its indigenous collections, these formed the basis of what is now the Canadian Museum of History.
He lobbied the government tirelessly to secure funding for a more suitable building to house the GSC’s museum and scientific staff. This funding was granted just one month before his death in 1901; the building that resulted from his efforts was the Victoria Memorial Museum Building. Dawson received an LL. D. from Queen's University in 1890 and from McGill University in 1891. In 1891, Dawson was named a fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 1892, he was made a Companion of the Order of St George, he was president of the Geological Society of America in 1900, just seven years after his father served in the same role. Barkhouse, Joyce. George Dawson: The Little Giant. Dundurn. ISBN 978-1-4597-2100-5. Bonney, Thomas George. "Dawson, George Mercer". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 480–481. Jenkins, Phil. Beneath My Feet: the Memoirs of George Mercer Dawson. Toronto: McLelland and Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-4388-8. Morgan, Henry James, ed.. The Canadian men and women of the time: a handbook of Canadian biography.
Toronto: Williams Briggs. Pp. 250–251. Vodden, Christy. A World Inside: A 150-year History of the Canadian Museum of Civilization. Canadian Museum of Civilization. ISBN 978-0-660-19558-2. Zeller, Suzanne E.. "George Mercer Dawson". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Zeller, Suzanne. "Dawson, George Mercer". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32753. The History of the Geological Survey of Canada in 175 Objects L’histoire de la Commission géologique du Canada illustrée par 175 objets
Livingstone Range (Canada)
The Livingstone Range is a sub-range of the Canadian Rockies in Alberta, Canada. It forms the eastern boundary of the Rockies in the south of the province, its northern boundary is the Highwood River, it extends to the Crowsnest Pass in the south. The Livingstone and Oldman Rivers bound it to the west; the range was named after the explorer David Livingstone by Thomas Blakiston, an assistant of John Palliser, in 1858. When explorer Peter Fidler climbed Thunder Mountain in 1792, he became the first European to make a recorded ascent in the Canadian Rockies. Current weather satellite image Weather forecast Weather statistics
Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park
Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, located around Mount Assiniboine. The park was established 1922; some of the more recent history, explorable within the park include Wheeler's Wonder Lodge, Assiniboine Lodge, the first ski lodge in the Canadian Rockies, Sunburst. In 1990, this park was included within the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks UNESCO World Heritage Site. Together with the other national and provincial parks that comprise the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, the park was recognized for its natural beauty and the geological and ecological significance of its mountain landscapes containing the habitats of rare and endangered species, mountain peaks, lakes, canyons, limestone caves and fossils; the park aims to protect a large variety of species. Eighty-four species of birds inhabit the park environs, based on sightings. Columbian ground squirrels are common in the core area of the park. Ten species of carnivore including wolves, black bear, grizzly bear, cougar, lynx inhabit the park.
Six species of ungulates: elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, mountain goat, Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep roam within park boundaries. The following recreational activities are available: backcountry camping and hiking, horseback riding, cross country skiing and ski touring and hunting. There are climbing opportunities. Existing facilities include: 10 camping areas, including the main camp at Magog. Located 48 kilometres southwest of Alberta. No roads access the park. Backcountry hiking trails are the only access to the park, the quickest route being via Sunshine Village ski area in Banff National Park. List of British Columbia Provincial Parks List of Canadian provincial parks Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park "Mount Assiniboine Park". BC Geographical Names. Assiniboine Lodge
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
Mountaineering is the set of activities that involves ascending mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, hiking and traversing via ferratas. Indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are considered mountaineering as well. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains, it has branched into specializations that address different aspects of mountains, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow, or ice or on level ground. All require various degrees of experience, athletic ability, technical knowledge to maintain safety, it is still common to seek the summits of peaks, whether unclimbed or not. Mountaineering is called alpinism, mountain climbers are sometimes called alpinists, although use of the term may vary between countries and eras; the word "alpinism" was born in the 19th century to refer to climbing for the purpose of enjoying climbing itself as a sport or recreation, distinct from climbing while hunting or as a religious pilgrimage, done at that time.
The UIAA, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, is the International Olympic Committee-recognized world governing body for mountaineering and climbing, addressing issues like access, mountain protection, safety and ice climbing. Many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they regarded as sacred due to their perceived proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. On April 26, 1336 famous Italian poet Petrarch climbed to the summit of 1,912 m Mount Ventoux overlooking the Bay of Marseilles, claiming to be inspired by Philip V of Macedon's ascent of Mount Haemo, making him the first known alpinist. One of the first European mountains visited by many tourists was Sněžka; this was due to the minor technical difficulties ascent and the fact that since the sixteenth century, many resort visitors flocked to the nearby Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój and visible Sněžka, visually dominant over all Krkonoše was for them an important attraction. The first confirmed ascent took place in the year 1456.
In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a little team, using ladders and ropes. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, has been said to mark the beginning of mountaineering. In 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains. During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, many mountain summits were surmounted for the first time.. In 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. In 1757 Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure made the first of several unsuccessful attempts on Mont Blanc in France offering a reward, claimed in 1786 by Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard. By the early 19th century many of the alpine peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812, the Breithorn in 1813.
In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc, followed in 1838 by Henriette d'Angeville. The beginning of mountaineering as a sport in the UK is dated to the ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 by English mountaineer Sir Alfred Wills, who made mountaineering fashionable in Britain; this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, Johannes Zumtaugwald. In the early years of the "golden age", scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and alpine mountaineering overall.
One of the most dramatic events was the spectacular first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865 by a party led by English illustrator Edward Whymper, in which four of the party members fell to their deaths. This ascent is regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age. By this point the sport of mountaineering had reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides and fixed guidelines. Mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James and two others in 1820. Though lower than Pikes Peak, the glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842. Pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Denali, the tallest peak in North America, was climbed
Continental Divide of the Americas
The Continental Divide is the principal, mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas. The Continental Divide extends from the Bering Strait to the Strait of Magellan, separates the watersheds that drain into the Pacific Ocean from those river systems that drain into the Atlantic Ocean and, along the northernmost reaches of the Divide, those river systems that drain into the Arctic Ocean. Though there are a few other hydrological divides in the Americas, the Continental Divide is by far the most prominent of these because it tends to follow a line of high peaks along the main ranges of the Rocky Mountains and Andes, at a much higher elevation than the other hydrological divisions; the Continental Divide begins at Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point on the mainland of the Americas. The Divide crosses northern Alaska into the Yukon zig-zags south into British Columbia via the Cassiar Mountains and Omineca Mountains and northern Nechako Plateau to Summit Lake, north of the city of Prince George and just south of the community of McLeod Lake.
From there the Divide traverses the McGregor Plateau to the spine of the Rockies, following the crest of the Canadian Rockies southeast to the 120th meridian west, from there forming the boundary between southern British Columbia and southern Alberta. The Divide crosses into the United States in northwestern Montana, at the boundary between Waterton Lakes National Park and Glacier National Park. In Canada, it forms the western boundary of Waterton Lakes National Park, in the US bisects Glacier National Park. Further south, the Divide forms the backbone of the Rocky Mountain Front in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, heads south towards Helena and Butte west past the namesake community of Divide, through the Anaconda-Pintler Wilderness to the Bitterroot Range, where it forms the eastern third of the state boundary between Idaho and Montana; the Divide crosses into Wyoming within Yellowstone National Park and continues southeast into Colorado where it reaches its highest point in North America at the summit of Grays Peak at 4,352 m.
It crosses US Hwy 160 in southwestern Colorado at Wolf Creek Pass, where a line symbolizes the division. The Divide proceeds south into western New Mexico, passing along the western boundary of the endorheic Plains of San Agustin. Although the Divide represents the height of land between watersheds, it does not always follow the highest ranges/peaks within each state or province. In Mexico, it passes through Chihuahua, Zacatecas, Jalisco, Querétaro, México, the Federal District, Puebla and Chiapas. In Central America, it continues through southern Guatemala, southwestern Honduras, western Nicaragua, western/southwestern Costa Rica, southern Panama; the divide reaches its lowest natural point in Central America at the Isthmus of Rivas at 47 m in Nicaragua. In Panama, the Canal cuts through it at 85 ft; the Divide continues into South America, where it follows the peaks of the Andes Mountains, traversing western Colombia, central Ecuador and southwestern Peru, eastern Chile, southward to the southern end of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.
In North America, another non-mountainous divide, the Laurentian Divide, further separates the Hudson Bay-Arctic Ocean drainage region from the Atlantic watershed region. Secondary divides separate the watersheds that flow into the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River from watersheds that flow to the Atlantic via the Missouri-Mississippi complex. Another secondary divide follows the Appalachian chain, which separates those streams and rivers that flow directly into the Atlantic Ocean from those that exit via the Mississippi River. Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park, Montana, is the point where two of the principal continental divides in North America converge, the primary Continental Divide and the Northern or Laurentian Divide. From this point, waters flow to the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean via the Gulf of Mexico, the Arctic Ocean via Hudson Bay. Most geographers, geologists and oceanographers consider this point the hydrological apex of North America, as Hudson Bay is considered part of the Arctic.
For example, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the Hudson Bay, with its outlet extending from 62.5 to 66.5 degrees north as being part of the Arctic Ocean "Arctic Ocean Subdivision 9.11." This hydrological apex of North America status of Triple Divide Peak is the main reason behind the designation of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park as the "Crown of the Continent" of North America. The summit of the peak is the world's only oceanic triple divide point. Discounting Antarctica and its ice sheets, only one other continent borders three oceans, but the inward-draining Endorheic basin area of Central Asia from western China to the Aral and Caspian Seas is so vast that any Arctic and Indian Ocean tributaries are never within proximity of each other. Thus, North America's status of having a single location draining into three oceans is unique in the world. Sources differ, however, on whether Hudson Bay south of the Arctic Circle, is part of the Atlantic or Arctic Ocean. Hudson Bay's water budget connects to the Atlantic more than to the Arctic Ocean.