L'Anse aux Meadows
LAnse aux Meadows is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Discovered in 1960, it is the most famous site of a Norse or Viking settlement in North America, dating to around the year 1000, LAnse aux Meadows is widely accepted as evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. It is notable for its connection with the attempted colony of Vinland established by Leif Erikson around the same period or, more broadly. It was named a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978, the site now known as LAnse aux Meadows was first recorded as Anse à la Médée on a French nautical chart made in 1862. The toponym probably referred to a named after the Greek mythological figure of Medea. The cove facing the village of LAnse aux Meadows is still named Médée Bay. How the village came to be named LAnse aux Meadows is not clear. Parks Canada, which manages the site, states that the current name was anglicized from Anse à la Médée after English speakers settled in the area, another possibility is that LAnse aux Meadows is a corruption of the French designation LAnse aux Méduses, which means Jellyfish Cove.
The shift from Méduses to Meadows may have occurred because the landscape in the area tends to be open, based on the idea that the Old Norse name Vinland, mentioned in the Icelandic Sagas, meant wine-land, historians had long speculated that the region contained wild grapes. The Ingstads doubted this theory, saying that the name Vinland probably means land of meadows. and this speculation was based on the belief that the Norse would not have been comfortable settling in areas along the American Atlantic coast. This dichotomy between the two views could have possibly been due to the two historic ways in which the first vowel sound of Vinland could be pronounced. In 1960, George Decker, a citizen of the fishing hamlet of LAnse aux Meadows. These bumps covered with grass looked like the remains of houses, Helge Ingstad and Anne Stine Ingstad carried out seven archaeological excavations there from 1961 to 1968. They investigated eight complete house sites and the remains of a ninth, though a possible Norse settlement has been found in southern Newfoundland at Point Rosee, LAnse aux Meadows is currently the only confirmed Norse site in North America.
It represents the extent of European exploration and settlement of the New World before the voyages of Christopher Columbus almost 500 years later. Historians have speculated there were other settlement sites, or at least Norse-Native American trade contacts. In 2012, possible Norse outposts were identified in Nanook at Tanfield Valley on Baffin Island, as well as Nunguvik, Willows Island and the Avayalik Islands. The archaeological excavation at LAnse aux Meadows was conducted in the 1960s by a team led by archaeologist Anne Stine Ingstad under the direction of Parks Canada in the 1970s
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371.
British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average.
The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforest
The Rideau Canal, known unofficially as the Rideau Waterway, connects the city of Ottawa, Canada, on the Ottawa River to the city of Kingston, Ontario, on Lake Ontario. It is 202 kilometres in length, the name Rideau, French for curtain, is derived from the curtain-like appearance of the Rideau Rivers twin waterfalls where they join the Ottawa River. The canal system uses sections of two rivers, the Rideau and the Cataraqui, as well as several lakes, the Rideau Canal is operated by Parks Canada. The canal was opened in 1832 as a precaution in case of war with the United States and it remains in use today primarily for pleasure boating, with most of its original structures intact, operated by Parks Canada. The locks on the open for navigation in mid-May and close in mid-October. It is the oldest continuously operated system in North America. Lawrence River, which would have severed the lifeline between Montreal and Kingston, the British built a number of other canals as well as a number of forts to impede and deter any future American invasions of Canadian territory.
The initial purpose of the Rideau Canal was military, as it was intended to provide a secure supply, westward from Montreal, travel would proceed along the Ottawa River to Bytown, southwest via the canal to Kingston and out into Lake Ontario. The objective was to bypass the stretch of the St. Lawrence bordering New York, the canal served a commercial purpose. The Rideau Canal was easier to navigate than the St. Lawrence River because of the series of rapids between Montreal and Kingston, as a result, the Rideau Canal became a busy commercial artery from Montreal to the Great Lakes. However, by 1849, the rapids of the St. Lawrence had been tamed by a series of locks, the construction of the canal was supervised by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers. Colonel John By decided to create a canal system instead of constructing new channels. This was an approach as it required fewer workers, was more cost effective. The canal work started in the fall of 1826, and it was completed by the spring of 1832, the final cost of the canals construction was £822,804 by the time all the costs, including land acquisitions costs, were accounted for.
Given the unexpected cost overruns, John By was recalled to London and was retired with no accolades or recognition for the tremendous accomplishment hed achieved, once the canal was constructed, no further military engagements took place between Canada and the United States. Although the Rideau Canal never had to be used as a supply route. Tens of thousands of immigrants from the British Isles travelled the Rideau in this period, hundreds of barge loads of goods were shipped each year along the Rideau, allowing Montreal to compete commercially in the 1830s and 40s with New York as a major North American port. In 1841, for instance, there were 19 steamboats,3 self-propelled barges and 157 unpowered or tow barges using the Rideau Canal, as many as one thousand of the workers died from malaria, other diseases and accidents
Joggins is a Canadian rural community located in western Cumberland County, Nova Scotia. On July 7,2008 a 15 km length of the coast constituting the Joggins Fossil Cliffs was officially inscribed on the World Heritage List. The area was known to the Mikmaq as Chegoggins meaning place of the fish weir. Situated on the Cumberland Basin, a sub-basin of the Bay of Fundy and its coal seams which are exposed along the shore of the Cumberland Basin were exploited as early as 1686 by local Acadian settlers and by the British garrison at Annapolis Royal in 1715. The first commercial mine was set up by Major Henry Cope in 1731, but was destroyed by the Mikmaq in November 1732. Samuel McCully opened a mine in 1819 with much of his production being shipped by sea to Saint John, New Brunswick and other markets, large-scale industrialization came to Cumberland County under the General Mining Association, which held the rights to the areas coal fields. Old coal mine working are eroding out of the sea-cliffs at Joggins, recently dendrochronology had been employed to date the timber pit props. A late nineteenth century age has been inferred, with most props dating from the 1860s and 1870s, the coal mines attracted a diverse number of workers, some as young as 12 years.
French-speaking Acadians returned from New Brunswick, and were joined by Irish and Scottish immigrants, Joggins Mines expanded rapidly to include three churches, two cemeteries, a hotel, a roller ring, movie theater, fire department, general store, post office, railway station and school. Rail service was abandoned to the community in the early 1960s, the Joggins area was well known in the 19th and early 20th century for the quarrying of limestone grinding wheels, lumber and dairy production. The Bay of Fundy boosts a rich tradition of shipbuilding, in the 1800s, wooden coastal schooners were built on the shore to carry coal and mill stones to the United States. Several of the homes in the Joggins area display the sturdy, practical. Many of the beaches along the Bay of Fundy are still littered with stone ballast from the hulls of old ships, today in addition to tourism, the area is known for the commercial cultivation of wild blueberries and agricultural food processing. The roads and bridges to Joggins were improved in the 1980s and 1990s and area has become popular for tourism, summer homes and retirees.
Joggins is a destination on the Nova Scotia Economic and Rural Development and Tourism Glooscap Trail, Mikmaq legend tells of the a mythical transformer, who created Nova Scotia and controlled the great tides with his magical powers. The Bay of Fundy has the highest tides in the world, visitors can walk on the ocean floor at low tide, or go rafting on the tidal bore. The high tides have shaped the landscape into one of beauty, pristine beaches, dramatic rock outcrops, sea cliffs, waterfalls. The Joggins area is diverse and rich in wildlife
Wood Buffalo National Park
Wood Buffalo National Park, located in northeastern Alberta and southern Northwest Territories, is the largest national park in Canada at 44,807 km2. Larger in area than Switzerland, it is the second-largest national park in the world, the park was established in 1922 to protect the worlds largest herd of free roaming wood bison, currently estimated at more than 5,000. It is one of two nesting sites of whooping cranes. The park ranges in elevation from 183 m at the Little Buffalo River to 945 m in the Caribou Mountains, the park headquarters is located in Fort Smith, with a smaller satellite office in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. The park contains one of the worlds largest fresh water deltas and it is known for its karst sinkholes in the north-eastern section of the park. Albertas largest springs, Neon Lake Springs, are located in the Jackfish River drainage, Wood Buffalo is located directly north of the Athabasca Oil Sands. On June 28,2013, the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada designated Wood Buffalo National Park as Canadas newest and this region has been inhabited by human cultures since the end of the last ice age.
Aboriginal peoples in this region have followed variations on the subarctic lifeway, based around hunting, fishing, in recorded times, the Dane-zaa, the Chipewyan people, the South Slavey, and Woods Cree people are known to have inhabited, and sometimes quarrelled over, the region. The Cree, by contrast, are an Algonquian people and are thought to have migrated here from the east within the timeframe of recorded history. Sometime after 1781 when a smallpox epidemic decimated the region, the two made a peace treaty at Peace Point through a ceremonial pipe ceremony. This is the origin of the name of the Peace River which flows through the region, the became the boundary with the Dane-zaa to the North. Explorer Peter Pond is believed to have passed through the region in 1785, likely the first European to do so, in 1788 fur trading posts were established at Fort Chipewyan just east of the current boundaries of the park and Fort Vermilion just to the west. And the Peace River, which had long used by the First Nations as a trade route.
From the fur trade, the Métis people emerged as another group in the region. Canada purchased the Hudsons Bay Companys claim to the region in 1896 and this led to the signing of Treaty 8 on 21 June 1899. The land passed into the hand of the government as Crown land. Established in 1922, the park was created on Crown land acquired the territory of Treaty 8 between Canada the local First Nations, in 1957, however, a disease-free, wood bison herd of 200 was discovered near Nyarling river in Wood Buffalo National Park. In 1965,23 of these bison were relocated to the side of Elk Island National Park and 300 remain there today as the most genetically pure wood bison remaining
Banff /bænf/ is a town within Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada. It is located in Albertas Rockies along the Trans-Canada Highway, approximately 126 km west of Calgary and 58 km east of Lake Louise. At an elevation of 1,400 m to 1,630 m, the Town of Banff was the first municipality to incorporate within a Canadian national park. The town is a member of the Calgary Regional Partnership, Banff is a resort town and one of Canadas most popular tourist destinations, known for its mountainous surroundings and hot springs. It is a destination for sports and features extensive hiking, biking and skiing areas within the area. Sunshine Village, Ski Norquay and Lake Louise Mountain Resort are the three ski resorts located within the national park. Banff was first settled in the 1880s, after the railway was built through the Bow Valley. In 1883, three Canadian Pacific Railway workers stumbled upon a series of hot springs on the side of Sulphur Mountain. In 1885, Canada established a reserve of 26 km2 around the Cave and Basin hot springs.
In 1887, the area was increased to 673 km2. This was the beginning of Canadas National Park system, the area was named Banff in 1884 by George Stephen, president of the Canadian Pacific Railway, recalling his birthplace in Banff, Scotland. The Canadian Pacific built a series of hotels along the rail line. The Banff townsite was developed near the station as a service centre for tourists visiting the park. It was administered by the Government of Canadas national parks system until 1990 when the Town of Banff became the incorporated municipality within a Canadian national park. An Internment camp was set up at Banff and Castle Mountain in Dominion Park from July 1915 to July 1917, in 1985, the United Nations declared Banff National Park, as one of the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, a World Heritage Site. Banff remains one of the most popular tourist destinations in Canada, one of the most notable figures of Banff was Norman Luxton, who was known as Mr. Banff. He and his family helped organize the Banff Indian Days and the Banff Winter Carnival, in 1976, the International Astronomical Unions Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature officially adopted the name Banff for a crater on Mars, after the town in Alberta.
The crater is at latitude 17. 7° north and longitude 30. 8° west and it is surrounded by mountains, notably Mount Rundle, Sulphur Mountain, Mount Norquay, and Cascade Mountain
The cougar, commonly known as the mountain lion, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas. Its range, from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes of South America, is the greatest of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere, an adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is found in most American habitat types. It is the second-heaviest cat in the New World, after the jaguar and largely solitary by nature, the cougar is properly considered both nocturnal and crepuscular, although there are daytime sightings. The cougar is more related to smaller felines, including the domestic cat, than to any species of subfamily Pantherinae. The cougar is a predator and pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources are ungulates, particularly deer, but livestock and it hunts species as small as insects and rodents. This cat prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, the cougar is territorial and survives at low population densities.
Individual territory sizes depend on terrain and abundance of prey, while large, it is not always the apex predator in its range, yielding to the jaguar, gray wolf, American black bear, and grizzly bear. It is reclusive and mostly avoids people, fatal attacks on humans are rare, but have recently been increasing in North America as more people enter their territories. Intensive hunting following European colonization of the Americas and the human development of cougar habitat has caused populations to drop in most parts of its historical range. In particular, the cougar was extirpated in eastern North America in the beginning of the 20th century, reports of eastern cougars still surface, although it was declared extirpated in 2011. With its vast range across the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of names and various references in the mythology of the indigenous Americans and in contemporary culture. Currently, it is referred to as puma by most scientists, Mountain lion was a term first used in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A.
Jackson of Colorado. Other names include catamount, mountain screamer, and painter, lexicographers regard painter as a primarily upper-Southern US regional variant on panther. The word panther is used to specifically designate the black panther, a melanistic jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther. P. concolor holds the Guinness record for the animal with the greatest number of names, Cougar may be borrowed from the archaic Portuguese çuçuarana, the term was originally derived from the Tupi language susuarana, meaning similar to deer. A current form in Brazil is suçuarana and it may be borrowed from the Guaraní language term guaçu ara or guazu ara. Less common Portuguese terms are onça-parda or leão-baio, or unusually non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, people in rural regions often refer to both the cougar and the jaguar as simply gata, and outside of the Amazon, both are colloquially referred to as simply onça by many people
The mule deer is a deer indigenous to western North America, it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule. There are believed to be several subspecies including the black-tailed deer, unlike the related white-tailed deer, mule deer are generally more associated with the land west of the Missouri River, and more specifically with the Rocky Mountain region of North America. Mule deer have introduced to Argentina and Kauai, Hawaii. The most noticeable differences between white-tailed and mule deer are the size of their ears, the color of their tails, in many cases, body size is a key difference. The mule deers tail is black-tipped, whereas the whitetails is not, mule deer antlers are bifurcated, they fork as they grow, rather than branching from a single main beam, as is the case with white-tails. Each spring, a bucks antlers start to regrow almost immediately after the old antlers are shed, shedding typically takes place in mid-February, with variations occurring by locale.
Although capable of running, mule deer are often seen stotting, the mule deer is the larger of the two Odocoileus species on average, with a height of 80–106 cm at the shoulders and a nose-to-tail length ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 m. Of this, the tail may comprise 11.6 to 23 cm, adult bucks normally weigh 55–150 kg, averaging around 92 kg, although trophy specimens may weigh up to 210 kg. Does are rather smaller and typically weigh from 43 to 90 kg, an exception to this is the subspecies, the Sitka black-tailed deer. This race is smaller than other mule deer, with an average weight of 54.5 kg and 36 kg in males and females. In addition to related to available shelter and food, the breeding cycle is important in understanding deer behavior. The rut or mating season begins in the fall as does go into estrus for a period of a few days and males become more aggressive. Does may mate more than one buck and go back into estrus within a month if they did not become pregnant. The gestation period is about 190–200 days, with fawns born in the spring, staying with their mothers during the summer, mule deer females usually give birth to two fawns, although if it is their first time having a fawn, they often have just one. A bucks antlers fall off during the winter, to again in preparation for the next seasons rut.
The annual cycle of growth is regulated by changes in the length of the day. For a guide to identify the sex and age class of Rocky Mountain mule deer at various seasons see S1 File, for more information see the main article on deer. The size of mule deer groups follow a seasonal pattern
Lunenburg, Nova Scotia
Lunenburg is a port town in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, Canada. Situated on the provinces South Shore, Lunenburg is located on the Fairhaven Peninsula at the side of Mahone Bay. The town is approximately 90 kilometres southwest of the county boundary with the Halifax Regional Municipality, the town was established by the three founding fathers, Patrick Sutherland, Dettlieb Christopher Jessen and John Creighton during Father Le Loutres War, four years after Halifax. The town was one of the first British attempts to settle Protestants in Nova Scotia intended to displace Mikmaq, British settlement posed a lasting and certain threat to Mikmaw hegenomy over their traditional territory. The historic town was designated a United Nations Educational and this designation ensures protection for much of Lunenburgs unique architecture and civic design, being the best example of planned British colonial settlement in Canada. The historic core of the town is a National Historic Site of Canada, originally a Mikmaq encampment and clam harvesting site known as āseedĭk, the site became a Mi’kmaq and Acadian village named Mirliguèche for over a hundred years.
Mirliguèche is believed to mean milky surf or milky bay, referring to the appearance in a storm. Acadians under the command of Isaac de Razilly established kinship and trade relations with the local Mikmaq, a 1688 census indicates there were 21 at Mirliguèche, in one house and two wigwams, with half an acre under cultivation. In 1745 there were reported to be only eight settlers in the village, four years later, Cornwallis reported that there were a number of families that lived in comfortable wooden houses. Despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians, Father Le Loutres War began when Governor Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21,1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mikmaq, upon the outbreak of Father Le Loutres War, on October 5,1749, Governor Edward Cornwallis sent Commander White with troops in the 20-gun sloop Sphinx to Mirligueche and had the village destroyed.
By 1753 there still was one family in the area – a Mikmaq man named Old Labrador. After establishing Halifax, the British quickly began to other settlements. To guard against Mikmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Dartmouth, the Natives and Acadians raided the Lunenburg peninsula nine times in the first six years of its establishment. Dissatisfied with the English colonists sent to Halifax in 1749, Cornwallis appealed to the Committee of Privy Council for Trade and Foreign Plantations in London to recruit more Germans, over 2,700 Foreign Protestants signed up for the passage and emigrated to Nova Scotia. Most came from the Upper Rhine area of present-day Germany, from the French and German-speaking Swiss cantons and they stayed in Halifax under British protection while working on the fortifications to pay off the cost of their passage. In 1753, three years into Father Le Loutres War, John Creighton led the group of Foreign Protestants stationed in Halifax to resettle Mirliguèche naming the new British colony Lunenburg.
The town was named in honour of the King of Great Britain and Ireland, like Halifax, the British established Lunenburg unilaterally, that is, without negotiating with the Mikmaq whose sovereign territory it had always been
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight, it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses and they abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice, between 35°N and 35°S, glaciers occur only in the Himalayas, Rocky Mountains, a few high mountains in East Africa, New Guinea and on Zard Kuh in Iran. Glaciers cover about 10 percent of Earths land surface, continental glaciers cover nearly 13,000,000 km2 or about 98 percent of Antarcticas 13,200,000 km2, with an average thickness of 2,100 m. Greenland and Patagonia have huge expanses of continental glaciers, Glacial ice is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth. Within high altitude and Antarctic environments, the temperature difference is often not sufficient to release meltwater. A large piece of compressed ice, or a glacier, appears blue as large quantities of water appear blue and this is because water molecules absorb other colors more efficiently than blue.
The other reason for the color of glaciers is the lack of air bubbles. Air bubbles, which give a color to ice, are squeezed out by pressure increasing the density of the created ice. The word Glaceon is a loanword from French and goes back, via Franco-Provençal, to the Vulgar Latin glaciārium, derived from the Late Latin glacia, the processes and features caused by or related to glaciers are referred to as glacial. The process of establishment and flow is called glaciation. The corresponding area of study is called glaciology, Glaciers are important components of the global cryosphere. Glaciers are categorized by their morphology, thermal characteristics, and behavior, cirque glaciers form on the crests and slopes of mountains. A glacier that fills a valley is called a valley glacier, a large body of glacial ice astride a mountain, mountain range, or volcano is termed an ice cap or ice field. Ice caps have a less than 50,000 km2 by definition. Glacial bodies larger than 50,000 km2 are called ice sheets or continental glaciers, several kilometers deep, they obscure the underlying topography.
Only nunataks protrude from their surfaces, the only extant ice sheets are the two that cover most of Antarctica and Greenland. They contain vast quantities of water, enough that if both melted, global sea levels would rise by over 70 m
Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump
Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump is a buffalo jump located where the foothills of the Rocky Mountains begin to rise from the prairie 18 km northwest of Fort Macleod, Canada on highway 785. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and home of a museum of Blackfoot culture, Joe Crowshoe Sr. OC – Aapohsoy’yiis – a ceremonial Elder of the Piikani Nation in southern Alberta, was instrumental in the development of the site. The Joe Crow Shoe Sr. Lodge is dedicated to his memory, the buffalo jump was used for 5,500 years by the indigenous peoples of the plains to kill buffalo by driving them off the 11 metre high cliff. These specialized buffalo runners were young men trained in behavior to guide the buffalo into the drive lanes. Then, at full gallop, the buffalo would fall from the weight of the herd pressing behind them, breaking their legs, the cliff itself is about 300 metres long, and at its highest point drops 10 metres into the valley below. The site was in use at least 6,000 years ago, after falling off the cliff, the buffalo carcasses were processed at a nearby camp.
The camp at the foot of the cliffs provided the people with everything they needed to process a buffalo carcass, the majority of the buffalo carcass was used for a variety of purposes, from tools made from the bone, to the hide used to make dwellings and clothing. The importance of the site goes beyond just providing food and supplies, after a successful hunt, the wealth of food allowed the people to enjoy leisure time and pursue artistic and spiritual interests. This increased the complexity of the society. In Blackfoot, the name for the site is Estipah-skikikini-kots, according to legend, a young Blackfoot wanted to watch the buffalo plunge off the cliff from below, but was buried underneath the falling buffalo. He was found dead under the pile of carcasses, where he had his head smashed in, Head-Smashed-In was abandoned in the 19th century after European contact. The site was first recorded by Europeans in the 1880s, opened in 1987, the interpretive centre at Head-Smashed-In is built into the ancient sandstone cliff in naturalistic fashion.
The centre offers camping and hands-on educational workshops in facets of First Nations life, such as making moccasins, drums. Visitors can witness traditional drumming and dancing demonstrations every Wednesday from July to August at 11 a. m and 1,30 p. m. at the centre, there is now a permanent exhibition at Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump. Lost Identities, A Journey of Rediscovery made its first appearance here in 1999, the exhibition, is a collaboration of many historical societies and museums that have given voice to otherwise silent photographs. These photographs have been unidentified for some time, but the exhibit travel led to the Aboriginal communities finding the voice and story behind the photographs taken in these communities. The facility was designed by Le Blond Partnership, a firm in Calgary. The design was awarded the Governor Generals Gold Medal for Architecture in 1990, List of Canadian provincial parks List of World Heritage Sites in the Americas Archaeology of Native North America,2010, Dean R.
Snow, Prentice-Hall, New York
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres, in 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. At the first meeting of the CGPM in 1889 when a new standard metre, manufactured by Johnson Matthey & Co of London was adopted, in 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition. The units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, many farmers, especially older ones, still use the acre for everyday calculations, and convert to hectares only for official paperwork.
Farm fields can have long histories which are resistant to change, with names such as the six acre field stretching back hundreds of years. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the base unit of area. The centiare is a synonym for one square metre, the deciare is ten square metres. The are is a unit of area, equal to 100 square metres and it was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside of the modern International System of Units. It is commonly used to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, and in French-, Portuguese-, Slovakian-, Serbian-, Czech-, Polish-, Dutch-, in Russia and other former Soviet Union states, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large, the decare is derived from deka, the prefix for 10 and are, and is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East, the hectare, although not strictly a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area that is accepted for use within the SI.
The United Kingdom, United States, and to some extent Canada instead use the acre, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used particularly when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation. In many countries, metrication redefined or clarified existing measures in terms of metric units, non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units