Beelu National Park
Beelu National Park is a national park east of Perth, Western Australia. Lying south of Mundaring, Western Australia, west of the Mundaring Weir Road, it is part of the group of parks known as the Parks of the Darling Range; the park was named Mundaring National Park. Mundaring National Park was established and gazetted in 1995 as part of the Protecting Out Old Growth Forests policy of the State Government; the park was renamed in 2008 as an acknowledgement of the traditional owners of the area. The word Beelu is derived from the Noongar word for stream; the Beelu people were the original peoples of the area whose district was bounded by the Helena and Canning Rivers. The park contains an abundance of native flora including Jarrah, Zamia, Bull Banksia and Grass tree; the park contains toilets, wood barbecues, picnic tables and a variety of hiking and mountain biking trails. An information centre, the Perth Hills National Parks Centre is located within the park and is open between 10.00am and 4.00pm to offer advice and refreshments to visitors.
A lookout is located South Ledge with a view over Lake CY O'Connor. The largest Oak Tree in Western Australia is found in Fred Jacby Park. Two campsites are available to use within the park. Protected areas of Western Australia Mitchell, Samille What's in a name? Parks of the Darling Range Landscope Volume 24 number 2, pp. 40–46
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds form visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are composed of sandstone allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are better able to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Sandstones are clastic in origin. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals; the cements binding these grains together are calcite and silica. Grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are called argillaceous sediments; the formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains; the most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colors will be tan or yellow. A predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia; the regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other forms of construction. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environmentsRivers Alluvial fans Glacial outwash Lakes Deserts Marine environmentsDeltas Beach and shoreface sands Tidal flats Offshore bars and sand waves Storm deposits Turbidites Framework grains are sand-sized detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a sandstone.
These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition: Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events, while allowing the grains to display some degree of rounding. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock, which are felsic in origin and from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are the second most abundant mineral in sandstones. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: plagioclase feldspars; the different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8, this represents a complete solid solution. Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, called lithic fragments or clasts. Lithic fragments can be any fine-grained or coarse-grained igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock, although the most common lithic fragments found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals include micas, olivine and corundum. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that
Francis Thomas Gregory
Francis Thomas "Frank" Gregory was an Australian explorer and politician. He was the younger brother of politician Augustus Gregory. Gregory was born at Farnsfield, England, although the family emigrated to Western Australia in 1829, he entered the Western Australian public service as a cadet surveyor in 1841. With his brother Augustus and Henry Churchman, Francis Gregory explored country north of Perth during 1846. Gregory was appointed an assistant government surveyor in 1847 and a staff surveyor in 1849, he led expeditions to the upper Murchison River in 1857, to country farther east and north in 1858. Gregory visited England in 1859, to lobby the British government for funding towards exploration of North-West Australia. Gregory believed that grazing and/or plantation agriculture, using indentured labour from Asia, might be possible in the region. In 1860, the Government of Western Australia put Gregory in charge of a proposed expedition, to explore the interior around Nickol Bay: the southwestern part of the region known as the Pilbara.
The British government provided £2,000 towards expenses. The expedition left Fremantle on 23 April 1861 and four days at Champion Bay, he was joined by three volunteers, making a party of nine, they completed the landing of the horses near the Harding River on 24 May, started inland the following day. After reaching the Fortescue River, the expedition followed it for several days, before a turn to the south-west was made and the Hardey River was followed. On 25 June, having reached latitude 23° 56' south, they sought to retrace their steps and reached their landing place on the coast on 19 July. On 29 July, they commenced a second foray and east of the previous track. Gregory returned with his party on 17 October and the expedition returned to Perth, which it reached on 9 November 1861. Gregory reported that three million acres of land suitable for grazing, he drew attention to the possibility of a pearling industry being established. As a result of the expedition to Nickol Bay, Gregory was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society.
Gregory moved to Queensland – where his brother Augustus was prominent as an explorer and official – in 1862. Francis Gregory was appointed a Commissioner of Crown Lands. From 1874, he was a member of the Queensland Legislative Council, for a short period during 1883 was Postmaster-General of Queensland; the exploration journals and records of Augustus and Francis Gregory were published in 1884 by the Queensland government as Journals of Australian Explorations. Gregory was buried in Drayton and Toowoomba Cemetery, his Toowoomba home, Harlaxton House, is listed on the Queensland Heritage Register. Acacia gregorii known as Gregory's wattle, and, collected in the Pilbara during the 1861 expedition is named in his honour. Members of the Queensland Legislative Council, 1870–1879. Waterson,'Gregory, Francis Thomas', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4, MUP, 1972, pp 293–295. Retrieved on 27 December 2008 Serle, Percival. "Gregory, Francis Thomas". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
Retrieved 27 December 2008. Works by Francis Thomas Gregory at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Francis Thomas Gregory at Internet Archive
Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Leichhardt, known as Ludwig Leichhardt, was a German explorer and naturalist, most famous for his exploration of northern and central Australia. Leichhardt was born on 23 October 1813 in the village of Trebatsch, today part of Tauche, in the Prussian Province of Brandenburg, he was the fourth son and sixth of the eight children of Christian Hieronymus Matthias Leichhardt and royal inspector and his wife Charlotte Sophie, née Strählow. Between 1831 and 1836 Leichhardt studied philosophy and natural sciences at the Universities of Göttingen and Berlin but never received a university degree, he moved to England in 1837, continued his study of the natural sciences at various places, including the British Museum and the Jardin des Plantes and undertook field work in several European countries, including France and Switzerland. On 14 February 1842 Leichhardt arrived in Australia, his aim was to explore inland Australia and he was hopeful of a government appointment in his fields of interest.
In September 1842 Leichhardt went to the Hunter River valley north of Sydney to study the geology and fauna of the region, to observe farming methods. He set out on his own on a specimen-collecting journey that took him from Newcastle, New South Wales, to Moreton Bay in Queensland. After returning to Sydney early in 1844, Leichhardt hoped to take part in a proposed government-sponsored expedition from Moreton Bay to Port Essington; when plans for this expedition fell through Leichhardt decided to mount the expedition himself, accompanied by volunteers and supported by private funding. His party left Sydney in August 1844 to sail to Moreton Bay; the expedition departed on 1 October 1844 from Jimbour Homestead, the farthest outpost of settlement on the Queensland Darling Downs. After a nearly 4,800 kilometres overland journey, having long been given up for dead, Leichhardt arrived in Port Essington on 17 December 1845, he returned to Sydney by boat. The Journal of an Overland Expedition in Australia, from Moreton Bay to Port Essington, a Distance of Upwards of 3000 miles, During the Years 1844 and 1845 by Leichhardt describes this expedition.
A memorial to John Gilbert, one of Leichhardt's companions on this journey, can be found on the north wall of St James' Church, Sydney. Under the title Dulce et Docorum Est Pro Scientia Mori the inscription on the monument, "erected by the colonists of New South Wales" reads: "in memory of John Gilbert, speared by the blacks on 29 June 1845 during the first overland expedition to Port Essington by Dr Ludwig Leichhardt and his intrepid companions". There is a memorial to Gilbert at Gilbert's Lookout at Taroom. Leichhardt's second expedition, undertaken with a government grant and substantial private subscriptions, started in December 1846, it was supposed to take him from the Darling Downs to the west coast of Australia and to the Swan River and Perth. However, after covering only 800 km the expedition team was forced to return in June 1847 due to heavy rain, malarial fever and famine. After recovering from malaria Leichhardt spent six weeks in 1847 examining the course of the Condamine River, southern Queensland, the country between the route of another expedition led by Sir Thomas Mitchell in 1846 and his own route, covering nearly 1,000 km.
In April 1847 Leichhardt shared the annual prize of the Paris Geographical Society, for the most important geographic discovery with the French explorer Charles-Xavier Rochet d'Héricourt. Soon afterward, on 24 May, the Royal Geographical Society, awarded Leichhardt its Patron's Medal as recognition of'the increased knowledge of the great continent of Australia' gained by his Moreton Bay-Port Essington journey. Leichhardt himself was aware he had been awarded them. In one of his last known letters he wrote: I've had the pleasure of hearing that the geographical society in London has awarded me one of its medals, that the Parisian geographical society has conferred a similar honour upon me. I'm pleased to think that such discerning authorities consider me worthy of such honour. I have worked for the sake of science, for nothing else. In 2012 the National Museum of Australia purchased the medal awarded to Leichhardt by London's Royal Geographical Society in 1847, it came directly from descendants of the Leichhardt family in Mexico.
In 1848 Leichhardt again set out from the Condamine River to reach the Swan River. The expedition consisted of Leichhardt, four Europeans, two Aboriginal guides, seven horses, 20 mules and 50 bullocks; the Europeans were Adolph Classen, Arthur Hentig, Donald Stuart and Thomas Hands, a ticket of leave holder who replaced Kelly at Henry Stuart Russell's Cecil Plains station. The Aboriginal guides were Billy Bombat, from Port Stephens; the party was last seen on 3 April 1848 at Cogoon, on the Darling Downs. Leichhardt's disappearance after moving inland, although investigated by many, remains a mystery; the expedition had been expected to take two to three years, but after no sign or word was received from Leichhardt it was assumed that he and the others in the party had died. The latest evidence suggests that they may have perished somewhere in the Great Sandy Desert of the Australian interior. Four years after Leichhardt's disappearance, the Government of New South Wales sent out a search e
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Conglomerate is a coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock, composed of a substantial fraction of rounded to subangular gravel-size clasts, e.g. granules, pebbles and boulders, larger than 2 mm in diameter. Conglomerates form by the lithification of gravel. Conglomerates contain finer grained sediment, e.g. either sand, clay or combination of them, called matrix by geologists, filling their interstices and are cemented by calcium carbonate, iron oxide, silica, or hardened clay. The size and composition of the gravel-size fraction of a conglomerate may or may not vary in composition and size. In some conglomerates, the gravel-size class consist entirely of what were clay clasts at the time of deposition. Conglomerates can be found in sedimentary rock sequences of all ages but make up less than 1 percent by weight of all sedimentary rocks. In terms of origin and depositional mechanisms, they are related to sandstones and exhibit many of the same types of sedimentary structures, e.g. tabular and trough cross-bedding and graded bedding.
Conglomerates may be named and classified by the: Amount and type of matrix present Composition of gravel-size clasts they contain Size range of gravel-size clasts presentThe classification method depends on the type and detail of research being conducted. A sedimentary rock composed of gravel is first named according to the roundness of the gravel. If the gravel clasts that comprise it is well-rounded to subrounded, it is a conglomerate. If the gravel clasts that comprise it are angular, it is a breccia; such breccias can be called sedimentary breccias to differentiate them from other types of breccia, e.g. volcanic and fault breccias. Sedimentary rocks that contain a mixture of rounded and angular gravel clasts are sometimes called breccio-conglomerate. Conglomerates are composed of gravel-size clasts; the space between the gravel-size clasts is filled by a mixture composed of varying amounts of silt and clay, known as matrix. If the individual gravel clasts in a conglomerate are separated from each other by an abundance of matrix such that they are not in contact with each other and float within the matrix, it is called a paraconglomerate.
Paraconglomerates are often unstratified and can contain more matrix than gravel clasts. If the gravel clasts of a conglomerate are in contact with each other, it is called an orthoconglomerate. Unlike paraconglomerates, orthoconglomerates are cross-bedded and well-cemented and lithified by either calcite, quartz, or clay; the differences between paraconglomerates and orthoconglomerates reflect differences in how they are deposited. Paraconglomerates are either glacial tills or debris flow deposits. Orthoconglomerates are associated with aqueous currents. Conglomerates are classified according to the composition of their clasts. A conglomerate or any clastic sedimentary rock that consists of a single rock or mineral is known as either a monomict, oligomict, or oligomictic conglomerate. If the conglomerate consists of two or more different types of rocks, minerals, or combination of both, it is known as either a polymict or polymictic conglomerate. If a polymictic conglomerate contains an assortment of the clasts of metastable and unstable rocks and minerals, it called either a petromict or petromictic conglomerate.
In addition, conglomerates are classified by source as indicated by the lithology of the gravel-size clasts If these clasts consist of rocks and minerals that are different in lithology from the enclosing matrix and, thus and derived from outside the basin of deposition, the conglomerate is known as an extraformational conglomerate. If these clasts consist of rocks and minerals that are identical to or consistent with the lithology of the enclosing matrix and, penecontemporaneous and derived from within the basin of deposition, the conglomerate is known as an intraformational conglomerate. Two recognized types of type of intraformational conglomerates are shale-pebble and flat-pebble conglomerates. A shale-pebble conglomerate is a conglomerate, composed of clasts of rounded mud chips and pebbles held together by clay minerals and created by erosion within environments such as within a river channel or along a lake margin. Flat-pebble conglomerates are conglomerates that consist of flat clasts of lime mud created by either storms or tsunami eroding a shallow sea bottom or tidal currents eroding tidal flats along a shoreline.
Conglomerates are differentiated and named according to the dominant clast size comprising them. In this classification, a conglomerate composed of granule-size clasts would be called a granule conglomerate. Conglomerates are deposited in a variety of sedimentary environments. In turbidites, the basal part of a bed is coarse-grained and sometimes conglomeratic. In this setting, conglomerates are very well sorted, well-rounded and with a strong A-axis type imbrication of the clasts. Conglomerates are present at the base of sequences laid down during marine transgressions above an unconformity, are known as basal conglomerates, they are diachronous. Conglomerates deposited in fluvial environments are well rounded and well sorted. Clasts of this size are carried as only at times of high flow-rate; the maximum clast size decreases as the clasts are transported fu