The President Range is a mountain range of the Canadian Rockies, located in the northwestern section of Yoho National Park. The range is named for the highest peak in The President; this range includes the following mountains and peaks: "President Range". BC Geographical Names
Mount Athabasca is located in the Columbia Icefield of Jasper National Park in Canada. The mountain was named in 1898 by J. Norman Collie, who made the first ascent on August 18 of that year. Athabasca is the Cree Indian name for "where there are reeds" which referred to Lake Athabasca. There are several climbing routes, including: North Glacier II Silverhorn II AA Col II Regular North Face III 5.8 North Ridge III 5.5 The Hourglass 300m, III, AI3-4One of the most prominent features of Mount Athabasca is a horned-shaped tip near the top called the "Silverhorn". The Silverhorn is one of the easier routes to the summit but requires more caution and ability than the normal route because of blue ice and falling ice from other parties. Although not apparent from the typical roadside view of the mountain, the south side of Silverhorn contains a scrambling route but one must still cross the north glacier to get to it. From the top of the Silverhorn, the summit is a rather easy 15-minute plod in good summer weather over the narrow snow-covered summit ridge.
Mount Athabasca on Peakware Mount Athabasca on C. R. A. G
High Rock Range
High Rock Range is a mountain range of the Canadian Rockies in southwestern Alberta and southeastern British Columbia, Canada. It is a part of the Southern Continental Ranges and is located on the Continental Divide, north of the Crowsnest Pass and south of the Highwood Pass, it lies within Kananaskis Country. Misty Range and Greenhills Range are subdivisions of the High Rock; the High Rock Range covers a surface of 2,172 km², has a length of 117 km and a width of 37 km. Mount Rae - 3,218 m Mist Mountain - 3,140 m Tornado Mountain - 3,099 m Courcelette Peak - 3,044 m Mount Lyall - 2,951 m Beehive Mountain - 2,895 m Mount Armstrong - 2,793 m Mount Muir - 2,758 m Allison Peak - 2,646 m Ranges of the Canadian Rockies
The Bow Range is a mountain range of the Canadian Rockies in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. The range is named in associated with the Bow River and was adopted on March 31, 1917 by the Geographic Board of Canada, it is a part of the Banff-Lake Louise Core Area of the Southern Continental Ranges, located on the Continental Divide, west of the Bow River valley, in Banff National Park and Kootenay National Park. The Bow Range covers a surface area of 717 km², has a length of 34 km and a maximum width of 43 km; the highest peak is Mount Temple, with an elevation of 3,543 m. The range covers the Valley of the Ten Peaks, with the tallest of the ten being Mount Hungabee at 3492 metres; the range has hiking areas such as the Consolation Lakes, Sentinel Pass-Larch Valley, Wenkchenma Pass-Eiffel Lake, the beehive plain of the Six Glaciers system and Saddle Back Pass. Ranges of the Canadian Rockies Bow Range in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
Banff National Park
Banff National Park is Canada's oldest national park and was established in 1885. Located in the Rocky Mountains, 110–180 kilometres west of Calgary in the province of Alberta, Banff encompasses 6,641 square kilometres of mountainous terrain, with numerous glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forest, alpine landscapes; the Icefields Parkway extends from Lake Louise. Provincial forests and Yoho National Park are neighbours to the west, while Kootenay National Park is located to the south and Kananaskis Country to the southeast; the main commercial centre of the park is the town of Banff, in the Bow River valley. The Canadian Pacific Railway was instrumental in Banff's early years, building the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise, attracting tourists through extensive advertising. In the early 20th century, roads were built in Banff, at times by war internees from World War I, through Great Depression-era public works projects. Since the 1960s, park accommodations have been open all year, with annual tourism visits to Banff increasing to over 5 million in the 1990s.
Millions more pass through the park on the Trans-Canada Highway. As Banff has over three million visitors annually, the health of its ecosystem has been threatened. In the mid-1990s, Parks Canada responded by initiating a two-year study, which resulted in management recommendations, new policies that aim to preserve ecological integrity. Banff National Park has a subarctic climate with three ecoregions, including montane and alpine; the forests are dominated by Lodgepole pine at lower elevations and Engelmann spruce in higher ones below the treeline, above, rocks and ice. Mammal species such as the grizzly bear, wolverine, bighorn sheep and moose are found, along with hundreds of bird species. Reptiles and amphibians are found but only a limited number of species have been recorded; the mountains are formed from sedimentary rocks which were pushed east over newer rock strata, between 80 and 55 million years ago. Over the past few million years, glaciers have at times covered most of the park, but today are found only on the mountain slopes though they include the Columbia Icefield, the largest uninterrupted glacial mass in the Rockies.
Erosion from water and ice have carved the mountains into their current shapes. Throughout its history, Banff National Park has been shaped by tension between conservationist and land exploitation interests; the park was established on 25 November 1885 as Banff Hot Springs Reserve, in response to conflicting claims over who discovered hot springs there and who had the right to develop the hot springs for commercial interests. The conservationists prevailed when Prime Minister John A. Macdonald set aside the hot springs as a small protected reserve, expanded to include Lake Louise and other areas extending north to the Columbia Icefield. Archaeological evidence found at Vermilion Lakes indicates the first human activity in Banff to 10,300 B. P. Prior to European contact, including the Stoneys, Tsuu T'ina, Kainai and Siksika, resided in the region where they hunted bison and other game. With the admission of British Columbia to Canada on 20 July 1871, Canada agreed to build a transcontinental railroad.
Construction of the railroad began in 1875, with Kicking Horse Pass chosen, over the more northerly Yellowhead Pass, as the route through the Canadian Rockies. Ten years on 7 November 1885, the last spike was driven in Craigellachie, British Columbia. With conflicting claims over the discovery of hot springs in Banff, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald decided to set aside a small reserve of 26 square kilometres around the hot springs at Cave and Basin as a public park known as the Banff Hot Springs Reserve in 1885. Under the Rocky Mountains Park Act, enacted on 23 June 1887, the park was expanded to 674 km2 and named Rocky Mountains Park; this was Canada's first national park, the third established in North America, after Yellowstone and Mackinac National Parks. The Canadian Pacific Railway built the Banff Springs Hotel and Lake Louise Chalet to attract tourists and increase the number of rail passengers; the Stoney First Nations were removed from Banff National Park between the years 1890 and 1920.
The park was designed to appeal to sportsmen, tourists. The exclusionary policy met the goals of sports hunting and game conservation, as well as of those attempting to "civilize" the Indians. Early on, Banff was popular with wealthy European and American tourists, the former of which arrived in Canada via trans-Atlantic luxury liner and continued westward on the railroad; some visitors participated in mountaineering activities hiring local guides. Guides Jim and Bill Brewster founded one of the first outfitters in Banff. From 1906, the Alpine Club of Canada organized climbs and camps in the park. By 1911, Banff was accessible by automobile from Calgary. Beginning in 1916, the Brewsters offered motorcoach tours of Banff. In 1920, access to Lake Louise by road was available, the Banff-Windermere Road opened in 1923 to connect Banff with British Columbia. In 1902, the park was expanded to cover 11,400 km2, encompassing areas around Lake Louise, the Bow, Red Deer and Spray rivers. Bowing to pressure from grazing and logging interests, the size of the park was reduced in 1911 to 4,663 km2, eliminating many eastern foothills areas from the park.
Park boundaries changed several more times up until 1930, when the area of Banff was fixed at 6,697 km2, with the passage of the National Parks Act. The Act, which took effect May 30, 1930 renamed the par
The Maligne Range is a mountain range of the Canadian Rockies located directly southeast of Jasper townsite in Jasper National Park, Canada. The southern tail-end of the range finishes at Endless Chain Ridge; this range includes the following mountains and peaks
James J. McArthur
James Joseph McArthur was a Canadian surveyor and mountaineer, the first to climb several peaks in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Two mountains and a lake are named after him, he gave names to various other features, he was a pioneer in the use of photography for surveying, under the direction of the Surveyor General, Édouard-Gaston Deville. He did extensive work on surveying the borders between Canada and the United States in the Yukon and west of Lake Superior. James Joseph McArthur was born on 9 May 1856 in Quebec, he became a surveyor for the Dominion Land Survey. McArthur was assisted by the surveyors William Stuart Drewry and Arthur St. Cyr in the Canadian Pacific Railway survey between 1886 and 1893, in which he mapped an area of 500 square kilometres at a scale of 1:20,000, with 100 feet contours; the survey mapped the terrain along the CPR route between Canmore and Revelstoke, British Columbia. He travelled with an assistant, T. Riley, who helped carry the carried heavy surveying and photographic equipment.
In 1886 McArthur ascended Paget Peak. That year Otto Julius Koltz named the 3,021 metres Mount McArthur after him. McArthur was the first European to describe Lake O'Hara, he found the two lakes in 1887. Towards the end of autumn in 1887 McArthur, his assistant and a packer camped for four days in the Bow Valley during a blizzard set out to climb the surrounding peaks, he wrote, I occupied three stations, one on a high point on the ridge leading up the pass from Mount Hector, another on the mountain overlooking the first Bow Lake, the third on the west side and further up the pass. The great quantity of snow rendered these ascents disagreeable and dangerous, the loose debris being entirely covered and rendering it necessary to feel every step without alpenstalks, whilst the descent of fresh snow, when cutting our way up the steep parts of the glaciers, rendered our position sometimes precarious; when on the summits we suffered from cold. Climbing through the fresh snow, sometimes waist deep, wet our feet and legs above the knees, on reaching the top and exposed to the cold wind, our boots and pants froze stiff and we were sometimes in great danger of freezing.
In 1888 the Surveyor General, Édouard-Gaston Deville, decided to try photo-topographic surveying, working from triangulation stations on the peaks of mountains. He hoped this would be faster and more accurate than sketching. McArthur went out with a camera that summer. There were problems with exposure at first, but by 15 November 1888 McArthur had made use of 30 camera stations to make 23 triangulations that covered the railway belt 6 miles to each side of the railway line from Vermilion Pass to Banff and covered the whole Rocky Mountains Park; the negatives were sent to be developed by Horatio Nelson Topley's Photographic Division in Ottawa, the prints returned to McArthur, where he calculated topographical details between the triangulation stations using the principles of perspective. The next year McArthur continued the triangulation work and surveyed from the edge of the Rocky Mountains Park along the Bow River to eight miles east of the Kananaskis River. McArthur made 15 triangulations, ascended 25 mountains and took 250 photographic views in 1889.
In 1890 he surveyed from Simpson Pass to Vermilion River. In 1891 the surveyor William Stewart Drewry joined McArthur and the two began to survey using a double chain of triangles, a more efficient approach. In 1892 they worked west to Field, British Columbia. McArthur and Drewry were able to draw topographical maps from the photographs showing mountain elevations, although they could not add contour lines. While surveying the CPR route McArthur was the first European to climb Mount Stephen, Mount Field and Mount Andromache, Mount Odaray, Mount Rundle, Mount Aylmer, Mount Bourgeau, Mount King, Mount Owen and Mount Burgess. In 1891 alone McArthur climbed 43 peaks. McArthur named End Mountain, Victoria Peak and Mount Victoria. McArthur undertook extensive surveying in the Yukon. McArthur Peak in the Yukon is named after him. In 1900 he named the 4,842 metres Mount Wood in the Yukon after Zachary Taylor Wood, a North-West Mounted Police inspector in Dawson City during the Klondike Gold Rush. From 1908 to 1916 McArthur worked on the survey of the border between Canada and the United States between the Rocky Mountains and Lake Superior.
On 11 September 1908 McArthur and his party made the first ascent of Mount Larrabee. In 1917 he was named Canadian Commissioner for the survey of the border between the Yukon and Alaska. McArthur died on 14 April 1925 in Ottawa, he is buried in the Cimetière Saint-Paul, Quebec. Arthur Oliver Wheeler wrote of him, He is a quiet, unassuming man, who has climbed more mountains in these regions than any other person, has made a large number of first ascents. No flourish of trumpets ushered him forth to conquest, no crown of laurels awaited his victory. With one assistant and camera on back, many a perilous climb has been made, the rope only being used in the case of most urgent need. In all kinds of weather, through snow, over ice, in pouring rain, many a difficult ascent has been accomplished, many privations encountered and much hardship endured. James McArthur's home in the Aylmer sector of the city of Gatineau is design