United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Castle Dome (butte)
Castle Dome, or Castle Dome Peak is a prominent butte and high point of the Castle Dome Mountains northeast of Yuma, Arizona, in the northwestern Sonoran Desert. The butte lies 22 miles east of the historical Castle Dome Landing of the Colorado River, it is located east of US Route 95 and the Castle Dome mining district. Castle Dome is noteworthy for its recreational use for day hiking, it is often coated in winter or spring snowstorms as a white landform, with its loss of white being determined by season and duration of storm temperatures. Castle Dome's height is 3,788 feet; some noteworthy minerals from the Castle Dome Mountains region are vanadinite, wulfenite and fluorite. Some of the local trails are: King Valley Road, McPherson Pass Trail, Big Eye Wash Trail, Castle Dome Mountains, Kofa Queen Canyon Trail. Castle Dome Landing, Arizona Castle Dome Mountains Castle Dome: Peak-, Plants and Animals, Old Collecting Reports
The Bradshaw Mountains are a mountain range in central Arizona, United States, named for brothers Isaac and William D. Bradshaw after their deaths, having been known in English as the Silver Mountain Range; the first known settlements in the Bradshaws were a group of Yavapai people, called the Kwevkapaya who built forts and mined copper from around AD 1100 to 1600. The Walker party found gold, within a few years, the Bradshaws were filling up with settlers mining for gold and copper. In the early part of the 20th century, most of the towns that had sprung up were little more than ghost towns. Located 5 miles south of Prescott, between the Agua Fria River on the east, the Hassayampa River on the west, the range is 40 miles long, 25 miles wide. Mount Union, named during the Civil War, is the highest, at 7,979 feet. Mount Davis – second highest at 7,897 feet, named for Jefferson Davis. Spruce Mountain – 7,696 feet, misnamed for Douglas firs mistaken for Spruces. Mount Tritle – 7,793 feet, named for Frederick Augustus Tritle Governor of Arizona Territory.
Towers Mountain – 7,628 feet. Maverick Mountain – 7,443 feet. Mount Wasson – 4,687 feet; the Bradshaw Mountains consist of Precambrian granite and schist. The biotic community of the Bradshaws ranges from interior chaparral and montane conifer forest, to plains and desert grassland, Sonoran desert scrub. Many species of trees are found in the Bradshaws, including Piñon, Alligator Juniper, Ponderosa pine, Blue Spruce, Quaking Aspen, White fir, Douglas fir; as well, much wildlife is present, including javelina, mountain lion, black bear, mule deer, fox, rock squirrel, wild turkey, many species of reptiles and amphibians, many species of birds. Several creeks have been dammed to form reservoirs, including Lynx Lake, Goldwater Lake, Lake Marapai, Hassayampa Lake, Horsethief Lake, Cedar Tank. Gold was first discovered in the Bradshaws in 1863, over $2,000,000 worth being taken from just the Crown King Mine. Copper and silver were mined in the early part of the 20th century. Within Mount Union lies the Poland Junction silver mine.
Its adit, now sealed, may be accessed near Walker. There are over 40 ghost towns in the Bradshaw Mountains, including Crown King, Bumble Bee, Bradshaw City and Cleator. Much of the Bradshaw Mountains are on Prescott National Forest land. Other parks include Horsethief Basin Recreational Area, Lynx Lake Recreational Area, the Castle Creek Wilderness. Hieroglyphic Mountains Castle Hot Springs
The Mexican wolf known as the lobo, is a subspecies of gray wolf once native to southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico, western Texas and northern Mexico. It is the smallest of North America's gray wolves, is similar to C. l. nubilus, though it is distinguished by its smaller, narrower skull and its darker pelt, yellowish-gray and clouded with black over the back and tail. Its ancestors were the first gray wolves to enter North America after the extinction of the Beringian wolf, as indicated by its southern range and basal physical and genetic characteristics. Though once held in high regard in Pre-Columbian Mexico, it is the most endangered gray wolf in North America, having been extirpated in the wild during the mid-1900s through a combination of hunting, trapping and digging pups from dens. After being listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1976, the United States and Mexico collaborated to capture all lobos remaining in the wild; this extreme measure prevented the lobos' extinction.
Five wild Mexican wolves were captured alive in Mexico from 1977 to 1980 and used to start a captive breeding program. From this program, captive-bred Mexican wolves were released into recovery areas in Arizona and New Mexico beginning in 1998 in order to assist the animals' recolonization of their former historical range; as of 2017, there are 143 240 in captive breeding programs. The Mexican wolf was first described as a distinct subspecies in 1929 by Edward Nelson and Edward Goldman on account of its small size, narrow skull and dark pelt; this wolf is recognized as a subspecies of Canis lupus in the taxonomic authority Mammal Species of the World. Gray wolves migrated from Eurasia into North America 70,000–23,000 years ago and gave rise to at least two morphologically and genetically distinct groups. One group is represented by the other by the modern populations. One author proposes that the Mexican wolf's ancestors were the first gray wolves to cross the Bering Land Bridge into North America during the Late Pleistocene after the extinction of the Beringian wolf, colonizing most of the continent until pushed southwards by the newly arrived ancestors of C. l. nubilus.
A haplotype is a group of genes found in an organism that are inherited together from one of their parents. Mitochondrial DNA can date back thousands of years. A 2005 study compared the mitochondrial DNA sequences of modern wolves with those from thirty-four specimens dated between 1856 and 1915; the historic population was found to possess twice the genetic diversity of modern wolves, which suggests that the mDNA diversity of the wolves eradicated from the western US was more than twice that of the modern population. Some haplotypes possessed by the Mexican wolf, the extinct Great Plains wolf, the extinct Southern Rocky Mountain wolf were found to form a unique "southern clade". All North American wolves group together with those from Eurasia, except for the southern clade which form a group exclusive to North America; the wide distribution area of the southern clade indicates that gene flow was extensive across the recognized limits of its subspecies. In 2016, a study of mitochondrial DNA sequences of both modern and ancient wolves generated a phylogenetic tree which indicated that the two most basal North American haplotypes included the Mexican wolf and the Vancouver Island wolf.
In 2018, a study looked at the limb morphology of modern and fossil North American wolves. The major limb bones of the dire wolf, Beringian wolf, most modern North American gray wolves can be distinguished from one another. Late Pleistocene wolves on both sides of the Laurentide Ice Sheet — Cordilleran Ice Sheet possessed shorter legs when compared with most modern wolves; the Late Pleistocene wolves from the Natural Trap Cave and Rancho La Brea, southern California were similar in limb morphology to the Beringian wolves of Alaska. Modern wolves in the Midwestern USA and northwestern North America possess longer legs that evolved during the Holocene driven by the loss of slower prey. However, shorter legs survived well into the Holocene after the extinction of much of the Pleistocene megafauna, including the Beringian wolf. Holocene wolves from Middle Butte Cave and Moonshiner Cave in Bingham County, Idaho were similar to the Beringian wolves; the Mexican wolf and pre-1900 samples of the Great Plains wolf resembled the Late Pleistocene and Holocene fossil gray wolves due to their shorter legs.
Unlike eastern wolves and red wolves, the gray wolf species interbreeds with coyotes in the wild. Direct hybridizations between coyotes and gray wolves was never explicitly observed. In a study that analyzed the molecular genetics of the coyotes as well as samples of historical red wolves and Mexican wolves from Texas, a few coyote genetic markers have been found in the historical samples of some isolated individual Mexican wolves. Gray wolf Y-chromosomes have been found in a few individual male Texan coyotes; this study suggested that although the Mexican gray wolf is less prone to hybridizations with coyotes compared to the red wolf, there may have been exceptional genetic exchanges with the Texan coyotes among a few individual gray wolves from historical remnants before the population was extirpated in Texas. However, the same study countered that theory with an alternative possibility that it may have been the red wolves, who in turn once overlapped with both species in the central Texas region, who were involved in circuiting the gene-flows between the coyote
Little Ajo Mountains
The Little Ajo Mountains is a mountain range in southern Arizona, in extreme western Pima County, Arizona. The city of Ajo sits on the northeast of this small mountain range. Both the mountain range and city take their name from the Spanish word for garlic; the range is a 13 by 13-mile long range and is connected loosely northwest to Childs Mountain a northwest-southeast small mountain at the south of Childs Valley. Ajo, is in the center-east of the range, is famous for the New Cornelia open pit copper mine located in the Little Ajo Mountains; the peaks in the Little Ajo Mountains include the isolated Black Mountain which lies to the south of Ajo and has a peak elevation of 3,008 feet. Cardigan Peak at 2,922 feet lies in the main mountain mass to the west of Ajo. Ajo Peak at 2,619 feet and North Ajo Peak 2,776 feet are isolated peaks to the southwest of Ajo. Camelback Mountain at 2,573 feet lies just south of Ajo and overlooks the New Cornelia pit just to the east; the Batamote Mountains lie to the northeast, the Pozo Redondo Mountains lie to the east, Bates Mountains and the Ajo Range lie to the south and the Growler Mountains lie to the west.
The Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range lies to the north and west of the mountains and the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge lies to the west. Drainage from the north and northeast side of the Little Ajo Mountains enters Tenmile Wash which flows northwest to enter Childs Valley; the southwest side of the range drains into Daniels Arroyo which flows northwest to enter Childs Valley. The southeast side of the range drains to the south in the Cuerda de Lena in the Valley of the Ajo and turns west around the south end of the Growler Mountains to join the northwest draining Growler Valley. Ajo and the mountains are 70 miles south of Interstate 8 by way of State Route 85. List of mountain ranges of Arizona
Flagstaff is a city in and the county seat of Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States. In 2015, the city's estimated population was 70,320. Flagstaff's combined metropolitan area has an estimated population of 139,097; the city is named after a ponderosa pine flagpole made by a scouting party from Boston to celebrate the United States Centennial on July 4, 1876. Flagstaff lies near the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, along the western side of the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the continental United States. Flagstaff is next to Mount Elden, just south of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona. Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet, is about 10 miles north of Flagstaff in Kachina Peaks Wilderness. Flagstaff's early economy was based on the lumber and ranching industries. Today, the city remains an important distribution hub for companies such as Nestlé Purina PetCare, is home to Lowell Observatory, The U.
S. Naval Observatory, the United States Geological Survey Flagstaff Station, Northern Arizona University. Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, Oak Creek Canyon, the Arizona Snowbowl, Meteor Crater, historic Route 66; the city is a growing center for medical and biotechnology manufacturing, home to corporations such as SenesTech and W. L. Gore and Associates. There are several legends about the origin of the city's name. Surveyors and investors had traveled through the area in the mid- to late-19th century, the act of stripping a pine tree to fly an American flag has been attributed to several individuals over a twenty-year span, it is said that, because of the flag, raised, the area surrounding it became known as Flagstaff. The first permanent settlement was in 1876, when Thomas F. McMillan built a cabin at the base of Mars Hill on the west side of town. During the 1880s, Flagstaff began to grow, opening its first post office and attracting the railroad industry.
The early economy was based on timber and cattle. The Arizona Lumber and Timber Company was prominent. By 1886, Flagstaff was the largest city on the railroad line between Albuquerque and the west coast of the United States. A circa 1900 diary entry by journalist Sharlot Hall described the houses in the city as a "third rate mining camp", with unkempt air and high prices of available goods. In 1894, Massachusetts astronomer Percival Lowell hired A. E. Douglass to scout an ideal site for a new observatory. Douglass, impressed by Flagstaff's elevation, named it as an ideal location for the now famous Lowell Observatory, saying: "other things being equal, the higher we can get the better". Two years the specially designed 24-inch Clark telescope that Lowell had ordered was installed. In 1930, Pluto was discovered using one of the observatory's telescopes. In 1955 the U. S. Naval Observatory joined the growing astronomical presence, established the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, where Pluto's satellite, was discovered in 1978.
During the Apollo program in the 1960s, the Clark Telescope was used to map the moon for the lunar expeditions, enabling the mission planners to choose a safe landing site for the lunar modules. In homage to the city's importance in the field of astronomy, asteroid 2118 Flagstaff is named for the city, 6582 Flagsymphony for the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra; the Northern Arizona Normal School was established in 1899, renamed Northern Arizona University in 1966. Flagstaff's cultural history received a significant boost on April 11, 1899, when the Flagstaff Symphony made its concert debut at Babbitt's Opera House; the orchestra continues today as the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra, with its primary venue at the Ardrey Auditorium on the campus of Northern Arizona University. The city grew primarily due to its location along the east–west transcontinental railroad line in the United States. In the 1880s, the railroads purchased land in the west from the federal government, sold to individuals to help finance the railroad projects.
By the 1890s, Flagstaff found itself along one of the busiest railroad corridors in the U. S. with 80–100 trains travelling through the city every day, destined for Chicago, Los Angeles, elsewhere. Route 66 ran through Flagstaff. Flagstaff was incorporated as a city in 1928, in 1929, the city's first motel, the Motel Du Beau, was built at the intersection of Beaver Street and Phoenix Avenue; the Daily Sun described the motel as "a hotel with garages for the better class of motorists." The units rented for $2.60 to $5.00 each, with baths, double beds and furniture. Flagstaff went on to become a popular tourist stop along Route 66 due to its proximity to the Grand Canyon. Flagstaff prospered through the 1960s. During the 1970s and 1980s, many businesses started to move from the city center, the downtown area entered an economic and social decline. Sears and J. C. Penney left the downtown area in 1979 to open up as anchor stores in the new Flagstaff Mall, joined in 1986 by Dillard's. By 1987, the Babbitt Brothers Trading Company, a retail fixture in Flagstaff since 1891, closed its doors at Aspen Avenue and San Francisco Street.
The Railroad Addition Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. In 1987, the city drafted a new master plan known as the Growth Management Guide 2000, which would transform downtown Flagstaff from a shopping and trade center into a regional center for finance, office use, government; the city built a new city hall and the Coconino County Admin
The Cerbat Mountains is a mountain range in Mohave County in northwest Arizona north of Kingman. The Cerbat Mountains and the White Hills adjacent north, are the dividing ranges between the Detrital Valley west, the Hualapai Valley east, it is a 23 mi long range trending northwest-southeast. It lies directly east of the 130-mile long Black Mountains range and is separated by the Sacramento Valley bordering southwest of Kingman through which Interstate 40 turns south and west to meet Needles, California. A series of peaks can be found towards the southern end of the range, including Packsaddle Mountain at 6,431 feet, Cherum Peak at 6,983 feet; the northern section of the Cerbat Mountains is composed of the Mount Tipton Wilderness, with Mount Tipton being its peak at 7,148 feet. The Dolan Springs community is at the base of the wilderness on the northwestern side of the Cerbat Mountains; the "Mineral Park mine", a large copper and turquoise mine, is located in the Cerbat Mountains 14 miles northwest of Kingman, Arizona.
List of mountain ranges of Arizona List of LCRV Wilderness Areas