The Orosí Volcano, in Spanish the Volcán Orosí, is an inactive volcano in Costa Rica, situated in the Cordillera de Guanacaste near the border with Nicaragua. The area around the volcano is a popular tourist destination for more ecologically minded tourists due to its biodiversity, including the Guanacaste National Park. At the base of the volcano is the Maritza Biological Station, which researches aquatic biology, founded in conjunction with Stroud Water Research Center, Pennsylvania, USA
Cocos Island is an island in the Pacific Ocean administered by Costa Rica 550 km southwest of the Costa Rican mainland. It constitutes the 11th of the 13 districts of Puntarenas Canton of the Province of Puntarenas. With an area of 23.85 km2, the island is more or less rectangular in shape. It is the southernmost point on the North American continent; the entirety of Cocos Island has been designated a Costa Rican National Park since 1978, has no permanent inhabitants other than Costa Rican park rangers. Surrounded by deep waters with counter-currents, Cocos Island is admired by scuba divers for its populations of hammerhead sharks, rays and other large marine species; the wet climate and oceanic qualities give Cocos an ecological character, not shared with either the Galápagos Archipelago or any of the other islands in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Cocos Island was declared a Costa Rican National Park by means of Executive Decree in 1978 and designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1997. In 2002, the World Heritage Site designation was extended to include an expanded marine zone of 1,997 km2.
In addition, it is included in the list of Wetlands of International Importance. In 2009, Cocos Island was short-listed as a candidate to be declared one of the New7Wonders of Nature by the New7Wonders of the World Foundation, ranking second in the islands category. Thanks to the great diversity of marine life in its waters, Cocos Island was named one of the best 10 scuba diving spots in the world by the Professional Association of Diving Instructors and a "must do" according to diving experts. For many, the main attractions are the large pelagic fish species, which are abundant in this unique meeting point between deep and shallow waters; the largest schools of hammerhead sharks in the world are reported there. Encounters with dozens if not hundreds of these and other large animals are nearly certain in every dive. Smaller and colorful species are abundant among one of the most extensive coral reefs in the southeastern Pacific. Famous oceanographer Jacques Cousteau visited the island several times and in 1994 called it "the most beautiful island in the world".
Such accolades have highlighted the urgent need to protect Cocos Island and its surrounding waters from illegal large-scale fishing and other threats. The only persons allowed to live on Cocos Island are Costa Rican park rangers, who have established two encampments, including one at English Bay. Access to civilians is limited. Occasional amateur radio DXpeditions are allowed to visit; the island is very popular in pirate lore. It is said that over 300 expeditions have searched for buried treasure there, such as the hoard of Benito Bonito, the Treasure of Lima, many others; some small caches have been discovered, leading many to believe that the stories of vast pirate treasures are true, though the majority of searches have been unsuccessful. Treasure hunting is prohibited by the Costa Rican government and permits are not being issued. Cocos Island is an oceanic island of both tectonic origin, it is the only emergent island of one of the minor tectonic plates. Potassium-argon dating established the age of the oldest rocks between 1.91 and 2.44 million years and it is composed of basalt, formed by cooling lava.
The island is rectangular in shape, measuring about 8 km × 3 km with a perimeter of around 23.3 km. The landscape is irregular. In spite of its mountainous character, there are flatter areas between 200–260 m in elevation in the center of the island, which are said to be a transitional stage of the geomorphological cycle of V-shaped valleys. Cocos Island has a number of short rivers and streams that drain abundant rainfall into four bays, three of them on the north side; the largest rivers are the Pittier, which drain their water into Wafer Bay. Sheer, 90-metre cliffs ring much of the island, preventing convenient access except at a few beaches; the mountainous landscape and the tropical climate combine to create over 200 waterfalls throughout the island. The island’s soils are classified as entisols, which are acidic and would be eroded by the island’s high rainfall on the steep slopes were it not for the dense forest coverage; the climate of Cocos Island is determined by the latitudinal movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which creates cloudiness and precipitation, constant throughout the year.
This makes the climate humid and tropical with an average annual temperature of 26.6 °C and an average annual rainfall of over 7,000 mm. Rainfall remains high throughout the year, although lowers somewhat from January through March and again during late September and October. Numerous oceanic currents from the central Pacific Ocean the North Equatorial Countercurrent, converge on the island and have an important influence. Cocos Island is home to dense tropical moist forests, it is the only oceanic island in the eastern Pacific region with such rain forests and their characteristic types of flora and fauna. The cloud forests present at its higher elevations are unique in the eastern Pacific; the island was never linked to a continent, so th
The Poás Volcano, is an active 2,708-metre stratovolcano in central Costa Rica and is located within Poas Volcano National Park. It has erupted 40 times including April 2017 when visitors and residents were evacuated; the volcano and surrounding park were closed for nearly 17 months, with a 2.5 kilometer safety perimeter established around the erupting crater. As of September 1, 2018 the park has reopened with limited access only to the crater observation area and requires a reservation to be made on the National Park Website. Adjacent trails to Lake Botos as well as the museum at the visitor center remained closed. There are two crater lakes near the summit; the northern lake is known as the Laguna Caliente and is located at a height of 2,300 m in a crater 0.3 km wide and 30 m deep. It is one of the world's most acidic lakes; the acidity varies after rain and changes in volcanic activity, sometimes reaching a pH of 0. The bottom of this lake is covered with a layer of liquid sulfur. Acid gases create acid rain and acid fog, causing damage to surrounding ecosystems and irritation of eyes and lungs.
Lake Botos, the southern lake, fills an inactive crater, which last erupted in 7500 BC. It is cold and clear, is surrounded by a cloud forest within the National Park boundaries. On May 17, 1953, an eruption occurred that started a cycle that lasted until 1956. At least two people were reported missing. Poás was near the epicenter of a 6.1-magnitude earthquake in January 2009 that killed at least forty people and affected Fraijanes, Vara Blanca, the capital San José, the Central Valley region of Costa Rica. There was eruptive activity in 2009 involving minor phreatic eruptions and landslides within the northern active crater. Poás eruptions include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water. On February 25, 2014, a webcam from the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica captured the moment a dark cloud exploded about 1,000 feet in the air from a massive crater of the Poás Volcano; this volcano remains active today. Poás is one of 9 volcanoes monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project.
The project is collecting data on the carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emission rates from subaerial volcanoes. On April 9, 2017, National Park officials placed restrictions on visitors at Poas due to an increased volume of toxic gases at the summit crater. An explosion on April 12 caused park officials to close the popular park to visitors; the measure was termed "temporary." Some nearby residents were evacuated. On April 14, 2017, two eruptions at 07:39 and 07:57 created an over three kilometer ash and vapor column. Further explosions occurred April 16. Following a substantial blast on April 22 that sent incandescent rocks over a large area which damaged park buildings and infrastructure, Costa Rica President Luis Guillermo Solis toured the surrounding towns the following two days. Business owners described the negative financial impacts the volcano park closure were causing, Solis released a video in Spanish and English urging potential tourists to visit the nearby community shops and restaurants.
He promised emergency agencies would continue to make updated reports on the eruption. As of September 1, 2018, the National Park has re-opened with limited access and revised regulations. Visitors are required to make an online reservation to enter the park and the number of visitors and time allowed at the crater is limited. Only the main crater observation area is open as of September 2018. Adjacent trails including the trail to the Lake Botos remain closed. List of volcanoes in Costa Rica Ark Herb Farm Global Volcanism Program: Poás Volcano World: Poas, Costa Rica bathymetric survey of Laguna Caliente with a drone boat
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area; the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", dēmos meaning "the people"; the term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was first used by Frank and McCoy. Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900: "I use the word precinctive in the sense of'confined to the area under discussion'...'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.
Physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa; the glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants. Endemic types or species are likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Socotra. Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan. Endemics can become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms.
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and "Bermuda cedars" in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare. Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations and slash-and-burn agriculture
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
The Irazú Volcano is an active volcano in Costa Rica, situated in the Cordillera Central close to the city of Cartago. The name could come from either the combination of "ara" and "tzu" or a corruption of Iztarú, the name of an indigenous village on the flanks of the volcano. In Costa Rica it is known by the name of "El Coloso" due to the catastrophes that it has provoked in the past; the volcano's summit has several craters, one of which contains Diego de la Haya, a green crater lake of variable depth. At 11,260 feet, the Irazú Volcano is the highest active volcano in Costa Rica, it is visited from San José, with a road leading right up to the summit craters and a weekly bus service to the top. It is thus a popular tourist spot; the summit of the volcano houses a few television transmitters for television stations in San José. From the top it is possible to see both the Pacific Oceans on a clear day. However, such clear days are rare, the volcano's summit is cloud-covered; the volcano is contained within the Irazú Volcano National Park.
The national park contains both primary and secondary montane forests and is home to armadillos, rabbits, foxes and hummingbirds. The irazu volcano is a complex volcanic shield, it is the highest active volcano in Costa Rica, has an area of 500 km2. It has an irregular subconic shape, temperatures at its summit vary between 3 and 17 °C, with a record low of -6 °C and a record high of 23 °C. Irazu volcano is a stratovolcano with a summit elevation of 3,432 metres, its five craters are differentiated. The most important ones, because of their activity, are The Main Crater and the Diego de la Haya crater; the Main Crater is circular, has inclined walls and it measures 1,050 metres in diameter and 300 metres deep. The Diego de la Haya crater is 600 metres in 100 metres deep. Other craters are Playa Hermosa, La Laguna, El Piroclastico. Irazú is the southernmost of the ten Quaternary volcanoes which form a northwest-trending line through central and northern Costa Rica. Radioactive dating has shown an age of at least 854,000 years with eruption peaks at 570,000 years and the most recent active phase from 136,000 years to present.
The most recent activity includes lava flows along with phreatomagmatic explosions. Lava types include basalt and andesite erupted during different events suggesting the volcano is fed by two distinct magma chambers. Scientists believed that pulses of magma mixed together in the chamber before climbing upward—a process estimated to take several thousands of years, but Columbia University volcanologists found that the eruption of Costa Rica’s Irazu volcano in 1963 was triggered by magma that took a nonstop route from the mantle over just a few months. Study authors called it the highway from hell. Irazú has erupted in historical times — at least 23 times since its first recorded eruption in 1723, its most famous eruption began in mid-March 1963, a few days before US President John F. Kennedy started a state visit to Costa Rica, it showered much of the central highlands of Costa Rica with ash. Eruptions continued for two years, its historical eruptions have VEIs of 1 to 3. All historical eruptions have been explosive, there have been many phreatic eruptions, some have produced pyroclastic flows.
The latest eruption lasted only 1 day, occurred on December 8, 1994. It was a phreatic eruption, which produced lahars. List of volcanoes in Costa Rica Irazú Volcano National Park Costa Rican Vulcanologic and Seismologic Observatory: Irazú Virtual Reality Panorama of Volcán Irazú Costa Rica Volcanoes and Volcanics, USGS Parque Nacional Volcán Irazú
Turrialba Volcano is an active volcano in central Costa Rica, explosively eruptive in recent years including 2016 and in January and April 2017. Visitors used to be able to hike down into the main crater, but increased volcanic activity in 2014-17, resulting in large clouds of volcanic ash, has caused the surrounding Turrialba Volcano National Park to close; the stratovolcano is about 45 minutes from the Atlantic slope town of Turrialba. The summit has three craters, the largest of which has a diameter of 50 m. Below the summit is a mountain range and montane forest, with ferns, bromeliads and mosses. Most of the forest is either primary or secondary forest. Turrialba is adjacent to Irazú and both are among Costa Rica's largest volcanoes. Turrialba has had at least five large explosive eruptions in last 3500 years. On clear days both the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea can be seen from the summit; the volcano is named after Turrialba, in Costa Rica's Cartago Province. There is no clear consensus on the origin of the name Turrialba, but historians disagree with attempts to attribute the name to the patronym Torrealba or from the Latin Turris alba.
The general consensus is that Turrialba derives from the local Indian, but there is no agreement on its actual roots. This volcano is monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project. During the 19th century, the volcano erupted and emitted ash several times, producing pyroclastic flows; the last major eruption was in 1866. Small signs of activity start in 1996. In January 2001, the volcano reported increased activity, displaying strong fumarole activity at the central craters; the volcanic activities have increased since 2005. On March 31, 2017, the volcano started to show some activity with ash eruptions; the National Park area opened for visitors was closed from 2009 to 2011. On January 8, 2010, a phreatic eruption occurred, creating a new opening near the crater on the southwest, the temperature increased from 200 to 600 °C. Two villages, La Central and El Retiro, were evacuated. On January, 2012 a new opening on the west of the crater was created after a phreatic eruption. On April 12, 2012, a small eruption occurred.
On May 21, 2013, at 08:52, a gas explosion widened several openings near the main crater that appeared in 2010 and 2012. In July 2013 researchers found that tremors around the area increased from about twenty earthquakes a day, to up to thirty per hour. On October 17, 2014, the quantity of tremors increased to 200 a day. On October 29, 2014, at around 10:10, a tremor started and kept constant, until a phreatic eruption occurred around 23:10 at the west opening that appeared in January 2012; this eruption sent a large amount of volcanic material to areas up to 40 km away. Many citizens reported ash falling on their properties and a strong odor of sulphur in the cantons of Vásquez de Coronado, Moravia, Aserrí, Escazú, Santa Ana, Montes de Oca, Tibás, Puriscal, San José in the province of San José, La Union in the province of Cartago and Santo Domingo and Heredia, in the province of Heredia. On March 12, 2015, eruptions at around 11:00 and 14:12 sent ashes through all the Central Valley, it is regarded as the most significant activity since 1996.
The Juan Suantamaría and Tobías Bolaños international airports were closed due to visibility being less than 100 meters. On March 13, 2015 an eruption occurred at 21:07. On May 4, 2015 an eruption occurred at 15:24 An eruption occurred on May 21, 2016, it was characterized by one resident as the largest since 2010. Ash fell as far away as the capital, San Jose, at least 500 people went to hospitals complaining of breathing problems. Flights into San Jose were cancelled due to concerns about ash. On September 19, at 02:54 an eruption lasting around fifteen minutes was the first event of many through the day that covered the metropolitan area with ash. There were events at 11:30, 14:40, 15:34; the events continued through September 20 with an eruption at 06:20. Airports in the metropolitan area were closed. Turrialba Volcano webcam List of volcanoes in Costa Rica "Turrialba". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Media related to Turrialba volcano at Wikimedia Commons Costa Rican Vulcanologic and Seismologic Observatory: Turrialba