A promontory is a raised mass of land that projects into a lowland or a body of water. Most promontories either are formed from a hard ridge of rock that has resisted the erosive forces that have removed the softer rock to the sides of it, or are the high ground that remains between two river valleys where they form a confluence. Throughout history many forts and castles have been built on promontories because of their inherent defensibility; the promontory forts in Ireland are examples of this. The ancient town of Ras Bar Balla in southern Somalia, which in the Middle Ages was part of the Ajuran Sultanate's domain, was built on a small promontory. River confluences provide an added defensive advantage to promontories, acting as a reliable natural moat for the enemy to overcome; the Citadel of Namur, a prime fortified location from the 10th century to this day, lies on the promontory at the confluence of the Meuse and Sambre rivers in the Walloon capital city of Namur, Belgium. Another good example of a confluence promontory fort is Fort Pitt, an English fort during the American Revolution that had belonged to the French as Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War.
The surrounding location is known as the city of Pennsylvania. Headlands and bays Promontory fort Law Promontory Promontory, Utah Monte Argentario Promontory Point, Utah Rabbit's Back Wilsons Promontory Bol, Croatia The dictionary definition of promontory at Wiktionary
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the legendary seventh and final King of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is known as Tarquin the Proud, from his cognomen Superbus. Ancient accounts of the regal period mingle legend. Tarquin was said to have been the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, to have gained the throne through the murders of both his wife and his elder brother, followed by the assassination of his predecessor, Servius Tullius, his reign is described as a tyranny. Tarquin was said to be the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, Tanaquil. Tanaquil had engineered her husband's succession to the Roman kingdom on the death of Ancus Marcius; when the sons of Marcius subsequently arranged the elder Tarquin's assassination in 579 BC, Tanaquil placed Servius Tullius on the throne, in preference to her own sons. According to an Etruscan tradition, the hero Macstarna equated with Servius Tullius and killed a Roman named Gnaeus Tarquinius, rescued the brothers Caelius and Aulus Vibenna from captivity.
This may recollect an otherwise forgotten attempt by the sons of Tarquin the elder to reclaim the throne. To forestall further dynastic strife, Servius married his daughters, known to history as Tullia Major and Tullia Minor, to Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the future king, his brother Arruns. Tarquin's sister, married Marcus Junius Brutus, was the mother of Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the men who would lead the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom; the elder sister, Tullia Major, was of mild disposition, yet married the ambitious Tarquin. Her younger sister, Tullia Minor, was of fiercer temperament, she came to despise him, conspired with Tarquin to bring about the deaths of Tullia Major and Arruns. After the murder of their spouses and Tullia were married. Together, they had three sons: Titus and Sextus, a daughter, who married Octavius Mamilius, the prince of Tusculum. Tullia encouraged her husband to advance his own position persuading him to usurp Servius. Tarquin solicited the support of the patrician senators those from families who had received their senatorial rank under Tarquin the Elder.
He bestowed presents upon them, spread criticism of Servius the king. In time, Tarquin felt ready to seize the throne, he went to the senate-house with a group of armed men, sat himself on the throne, summoned the senators to attend upon King Tarquin. He spoke to the senators, denigrating Servius as a slave born of a slave; when word of this brazen deed reached Servius, he hurried to the curia to confront Tarquin, who leveled the same accusations against his father-in-law, in his youth and vigor carried the king outside and flung him down the steps of the senate-house and into the street. The king's retainers fled, as he made his way and unattended, toward the palace, the aged Servius was set upon and murdered by Tarquin's assassins on the advice of his own daughter. Tullia, drove in her chariot to the senate-house, where she was the first to hail her husband as king, but Tarquin bade her return home, concerned. As she drove toward the Urbian Hill, her driver stopped horrified at the sight of the king's body, lying in the street.
But in a frenzy, Tullia herself seized the reins, drove the wheels of her chariot over her father's corpse. The king's blood spattered against the chariot and stained Tullia's clothes, so that she brought a gruesome relic of the murder back to her house; the street where Tullia disgraced the dead king afterward became known as the Vicus Sceleratus, the Street of Crime. Tarquin commenced his reign by refusing to bury the dead Servius, putting to death a number of leading senators, whom he suspected of remaining loyal to Servius. By not replacing the slain senators, not consulting the senate on matters of government, he diminished both the size and the authority of the senate. In another break with tradition, Tarquin judged capital crimes without the advice of counselors, causing fear amongst those who might think to oppose him, he made a powerful ally when he betrothed his daughter to Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum, among the most eminent of the Latin chiefs. Early in his reign, Tarquin called a meeting of the Latin leaders to discuss the bonds between Rome and the Latin towns.
The meeting was held at a grove sacred to the goddess Ferentina. At the meeting, Turnus Herdonius inveighed against Tarquin's arrogance, warned his countrymen against trusting the Roman king. Tarquin bribed Turnus' servant to store a large number of swords in his master's lodging. Tarquin called together the Latin leaders, accused Turnus of plotting his assassination; the Latin leaders accompanied Tarquin to Turnus' lodging and, the swords being discovered, the Latin's guilt was speedily inferred. Turnus was condemned to be thrown into a pool of water in the grove, with a wooden frame, or cratis, placed over his head, into which stones were thrown, drowning him; the meeting of the Latin chiefs continued, T
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt. The dominant carbonate mineral in most marls is calcite, but other carbonate minerals such as aragonite and siderite may be present. Marl was an old term loosely applied to a variety of materials, most of which occur as loose, earthy deposits consisting chiefly of an intimate mixture of clay and calcium carbonate, formed under freshwater conditions, it describes a habit of coralline red alga. The term is today used to describe indurated marine deposits and lacustrine sediments which more should be named'marlstone'. Marlstone is an indurated rock of about the same composition as marl, more called an earthy or impure argillaceous limestone, it has a blocky subconchoidal fracture, is less fissile than shale. The term'marl' is used in English-language geology, while the terms Mergel and Seekreide are used in European references; the lower stratigraphic units of the chalk cliffs of Dover consist of a sequence of glauconitic marls followed by rhythmically banded limestone and marl layers.
Upper Cretaceous cyclic sequences in Germany and marl–opal-rich Tortonian-Messinian strata in the Sorbas basin related to multiple sea drawdown have been correlated with Milankovitch orbital forcing. Marl as lacustrine sediment is common in post-glacial lake-bed sediments found underlying peat bogs, it has been used as acid soil neutralizing agent. Marl was extensively mined in Central New Jersey as a soil conditioner in the 1800s. In 1863, the most common marl was blue marl. While the specific composition and properties of the marl varied depending on what layer it was found in, blue marl was composed of 38.70% silicic acid and sand, 30.67% oxide of iron, 13.91% carbonate of lime, 11.22% water, 4.47% potash, 1.21% magnesia, 1.14% phosphoric acid, 0.31% sulphuric acid. Marl was in high demand for farms. An example of the amount of marl mined comes from a report from 1880, from Marlboro, Monmouth County, New Jersey, which reported the following tons of marl sold during the year: OC Herbert Marl Pit – 9961 tons Uriah Smock Marl Pit – 4750 tons CM Conover Marl Pit – 760 tonsIn the Centennial Exhibition report in 1877, marl is described in many different forms and came from 69 marl pits in and around New Jersey.
The report identified a number of agricultural marls types, including clay marl, blue marl, red marl, high bank marl, shell layer marl, under shell layer marl, sand marl, green marl, gray marl, clayey marl. Agricultural lime D. Russell, J. and Kerry Kelts. 2003. Classification of lacustrine sediments based on sedimentary components. Journal of Paleolimnology 29: 141–154. Chalk of Kent by C. S. Harris Geochemistry and time-series analyses of orbitally forced Upper Cretaceous marl–limestone rhythmites, abstract Palaeoenvironmental Interpretation of the Early Postglacial Sedimentary Record of a Marl Lake
Venus is a Roman goddess, whose functions encompassed love, desire, fertility and victory. In Roman mythology, she was the ancestor of the Roman people through her son, who survived the fall of Troy and fled to Italy. Julius Caesar claimed her as his ancestor. Venus was central to many religious festivals, was revered in Roman religion under numerous cult titles; the Romans adapted the myths and iconography of her Greek counterpart Aphrodite for Roman art and Latin literature. In the classical tradition of the West, Venus became one of the most referenced deities of Greco-Roman mythology as the embodiment of love and sexuality. Venus embodies sex, beauty, enticement and persuasive female charm among the community of immortal gods, it has connections to venerari and venia through a possible common root in an Indo-European *wenes- or *u̯enis. Their common Proto-Indo-European root is assumed as *wen- or *u̯en- "to strive for, wish for, love"). Venus has been described as "the most original creation of the Roman pantheon", "an ill-defined and assimilative" native goddess, combined "with a strange and exotic Aphrodite".
Her cults may represent the religiously legitimate charm and seduction of the divine by mortals, in contrast to the formal, contractual relations between most members of Rome's official pantheon and the state, the unofficial, illicit manipulation of divine forces through magic. The ambivalence of her persuasive functions has been perceived in the relationship of the root *venes- with Latin venenum, in the sense of "a charm, magic philtre". In myth, Venus-Aphrodite was born of sea-foam. Roman theology presents Venus as the yielding, watery female principle, essential to the generation and balance of life, her male counterparts in the Roman pantheon and Mars, are active and fiery. Venus absorbs and tempers the male essence, uniting the opposites of male and female in mutual affection, she is assimilative and benign, embraces several otherwise quite disparate functions. She can give sexual success, good fortune and prosperity. In one context, she is a goddess of prostitutes. Images of Venus have been found in domestic murals and household shrines.
Petronius, in his Satyricon, places an image of Venus among the Lares of the freedman Trimalchio's lararium. Prospective brides offered Venus a gift "before the wedding"; some Roman sources say. In dice-games, a popular pastime among Romans of all classes, the luckiest, best possible roll was known as "Venus". Venus' signs were for the most part the same as Aphrodite's, they include roses, which were offered in Venus' Porta Collina rites, above all, cultivated for its white, sweetly scented flowers, evergreen leaves and its various medical-magical properties. Venus' statues, her worshipers, wore myrtle crowns at her festivals. Before its adoption into Venus' cults, myrtle was used in the purification rites of Cloacina, the Etruscan-Roman goddess of Rome's main sewer. Roman folk-etymology transformed the ancient, obscure goddess Murcia into "Venus of the Myrtles, whom we now call Murcia". Myrtle was thought a potent aphrodisiac; the female pudendum the clitoris, was known as murtos. As goddess of love and sex, Venus played an essential role at Roman prenuptial rites and wedding nights, so myrtle and roses were used in bridal bouquets.
Marriage itself was not a seduction but a lawful condition, under Juno's authority. Venus was a patron of the ordinary, everyday wine drunk by most Roman men and women. In the rites to Bona Dea, a goddess of female chastity, Venus and anything male were not only excluded, but unmentionable; the rites allowed women to drink the strongest, sacrificial wine, otherwise reserved for the Roman gods and Roman men. Under these special circumstances, they could get virtuously, religiously drunk on strong wine, safe from Venus' temptations. Outside of this context, ordinary wine tinctured with myrtle oil was thought suitable for women. Roman generals given an ovation, a lesser form of Roman triumph, wore a myrtle crown to purify themselves and their armies of blood-guilt; the ovation ceremony was assimilated to Venus Victrix, held to have granted and purified its "easy" victory. The first known temple to Venus was vowed to Venus Obsequens by Q. Fabius Gurges in the heat of a battle against the Samnites, it was dedicated in 295 BC, at a site near the Aventine Hill, was funded by fines imposed on Roman women for sexual misdemeanours.
Its rites and character were influenced by or based on Greek Aphrodite's cults, which were diffused in various forms throughout Italian Magna Graeca. Its dedication date connects Venus Obsequens to the Vinalia rustica festival. In 217 BC, in the early stages of the Second Punic War with Carthage, Rome suffered a disastrous defeat at the battle of Lake Trasimene; the Sibyllin
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds form visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are composed of sandstone allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are better able to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Sandstones are clastic in origin. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals; the cements binding these grains together are calcite and silica. Grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are called argillaceous sediments; the formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains; the most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colors will be tan or yellow. A predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia; the regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other forms of construction. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environmentsRivers Alluvial fans Glacial outwash Lakes Deserts Marine environmentsDeltas Beach and shoreface sands Tidal flats Offshore bars and sand waves Storm deposits Turbidites Framework grains are sand-sized detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a sandstone.
These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition: Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events, while allowing the grains to display some degree of rounding. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock, which are felsic in origin and from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are the second most abundant mineral in sandstones. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: plagioclase feldspars; the different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8, this represents a complete solid solution. Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, called lithic fragments or clasts. Lithic fragments can be any fine-grained or coarse-grained igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock, although the most common lithic fragments found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals include micas, olivine and corundum. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that
Land reclamation known as reclamation, known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from oceans, riverbeds, or lake beds. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation land fill. In a number of other jurisdictions, including parts of the United States, the term "reclamation" can refer to returning disturbed lands to an improved state. In Alberta, for example, reclamation is defined by the provincial government as "The process of reconverting disturbed land to its former or other productive uses." In Oceania it is referred to as land rehabilitation. Land reclamation can be achieved with a number of different methods; the most simple method involves filling the area with large amounts of heavy rock and/or cement filling with clay and dirt until the desired height is reached. The process is called "infilling" and the material used to fill the space is called "infill". Draining of submerged wetlands is used to reclaim land for agricultural use. Deep cement mixing is used in situations in which the material displaced by either dredging or draining may be contaminated and hence needs to be contained.
Land dredging is another method of land reclamation. It is the removal of sediments and debris from the bottom of a body of water, it is used for maintaining reclaimed land masses as sedimentation, a natural process, fills channels and harbors naturally. Instances where the creation of new land was for the need of human activities. Notable examples include: Some of the coastlines of Saadiyat Island, in the UAE. Used for commercial purposes. Much of the coastlines of Mumbai, India, it took over 150 years to join the original Seven Islands of Bombay. These seven islands were lush, thickly wooded, dotted with 22 hills, with the Arabian Sea washing through them at high tide; the original Isle of Bombay was only 24 km long and 4 km wide from Dongri to Malabar Hill and the other six were Colaba, Old Woman's Island, Parel and Mazgaon.. Much of the coastlines of Mainland China, Hong Kong, North Korea and South Korea, it is estimated. Inland lowlands in the Yangtze valley, including the areas of important cities like Shanghai and Wuhan.
Much of the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan. The shore of Jakarta Bay. Land is reclaimed to create new housing areas and real estate properties, for the expanding city of Jakarta. So far, the largest reclamation project in the city is the creation of "Golf Island", still ongoing. A part of the Hamad International Airport in Qatar, around 36 square kilometres; the entire island of The Pearl-Qatar situated in Qatar. Haikou Bay, Hainan Province, where the west side of Haidian Island is being extended, off the coast of Haikou City, where new land for a marina is being created; the Cotai Strip in Macau, where most of the major casinos are located Nagoya Centrair Airport, Japan Incheon International Airport, Korea Beirut Central District, Lebanon The southern Chinese city of Shenzhen The shore of Manila Bay in the Philippines along Metro Manila, has attracted major developments such as the Mall of Asia Complex, Entertainment City and the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex. The city-state of Singapore, where land is in short supply, is famous for its efforts on land reclamation.
The Palm Islands, The World and hotel Burj al-Arab off Dubai in the United Arab Emirates The Yas Island in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Hulhumalé Island, Maldives, it is one of the six divisions of Malé City. Giant Sea Wall Jakarta Colombo International Financial City, Sri Lanka Airport of Nice, France Large parts of the Netherlands Almost half of the microstate of Monaco Parts of Dublin, Ireland Most of Belfast Harbour and areas of Belfast, Northern Ireland Parts of Saint Petersburg, such as the Marine Facade Helsinki Barceloneta area, Barcelona, in Spain The port of Zeebrugge in Belgium The southwestern residential area in Brest, Belarus Majority of left-bank and some right-bank residential areas of Kiev were built on a reclaimed fens and floodplains of the Dnieper river. Most of Fontvieille, Monaco Parts surrounding Port Hercules in La Condamine, Monaco The airport peninsula, the industrial area of Cornigliano, the PSA container terminal and other parts of the port in Genoa, Italy The Fens in East Anglia Venice, Italy Rione Orsini, part of Borgo Santa Lucia, Naples A big part of Kavala, city in Greece Fucine Lake, ItalyWaterfront Centre, Jersey The Foreshore in Cape Town The Hassan II Mosque in Morocco is built on reclaimed land.
The Eko Atlantic in Lagos, Nigeria. Large parts of Rio de Janeiro, most notably several blocks in the new docks area, the entire Flamengo Park and the neighborhood of Urca Parts of Florianópolis. Parts of New Orleans Parts of Montevideo, Rambla Sur and several projects still going on in Montevideo's Bay. Much of the urbanized area adjacent to San Francisco Bay, including most of San Francisco's waterfront and Financial District, San Francisco International Airport, the Port of Oakland, large portions of the city of Alameda has been reclaimed from the bay. Mexico City. Parts of Panama City urban and street development are based on reclaimed land, using material extracted from Panama Canal excavations; the Chicago shoreline The Northwestern University Lakefill, part of the campus of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois Back Bay, Massachusetts Battery Park City, Ma