State Library of South Australia
The State Library of South Australia, located on North Terrace, Adelaide, is the official library of the Australian state of South Australia. It is the largest public research library in the state with a collection focus on South Australian information, general reference material for information and research purposes, it holds the "South Australiana" collection, which documents South Australia from pre-European settlement to the present day. Reference material comes in a wide range of formats from digital and electronic to film, sound recordings, photographic and microfiche. Library collections must be used on site. Customers can gain access to a large array of journals and other resources from the comfort of their own home by registering for Home Access; the State Library of South Australia: provides information and referral services for the community collects and give access to the state's documentary heritage, enhances the cultural life of the state through public programs and other lifelong learning opportunities, supports public libraries, co-operates with other agencies to enhance economic and social benefits of the state.
The origins of the State Library of South Australia are found in the South Australian Institute, established in 1856. This consolidated the work of the Mechanics Institute, founded in 1847 which had merged with the South Australian Library in 1848 creating the "Mechanics' Institute and South Australian Library", based in Peacock's Buildings, Hindley Street; however it was subsequently moved to Exchange Chambers, King William Street, by 1855 had gone into decline. The South Australian Legislative Council passed Act No. 16 which incorporated the South Australian Institute, to whose ownership the old library was transferred. This act ensured the library would be open to the public free of charge and grant funding was allocated to it; this made the library popular amongst artisans and workmen who filled it to capacity in the evenings. As new books arrived from Britain the library was expanded and soon needed new accommodation, found in North Terrace in 1860; the building now known as the Mortlock Wing was opened on 18 December 1884 as a "Public Library and Art Gallery for the colony of South Australia" with 23,000 books and a staff of three.
It had taken over 18 years to complete after the initial foundations were laid in 1866. The foundation stone was laid on 7 November 1879 by Sir William Jervois and the building was constructed by Brown and Thompson at a total cost of £43,897, opened in 1884. Supervision for the Board of Directors was undertaken by secretary Robert Kay general director and secretary of the Public Library and Art Gallery of South Australia; the building is French Renaissance in style with a mansard roof. The walls are constructed of brick with Sydney freestone facings with decorations in the darker shade of Manoora stone; the interior has two galleries, the first supported by masonry columns, the second by cast iron brackets. The balconies feature wrought iron balustrading ornamented with gold while the glass-domed roof allows the chamber to be lit with natural light. Two of the original gas "sunburner" lamps survive in the office space located on the second floor at the southern end. Restoration of the building occurred in 1985 as a Jubilee 150 project by Danvers Architects, consultant architect to the South Australian Department of Housing and Construction.
The $1.5 million project was jointly funded by the community. In honour of a substantial bequest from John Andrew Tennant Mortlock, the Libraries Board of South Australia resolved that a percentage of the South Australiana Collections would be housed in the wing and named the Mortlock Library of South Australiana in 1986. After the State Library underwent a substantial redevelopment, commencing in 2001 and reaching completion in 2004, the main chamber of the Mortlock Wing became an exhibition space providing a glimpse into the history and culture of South Australia. In August 2014 the Mortlock Wing featured in a list of the top 20 most beautiful libraries of the world, compiled by the U. S. magazine Travel + Leisure. The general reference and research material in the State Library was named the Bray Reference Library in 1987 after former SA Chief Justice, Dr John Jefferson Bray, who served on the Libraries Board of South Australia from 1944 to 1987; the State Library has a national responsibility to collect and give access to historical and contemporary South Australian information.
The South Australiana collections document South Australia from pre-white settlement to the present day, the Northern Territory to 1911. The South Australiana collection is one of the most comprehensive in the world due to legal deposit requirements for published material, through donations of unpublished material. A well known donation is the Bradman Collection of cricketing memorabilia; the York Gate Library was acquired from the estate of Stephen William Silver, of S. W. Silver and Co. a London based company who not only sold clothing and equipment suitable for emigrants to the British Colonies, but a series books providing relevant information for such emigrants. William had started to collect objects and books related to the areas to which their custom
Lake Amadeus is a large salt lake in the southwest corner of Australia's Northern Territory, about 50 km north of Uluru. The smaller Lake Neale is adjacent to the northwest, it is part of the Amadeus Basin, filled with the erosion products of the Petermann Orogeny. Due to the aridity of the area, the surface of Lake Amadeus is a dry salt crust. In times of sufficient rainfall, it is part of an east-flowing drainage system that connects to the Finke River. Lake Amadeus is 180 kilometres long and 10 kilometres wide, making it the largest salt lake in the Northern Territory. Lake Amadeus contains up to 600 million tonnes of salt. Nearby landmarks are Uluru, Kata Tjuta, Mount Conner; the first European to discover the lake, the explorer Ernest Giles, encountered it in 1872. Giles intended to honour his benefactor Baron Ferdinand von Mueller with the eponym Lake Ferdinand. However, Mueller prevailed upon Giles to instead honour King Amadeo I of Spain, who had bestowed honour on him; the lake's expanse proved a barrier for Giles, who could see both the as yet undiscovered Ayers Rock and Kata Tjuta but could not reach them as the dry lake bed wasn't able to support the weight of his horses.
The next year, William Gosse named both rises. List of lakes in Australia Post-abdication and legacy of Amadeo of Spain
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Curtin Springs is a pastoral lease operating cattle station in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory. Occupying an area of 416,400 hectares the working cattle station and roadhouse facility is located on the Lasseter Highway, 85 kilometres east of Yulara and the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in the Northern Territory of Australia; the property shares a boundary with pastoral leases Angas Downs to the north west, Lyndavale to the south east and Mulga Park to the south. It abuts the Katiti Aboriginal Land Trust to the west; the land was known as Mount Conner Station in the 1930s when it was first taken up by Paddy DeConlay. Abraham Andrews leased Mt Conner Station, together with vacant crown land, which became known as Curtin Springs Station around 1956, after John Curtin. Curtin Springs was built in 1943 and is now owned and operated by the Severin family who took over the pastoral lease in 1956. Peter Severin had worked as the head stockman on another cattle station and was gifted 1,400 head of cattle when he took over Curtin Springs for the value of the debts.
Peter Severin, his wife and young son had a lonely existence with only six visitors in the first year. Going was tough with the family residing under a bough shed for the first three years. By 1957, Len Tuit had began operating return trips from Alice Springs to Uluru and was using Curtin Springs as a wayside to store fuel and water required for the return trip; this was the beginning of tourism in central Australia. Soon the Severins installed fuel tanks to service the bus tours that had commenced from Alice Springs to Uluru and provided food and drink to tourists on board. Severin acquired a liquor licence and started a pub which became part of the restaurant; the Curtin Springs liquor licence has not been without controversy. It has been opposed by many local Aboriginal elders and in particular the Ngaanyatjarra and Yankunytjatjara Women's Council, because it is considered by them to have contributed to alcohol-related violence and other social problems in nearby Aboriginal communities such as Mutitjulu and Pukatja.
In 1988, a number of elders took an action in nuisance against Mr Severin of Curtin Springs in the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory, but were unsuccessful. The liquor license held by Curtin Springs is now subject to special restrictions prohibiting the supply of alcohol to any Aboriginals from the surrounding communities and anyone suspected of travelling to local communities. Water for the station and livestock is supplied by pumping it from underground with diesel or solar pumps and windmills. Cattle watering points are located in yards so that they may be passively mustered through the use of water trapping. Murray Grey cattle are being used to improve the herd’s temperament and quality. Murray Grey cattle are able to acclimatise to the desert heat better than some other breeds and their light coat colour helps to reflect heat. Murray Grey's have a smaller calf size so birthing is not as risky. Over the years the Severin family have diversified the business and now offer accommodation and other services to tourists.
The station offers a campground with free unpowered camping sites. There are powered sites, budget accommodation and ensuite rooms available to hire. Bookings are preferred but it is possible to enquire on the day. There are bathrooms with showers available for campers; the station has a collection of birds in multiple aviaries around the homestead. All birds have been rescued after an injury or have been bread from captive animals so they are unable to be released into the wild. Local tours include parts of the Amadeus Salt Lake Chain and Mount Conner, located on the private property of Curtin Springs Station. Self guided tours are not possible. Please contact SE-IT Outback Australia or Curtin Springs Station to book these tours. Curtin Springs Paper and Curtin Springs Walks are two new opportunities for visitors to engage with the Central Australia Landscape. Curtin Springs Walks offer private guided walks for 1 or 2 days with packaged accommodation and private guides; these walks must be booked in advance.
The program of walks is available on the Curtin Springs website. Curtin Springs Paper creates handmade paper from some of the seventeen native grasses on the station. One hour tours run daily at 4 pm. Bookings are referred; these tours allow visitors to see how the production process works and how nature can be transformed in this remote and special part of Central Australia. Tour participants are able to enjoy a hands on experience and access the full range of Curtin Springs Paper and jewellery products. In 2011 the area was plagued by the largest bushfires, seen there since the 1970s, some 200,000 acres of Marqua Station was burnt out. More bushfires, started from lightning strikes ignited bushfires at the station in September 2012, the Lasseter Highway had to be closed in the area due to the resulting smoke hazard. More fires started from dry storms in October 2012 and were left to burn in areas that were inaccessible and where high winds made containment too difficult; the station lost over 250,000 acres of bush, nearly one quarter of its pasture land, as a result of the fires.
The Severin family run conservative cattle numbers so they can best manage disasters such as fires and drought. List of ranches and stations List of the largest stations in Australia Official website
The Pitjantjatjara are an Aboriginal people of the Central Australian desert. They are related to the Yankunytjatjara and Ngaanyatjarra and their languages are, to a large extent, mutually intelligible, they refer to themselves as Anangu. The Pitjantjatjara live in the northwest of South Australia, extending across the border into the Northern Territory to just south of Lake Amadeus, west a short distance into Western Australia; the land is an inseparable and important part of their identity, every part of it is rich with stories and meaning to Anangu. They have, for the most part, given up their nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle but have retained their language and much of their culture in spite of increasing influences from the broader Australian community. Today there are still about 4,000 Anangu living scattered in small communities and outstations across their traditional lands, forming one of the most successful joint land arrangements in Australia with Aboriginal Traditional Owners.
The ethnonym Pitjantjatjara is pronounced with elision of one of the repeated syllables -tja-, thus: pitjantjara. In more careful speech all syllables will be pronounced; the name Pitjantjatjara derives from the word pitjantja, a nominalised form of the verb "go". Combined with the comitative suffix -tjara, it means something like "pitjantja-having"; this distinguishes it from its near neighbour Yankunytjatjara which has yankunytja for the same meaning. This naming strategy is the source of the names of Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaatjatjarra but in that case the names contrast the two languages based on their words for "this"; the two languages Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara may be grouped together under the name Nyangatjatjara which contrasts them with Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaatjatjarra. Pitjantjatjara language is used as a general term for a number of related dialects which together, according to Ronald Trudinger were "spoken over a wider area of Australia than any other Aboriginal language". With Yankunytjatjara it shares an 80% overlap in vocabulary.
See WARU community directory for a complete list in South Australia type 2 in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara, including: Ernabella called Pukatja Amata Kalka Pipalyatjara Yalata Oak Valley In the Northern Territory Docker River Areyonga Mutitjulu In Western Australia Wingellina called Irruntju A 73,000-square-kilometre tract of land was established in the north west of South Australia for the Pitjantjatjara in 1921 after they lost much land due to hostile encroachment by hunters and ranchers. Extended droughts in the 1920s and between 1956 and 1965 in their homelands in the Great Victoria and Gibson Deserts led many Pitjantjatjara, their traditionally more westerly relations, the Ngaanyatjarra, to move east towards the railway between Adelaide and Alice Springs in search of food and water, thus mixing with the most easterly of the three, the Yankunytjatjara, they refer to themselves as Anangu, which just meant people in general, but has now come to imply an Aboriginal person or, more a member of one of the groups that speaks a variety of the Western Desert Language.
In response to continuing outside pressures on the Anangu, the South Australian Government gave its support to a plan by the Presbyterian Church to set up the Ernabella Mission in the Musgrave Ranges as a safe haven. This mission due to the actions of their advocate, Dr. Charles Duguid, was ahead of the times in that there was no systematic attempt to destroy Aboriginal culture, as was common on many other missions. From 1950 onwards, many Anangu were forced to leave their homelands due to British nuclear tests at Maralinga; some Anangu were subsequently contaminated by the nuclear fallout from the atomic tests, many have died as a consequence. Their experience of issues of land rights and native title in South Australia has been unique. After four years of campaigning and negotiations with government and mining groups, the Pitjantjatjara Land Rights Act was passed on 19 March 1981, granting freehold title over 103,000 km2 of land in the northwestern corner of South Australia; the Maralinga Tjarutja Land Rights Act, 1984 granted freehold title of an area of 80,764 km2 to Maralinga Tjarutja.
The subsequently named Mamungari Conservation Park) with 21,357.8 km2 was transferred to the Maralinga Tjarutja in 2004. The sacred sites of Uluru and Kata Tjuta possess important spiritual and ceremonial significance for the Anangu with more than forty named sacred sites and eleven separate Tjukurpa tracks in the area, some of which lead as far as the sea. Ayers Rock and The Olgas are separated from the Pitjantjatjara Lands by the border between the Northern Territory and South Australia and have become a major tourist attraction and a National Park; the Central Land Council laid claim to the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park and some adjoining vacant Crown land in 1979, but this claim was challenged by the Northern Territory government. After years of intensive lobbying by the Land Council, on 11 November 1983, Prime Minister Bob Hawke announced that the Federal Government intended to transfer inalienable freehold title to them, he agreed to ten main points they had demanded in exchange for a lease-back arrangement to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service in a "joint-management" régime where Anangu would have a majority on the Board of
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
The Encyclopædia Britannica published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by more than 4,000 contributors; the 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. The Britannica is the English-language encyclopaedia/encyclopedia, in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years, it was first published between 1768 and 1771 as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, by its fourth edition it had expanded to 20 volumes, its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, the 9th and 11th editions are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule.
In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer publish printed editions, would focus instead on Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The 15th edition had a three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles, a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles, a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge; the Micropædia was meant as a guide to the Macropædia. Over 70 years, the size of the Britannica has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Though published in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has for the most part maintained British English spelling. Since 1985, the Britannica has had four parts: the Micropædia, the Macropædia, the Propædia, a two-volume index; the Britannica's articles are found in the Micro- and Macropædia, which encompass 12 and 17 volumes each volume having one thousand pages. The 2007 Macropædia has 699 in-depth articles, ranging in length from 2 to 310 pages and having references and named contributors.
In contrast, the 2007 Micropædia has 65,000 articles, the vast majority of which contain fewer than 750 words, no references, no named contributors. The Micropædia articles are intended for quick fact-checking and to help in finding more thorough information in the Macropædia; the Macropædia articles are meant both as authoritative, well-written articles on their subjects and as storehouses of information not covered elsewhere. The longest article is on the United States, resulted from the merger of the articles on the individual states; the 2013 edition of Britannica contained forty thousand articles. Information can be found in the Britannica by following the cross-references in the Micropædia and Macropædia. Hence, readers are recommended to consult instead the alphabetical index or the Propædia, which organizes the Britannica's contents by topic; the core of the Propædia is its "Outline of Knowledge", which aims to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge. Accordingly, the Outline is consulted by the Britannica's editors to decide which articles should be included in the Micro- and Macropædia.
The Outline is intended to be a study guide, to put subjects in their proper perspective, to suggest a series of Britannica articles for the student wishing to learn a topic in depth. However, libraries have found that it is scarcely used, reviewers have recommended that it be dropped from the encyclopaedia; the Propædia has color transparencies of human anatomy and several appendices listing the staff members and contributors to all three parts of the Britannica. Taken together, the Micropædia and Macropædia comprise 40 million words and 24,000 images; the two-volume index has 2,350 pages, listing the 228,274 topics covered in the Britannica, together with 474,675 subentries under those topics. The Britannica prefers British spelling over American. However, there are exceptions such as defense rather than defence. Common alternative spellings are provided with cross-references such as "Color: see Colour." Since 1936, the articles of the Britannica have been revised on a regular schedule, with at least 10% of them considered for revision each year.
According to one Britannica website, 46% of its articles were revised over the past three years. The alphabetization of articles in the Micropædia and Macropædia follows strict rules. Diacritical marks and non-English letters are ignored, while numerical entries such as "1812, War of" are alphabetized as if the number had been written out. Articles with identical names are ordered first by persons by places by things. Rulers with identical names are organized first alphabetically by country and by chronology. Places that share names are