Mount Bona is one of the major mountains of the Saint Elias Mountains in eastern Alaska, is the fifth-highest independent peak in the United States. Mount Bona and its adjacent neighbor Mount Churchill are both large ice-covered stratovolcanoes. Bona has the distinction of being the highest volcano in the United States and the fourth-highest in North America, outranked only by the three highest Mexican volcanoes, Pico de Orizaba, Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl, its summit is a small stratovolcano on top of a high platform of sedimentary rocks. The mountain's massif is covered entirely by icefields and glaciers, it is the principal source of ice for the Klutlan Glacier, which flows east for over 40 miles into the Yukon Territory of Canada; the mountain contributes a large volume of ice to the north-flowing Russell Glacier system. Mount Bona was named by Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi in 1897, who saw the peak while making the first ascent of Mount Saint Elias about 80 miles to the southeast.
He named it after his racing yacht. The mountain was first climbed in 1930 by Allen Carpé, Terris Moore, Andrew Taylor, from the Russell Glacier on the west of the peak; the current standard route is the East Ridge. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska Mount Bona at the Alaska Volcano Observatory "Mount Bona". Bivouac.com. Retrieved 2009-01-06. "Churchill". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-01-06
Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories. It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories. Whitehorse is Yukon's only city. Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory; the federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. Though bilingual, the Yukon government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent. Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by brief warm summers; the Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon River, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers.
The territory is named after the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America; the sites safeguard the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in 800 AD in what is now the U. S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries.
By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897; the increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U. S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of the Yukon River; the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Vuntut National Park in the north. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of severe climate; the capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population.
British Columbia Northwest Territories Alaska, United States While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C three times, 1947, 1954, 1968; the most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C. Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July and September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C three times; the first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C. 14 years this record was beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C in May 1983. The old record was broken 21 years in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C. The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2, it had a population de
Popocatépetl is an active stratovolcano, located in the states of Puebla and Morelos, in central Mexico, lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. At 5,426 m it is the second highest peak in Mexico, after Citlaltépetl at 5,636 m, it is linked to the Iztaccihuatl volcano to the north by the high saddle known as the Paso de Cortés. Popocatépetl is 70 km southeast of Mexico City, from where it can be seen depending on atmospheric conditions; until the volcano was one of three tall peaks in Mexico to contain glaciers, the others being Iztaccihuatl and Pico de Orizaba. In the 1990s, the glaciers such as Glaciar Norte decreased in size due to warmer temperatures but due to increased volcanic activity. By early 2001, Popocatépetl's glaciers were gone. Lava erupting from Popocatépetl has been predominantly andesitic, but it has erupted large volumes of dacite. Magma produced in the current cycle of activity tends to be a mixture of the two; the name Popocatépetl comes from the Nahuatl words popōca "it smokes" and tepētl "mountain", meaning Smoking Mountain.
The volcano is referred to by Mexicans as El Popo. The alternate nickname Don Goyo comes from the mountain's association in the lore of the region with, "Goyo" being a nickname-like short form of Gregorio; the stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 m × 600 m wide crater. The symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano; the modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. According to paleomagnetic studies, the volcano is about 730,000 years old, it is cone shaped with a diameter of 25 km with a peak elevation of 5,450 m.
The crater is elliptical with an orientation northeast-southwest. The walls of the crater vary from 600 to 840 m in height. Popocatépetl is active after being dormant for about half of last century, its activity increased in 1991 and smoke has been seen emanating from the crater since 1993. The volcano is monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project; the geological history of Popocatépetl began with the formation of the ancestral volcano Nexpayantla. About 200,000 years ago, Nexpayantly collapsed in an eruption, leaving a caldera, in which the next volcano, known as El Fraile, began to form. Another eruption about 50,000 years ago caused that to collapse, Popocatépetl rose from that. Around 23,000 years ago, a lateral eruption destroyed the volcano's ancient cone and created an avalanche that reached up to 70 kilometres from the summit; the debris field from, one of four around the volcano, it is the youngest. Three Plinian eruptions are known to have taken place: 3,000 years ago, 2,150 years ago, 1,100 years ago.
The latter two buried the nearby village of Tetimpa. The first known ascent of the volcano was made by an expedition led by Diego de Ordaz in 1519; the early-16th-century monasteries on the slopes of the mountain are a World Heritage Site. Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and the most famous, having had more than 15 major eruptions since the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. Timeline: Mid-to late first century: A violent VEI-6 eruption may have caused the large migrations that settled Teotihuacan, according to DNA analysis of teeth and bones. Eruptions were observed in 1363, 1509, 1512, 1519–1528, 1530, 1539, 1540, 1548, 1562–1570, 1571, 1592, 1642, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1697, 1720, 1802, 1919, 1923, 1925, 1933. 1947: A major eruption. 21 December 1994: The volcano spewed gas and ash, carried as far as 25 km away by prevailing winds. The activity prompted the evacuation of nearby towns and scientists to begin monitoring for an eruption. December 2000: Tens of thousands of people were evacuated by the government, based on the warnings of scientists.
The volcano made its largest display in 1,200 years. 25 December 2005: The volcano's crater produced an explosion which ejected a large column of smoke and ash about 3 km into the atmosphere and expulsion of lava. January and February 2012: Scientists observed increased volcanic activity at Popocatépetl. On January 25, 2012, an ash explosion occurred on the mountain, causing much dust and ash to contaminate the atmosphere around it. 15 April 2012: Reports of superheated rock fragments being hurled into the air by the volcano. Ash and water vapor plumes were reported 15 times over 24 hours. Wednesday 8 May 2013, at 7:28 p.m. local time: Popocatépetl erupted again with a high amplitude tremor that lasted and was recorded for 3.5 hours. It began with plumes of ash that rose 3 km into the air and began drifting west at first, but began to drift east-southeast, covering areas of the villages of San Juan Tianguismanalco, San Pedro Benito Juárez and the City of Puebla in smoke and ash. Explosions from the
Mount Harvard is the third highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14,421-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Collegiate Peaks and the fourth highest summit in the contiguous United States. Mount Harvard is located in the Collegiate Peaks Wilderness of San Isabel National Forest, 11.7 miles northwest by west of the Town of Buena Vista in Chaffee County, United States. The summit of Mount Harvard is the highest point in Chaffee County and is higher than any point in the United States east of its longitude; the mountain was named in honor of Harvard University. Mount Harvard was named in 1869 by members of the first Harvard Mining School class, while on expedition with professor Josiah Dwight Whitney, the namesake of Mount Whitney; the same group named the peak next to Harvard Mount Yale, after Whitney's alma mater. The group climbed Yale first, estimated that it was over 14,000 feet in height. On August 19, 1869, the first recorded ascent of Harvard was made by expedition members S. F. Sharpless and William M. Davis.
Harvard and Yale were the first 14,000 foot mountains in the Sawatch range to be named after universities. Nearby mountains were named for Princeton and Oxford, leading to the name "Collegiate Peaks" for this part of the Sawatch Range. In 1962, three Harvard men attempted to erect a fourteen-foot metal pole on the top of Harvard, with a sign that read "Mt. Harvard, 14,434; this sign erected at an altitude of 14,434 making it the second highest point in the contiguous United States." Before they could reach the top of the mountain darkness set in, the group was forced to abandon the pole a few hundred yards short of the summit. The next year, two Harvard men, along with a Cornell graduate carried the pole the extra distance, completed the task; the pole sat on the mountain for twenty years, until it disappeared at some time in the 1980s, most as part of an effort to clean up Colorado's fourteeners. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners Mount Harvard on 14ers.com Mount Harvard on Distantpeak.com Mount Harvard on Summitpost Photo Journal of a Hike up Mount Harvard Mount Harvard on Colorado Fourteener Initiative
Mount Massive is the second-highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14,428-foot fourteener of the Sawatch Range is located in the Mount Massive Wilderness of San Isabel National Forest, 10.6 miles west-southwest of the City of Leadville in Lake County, United States. Mount Massive edges out the third-highest summit of the Rockies, Mount Harvard, by 7 feet, but falls short of Mount Elbert by 12 feet, it ranks as the third-highest peak in the contiguous United States after Mount Whitney and Mount Elbert. Mount Massive was first climbed in 1873 during the Hayden Survey of the American West. Survey member Henry Gannett is credited with the first ascent, its name comes from its elongated shape: it has five summits, all above 14,000 ft, a summit ridge over 3 mi long, resulting in more area above 14,000 ft than any other mountain in the 48 contiguous states, narrowly edging Mount Rainier in that category. Mount Elbert is Mount Massive's nearest neighbor among the fourteeners.
A matter of some contention after the Great Depression arose over the heights of Massive and its neighbor, Mount Elbert, which have a height difference of only 12 feet. This led to an ongoing dispute which came to a head with the Mount Massive supporters taking it upon themselves to build large piles of stones on the summit to boost its height, only to have the Mount Elbert proponents demolish them. A class 2 hiking path leads to the peak from the eastern face; the path is 13.6 mi round trip, with a 4,500 ft elevation gain. There are several glacial lakes in the wilderness area; the lower slopes of the mountain are covered in lodgepole pine forests, which yield to Engelmann Spruce and Fir. Treeline is just below 12,000 feet. Among the mountain's fauna are the American pika, the mountain goat, mule deer, gray jay and the yellow-bellied marmot. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado fourteeners
Mount Blackburn is the highest peak in the Wrangell Mountains of Alaska in the United States. It is the twelfth-highest peak in North America; the mountain is an old, eroded shield volcano, the second-highest volcano in the U. S. behind Mount Bona and the fifth-highest in North America. It was named in 1885 by Lt. Henry T. Allen of the U. S. Army after Joseph Clay Stiles Blackburn, a U. S. senator from Kentucky. It is located in the heart of Wrangell – St. Elias National Park, the largest national park in the country; the mountain's massif is covered entirely by icefields and glaciers, is the principal source of ice for the Kennicott Glacier, which flows southeast over 20 miles to just above the town of McCarthy. The mountain contributes a large volume of ice to the north-flowing Nabesna Glacier and the Kuskulana Glacier system. Mount Blackburn is a large, dramatic peak, with great local relief and independence from higher peaks, its west face drops over 11,000 ft to the Kuskulana Glacier in less than 4 horizontal miles.
Its other faces drop 8,000–10,000 ft, all in less than 8 miles. The toe of the Kuskulana Glacier, less than 12 miles from the summit, lies at an elevation of 2,400 ft, giving a rise of 14,000 ft. While these figures speak to the peak's relief, one measure of its independence is that it is the 50th-most topographically prominent peak in the world; the western of Blackburn's two summits is the mountain's highest point, a fact, not understood until the 1960s when new USGS maps were published. The first ascent of the west peak, hence Mount Blackburn, was done on May 30, 1958, by Bruce Gilbert, Dick Wahlstrom, Hans Gmoser, Adolf Bitterlich, Leon Blumer via the North Ridge; this team made the first ascent of Blackburn, but did not know it at the time due to the incorrect identification of the highest point. In fact, Blumer's article in the 1959 American Alpine Journal is titled "Mount Blackburn – Second Ascent." Kennedy Peak, or East Blackburn, 16,286 ft, is the eastern summit and was thought to be the highest point.
The first ascent of this summit was made in 1912 by Dora Keen and George Handy via the Kennicott Glacier and East Face. This heady exploit was ahead of its time. Dora Keen, driven by a deep desire for the climb, solicited miners from the nearby Kennecott Copper Mines, forged a route up the crevassed East Face to the East Peak, but did not traverse over to the West Peak. Keen went on to write a famous article for the Saturday Evening Post titled, "First up Mount Blackburn." In 1912, Keen and Handy thought. Mount Blackburn represents the eroded core of a shield volcano; because it is shrouded in permanent ice, its internal structure cannot be determined. It is believed to have a summit caldera modified by glaciation; the oldest rocks in the area are granites, about 4.2 million years old, representing an intrusive mass. The majority of the mountain is 3.4 million year old granite. From this it is inferred that a caldera collapse took place between 4.2 and 3.4 million years ago, after which activity ceased.
Today's standard route on the peak is the 1958 ascent route, the North Ridge, approached from the Nabesna Glacier, on the north side of the mountain, opposite from Keen and Hardy's route. The route starts from an airstrip on the glacier at an altitude of 7,200 feet, it is a moderate climb by Alaskan standards. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States Wood, Michael. Alaska: A Climbing Guide. Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-724-X. Richter, Donald H.. Guide to the Volcanoes of the Western Wrangell Mountains, Alaska. USGS Bulletin 2072. Winkler, Gary R.. A Geologic Guide to Wrangell—Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Tectonic Collage of Northbound Terranes. USGS Professional Paper 1616. ISBN 0-607-92676-7.
Richter, Donald H.. Geologic Map of the Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. USGS Scientific Investigations Map 2877
American Alpine Journal
The American Alpine Journal is an annual magazine published by the American Alpine Club. Its mission is "to document and communicate mountain exploration." The headquarters is in Colorado. Subtitled as a compilation of "The World's Most Significant Climbs," the magazine contains feature stories about notable new routes and ascents, written by the climbers, as well as a large "Climbs and Expeditions" section containing short notes by climbers about new and noteworthy achievements; some general articles about mountaineering, mountain medicine, the mountain environment, or other topics are sometimes included. Each issue includes book reviews, memorials of deceased members, club activities; the journal was established in 1929. In 1957 and 1958, the editor was Francis P. Farquhar. From 1960 to 1995, the editor was H. Adams Carter, who brought the journal to international pre-eminence. From 1996 to 2001, the editor was Christian Beckwith. Since 2002, the editor has been John Harlin III; the overall format of the journal has changed little since at least the 1970s, but current plans include more complete worldwide coverage and electronic/online access.
Other journals of record for climbing include the Alpine Journal published by the UK Alpine Club, the Canadian Alpine Journal published by the Alpine Club of Canada, the Himalayan Journal, Iwa To Yuki, a Japanese magazine. All of these magazines are used by climbers planning expeditions those who wish to verify that a proposed route would be a new one. Entries in these journals concerning major Himalayan peaks are indexed in the Himalayan Index. In March 2007, the American Alpine Journal inaugurated free, searchable online access for its issues dating back to 1966. All earlier issues will be added. A complete index is available for free download. A complete set of the journal on DVD may be available for purchase. National Geographic Adventure Outside Official website Searchable online access Himalayan Index