Crestone Peak is the seventh-highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14,300-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Crestones and the second-highest summit in the Sangre de Cristo Range after Blanca Peak; the summit is located in the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness of Rio Grande National Forest, 5.0 miles east by south of the Town of Crestone in Saguache County, United States. Crestone Peak rises 7,000 feet above the east side of the San Luis Valley, it shares its name with another fourteener of the Crestones. The Crestones are a cluster of high summits in the Sangre de Cristo Range, comprising Crestone Peak, Crestone Needle, Kit Carson Peak, Challenger Point, Humboldt Peak, Columbia Point, they are accessed from common trailheads. Climbs of Crestone Peak or Crestone Needle start from a base camp at South Colony Lakes, east of the peak, accessed from the Wet Mountain Valley on the northeast side of the range; this route involves nearly 6,000 ft of elevation gain, ascends to a large flat area called "The Pool Table" or the "Bears' Playground."
It ascends a long gully on the northwest side of Crestone Peak, which involves some rockfall danger. Crestone Peak is one of the more dangerous fourteener. Alternatively, the Cottonwood Creek route begins in the San Luis Valley and approaches the Crestones from the west; the route follows Cottonwood Creek to Cottonwood Lake. The trail starts out well defined, but after passing a south eastern tributary at 11,1000ft it becomes faint, poorly maintained, hard to follow for much of the upper route prior to rejoining the standard route from South Colony Lakes. From there, the South Face route of Crestone Peak is accessible. From Crestone Peak, it is a mildly technical ridge scramble to the summit of Crestone Needle in the other direction. However, Crestone Peak and Crestone Needle are more climbed separately. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners Crestone Peak statistics at 14ers.com
Grays Peak is the tenth-highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14,278-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Front Range and the highest point on the Continental Divide in North America. Grays Peak is located in Arapahoe National Forest, 3.9 miles southeast by east of Loveland Pass on the Continental Divide between Clear Creek and Summit counties. The peak is the highest point in both counties. Grays Peak is one of 53 fourteeners in Colorado. Botanist Charles C. Parry made the first recorded ascent of the summit in 1861 and named the peak in honor of his botanist colleague Asa Gray. Gray did not see the peak until 1872, eleven years later. Grays Peak is mentioned in conjunction with adjacent Torreys Peak. Like the other fourteeners nearby, Grays Peak is considered to be an easy hike by fourteener standards, is popular among weekend climbers. A climb to the summit of Grays Peak is accompanied by continuing on to Torreys Peak, less than a mile away.
The main trail, Grays Peak Trail, departs from Stevens Gulch. To get to the Stevens Gulch Trailhead, take I-70 west from Denver about 50 miles to Bakerville Road, exit 221. From there, take Stevens Gulch Road south about 2.5 miles to the trailhead. As of the summer of 2009, Steven's Gulch Road is still open for traffic, but is no longer maintained. With cuts in the road over two feet deep and large stones in the path, travel to the trailhead is only feasible for high-clearance four-wheel-drive vehicles, motorcycles or all-terrain vehicles. From the trailhead, it is a climb of 3,040 feet; the trail, well-marked and well-trodden, begins by following the gulch for a slow rise in elevation, before hitting the steeper slopes. The summit includes a small U-shaped rock shelter where a log book is maintained. Extensive views stretch south to Pike's Peak and the San Luis Valley, east to the Great Plains, West to Silverthorne, north to Longs Peak and Rocky Mountain National Park. At the climber's option, the trail continues from the summit north to Torreys Peak.
The trail descends the saddle down to 13,707 ft before climbing back to the summit of Torreys Peak at 14,274 ft. Wildlife in the area includes, mountain goat, cougar or mountain lion, mule deer, marmot, ptarmigan, American red squirrel, gray jay or Canada jay. Wildflowers that bloom in the tundra area on the Continental Divide of the Americas include moss campion, alpine forget-me-not, sky pilot, sea pink, old-man-of-the-mountain, mountain gentian. Below the tree-line, the blooms of monkshood or wolfsbane, blue columbine and paintbrush can be found. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners Continental Divide of the Americas Grays and Torreys Peaks on 14ers.com Grays and Torreys Peaks on TrailCentral.com
Mount Whitney is the tallest mountain in California, as well as the highest summit in the contiguous United States and the Sierra Nevada—with an elevation of 14,505 feet. It is in Central California, on the boundary between California's Inyo and Tulare counties, 84.6 miles west-northwest of the lowest point in North America at Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park at 282 ft below sea level. The west slope of the mountain is in Sequoia National Park and the summit is the southern terminus of the John Muir Trail which runs 211.9 mi from Happy Isles in Yosemite Valley. The east slope is in the Inyo National Forest in Inyo County; the summit of Mount Whitney is on the Great Basin Divide. It lies near many of the highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada; the peak rises above the Owens Valley, sitting 10,778 feet or just over two miles above the town of Lone Pine 15 miles to the east, in the Owens Valley. It rises more on the west side, lying only about 3,000 feet above the John Muir Trail at Guitar Lake.
The mountain is dome-shaped, with its famously jagged ridges extending to the sides. Mount Whitney has an alpine climate and ecology. Few plants grow near the summit: one example is the sky pilot, a cushion plant that grows low to the ground; the only animals are transient, such as the butterfly Parnassius phoebus and the gray-crowned rosy finch. The mountain is the highest point on the Great Basin Divide. Waterways on the west side of the peak flow into Whitney Creek; the Kern River terminates in the Tulare Basin. During wet years, water overflows from the Tulare Basin into the San Joaquin River which flows to the Pacific Ocean. From the east, water from Mount Whitney flows to Lone Pine Creek, which joins the Owens River, which in turn terminates at Owens Lake, an endorheic lake of the Great Basin; the estimated elevation of the summit of Mount Whitney has changed over the years. The technology of elevation measurement has become more refined and, more the vertical coordinate system has changed.
The peak was said to be at 14,494 ft and this is the elevation stamped on the USGS brass benchmark disk on the summit. An older plaque on the summit reads "elevation 14,496.811 feet" but this was estimated using the older vertical datum from 1929. Since the shape of the Earth has been estimated more accurately. Using a new vertical datum established in 1988 the benchmark is now estimated to be at 14,505 ft; the eastern slope of Whitney is far steeper than its western slope because the entire Sierra Nevada is the result of a fault-block, analogous to a cellar door: the door is hinged on the west and is rising on the east. The rise is caused by a normal fault system that runs along the eastern base of the Sierra, below Mount Whitney. Thus, the granite that forms Mount Whitney is the same as the granite that forms the Alabama Hills, thousands of feet lower down; the raising of Whitney is due to the same geological forces that cause the Basin and Range Province: the crust of much of the intermontane west is being stretched.
The granite that forms Mount Whitney is part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. In Cretaceous time, masses of molten rock that originated from subduction rose underneath what is now Whitney and solidified underground to form large expanses of granite. In the last 2 to 10 million years, the Sierra was pushed up which enabled glacial and river erosion to strip the upper layers of rock to reveal the resistant granite that makes up Mount Whitney today. In July 1864, the members of the California Geological Survey named the peak after Josiah Whitney, the State Geologist of California and benefactor of the survey. During the same expedition, geologist Clarence King attempted to climb Whitney from its west side, but stopped just short. In 1871, King returned to climb what he believed to be Whitney, but having taken a different approach, he summited nearby Mount Langley. Upon learning of his mistake in 1873, King completed his own first ascent of Whitney, but did so a month too late to claim the first recorded ascent.
Just a month earlier, on August 18, 1873, Charles Begole, A. H. Johnson, John Lucas, all of nearby Lone Pine, had become the first to reach the highest summit in the contiguous United States; as they climbed the mountain during a fishing trip to nearby Kern Canyon, they called the mountain Fisherman's Peak. In 1881 Samuel Pierpont Langley, founder of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory remained for some time on the summit, making daily observations on the solar heat. Accompanying Langley in 1881 was another party consisting of Judge William B. Wallace of Visalia, W. A. Wright and Reverend Frederick Wales. Wallace wrote in his memoirs that "The Pi Ute Indians called Mt. Whitney "Too-man-i-goo-yah," which means "the old man." They believe that the Great Spirit who presides over the destiny of their people once had his home in that mountain." The spelling Too-man-i-goo-yah is a transliteration from the indigenous Paiute Mono language. Other variations are Tumanguya. In 1891, the United States Geological Survey's Board on Geographic Names decided to recognize the earlier name Mount Whitney.
Despite losing out on their preferred name, residents of Lone Pine financed the first trail to the summit, engineered by Gustave Marsh, completed on July 22, 1904. Just four days the new trail enabled the first recorded death on Whitney. Having hiked the trail, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries employee Byrd Surby was struck and killed by lightning while eating lunch
Mount Logan is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest peak in North America, after Denali. The mountain was named after Sir William Edmond Logan, a Canadian geologist and founder of the Geological Survey of Canada. Mount Logan is located within Kluane National Park Reserve in southwestern Yukon, less than 40 kilometres north of the Yukon–Alaska border. Mount Logan is the source of the Logan glaciers. Logan is believed to have the largest base circumference of any non-volcanic mountain on Earth, including a massif with eleven peaks over 5,000 metres. Due to active tectonic uplifting, Mount Logan is still rising in height. Before 1992, the exact elevation of Mount Logan was unknown and measurements ranged from 5,959 to 6,050 metres. In May 1992, a GSC expedition climbed Mount Logan and fixed the current height of 5,959 metres using GPS. Temperatures are low on and near Mount Logan. On the 5,000 m high plateau, air temperature hovers around −45 °C in the winter and reaches near freezing in summer with the median temperature for the year around −27 °C.
Minimal snow melt leads to a significant ice cap, reaching 300 m in certain spots. The Mount Logan massif is considered to contain all the surrounding peaks with less than 500 m of prominence, as listed below: In 1922, a geologist approached the Alpine Club of Canada with the suggestion that the club send a team to the mountain to reach the summit for the first time. An international team of Canadian and American climbers was assembled and they had planned their attempt in 1924 but funding and preparation delays postponed the trip until 1925; the international team of climbers began their journey in early May, crossing the mainland from the Pacific coast by train. They walked the remaining 200 kilometres to within 10 kilometres of the Logan Glacier where they established base camp. In the early evening of June 23, 1925, Albert H. MacCarthy, H. F. Lambart, Allen Carpé, W. W. Foster, Norman H. Read and Andy Taylor stood on top for the first time, it had taken them 65 days to approach the mountain from the nearest town, McCarthy and return, with all climbers intact.
1957 East Ridge. Don Monk, Gil Roberts and 3 others reached the summit on July 19. 1965 Hummingbird Ridge. Dick Long, Allen Steck, Jim Wilson, John Evans, Franklin Coale Sr. and Paul Bacon over 30 days, mid-July to Mid-August. Fred Beckey remarked: "couldn't believe that they had climbed that thing. We didn't think they had a chance". Featured in Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. 1967, the first ski descent of the mountain was made in two stages by Daniel C. Taylor main summit to the Kluane glacier 1977 Warbler Ridge. Dave Jones, Frank Baumann, Fred Thiessen, Jay Page and Rene Bucher in 22 days. 1978 West Ridge. Steve Davis, Jon Waterman, George Sievewright, Roger Hurt. Climbed ridge in 27 days "capsule-style". 1979 "Northwest Ridge" Michael Down, Paul Kindree, John Howe, Reid Carter and John Wittmayer climbed to the summit over 22 days, topping out on June 19. 1979 South-Southwest Ridge. Raymond Jotterand, Alan Burgess, Jim Elzinga and John Laughlan reached the summit after 15 days of climbing on June 30 and July 1.
1987 an alpine-style attempt on the Hummingbird Ridge ended with the deaths of Catherine Freer, North America's strongest female alpinist, David Cheesmond from South Africa and Canada, considered among the best alpinists in the world, when a snow cornice broke. 1992 June 6, an expedition sponsored by the Royal Canadian Geographic Society confirmed the height of Mount Logan using GPS. The leader was Michael Schmidt, with Lisel Currie, Leo Nadeay, Charlie Roots, J-C. Lavergne, Roger Laurilla, Pat Morrow, Karl Nagy, Sue Gould, Alan Björn, Lloyd Freese, Kevin McLaughlin and Rick Staley. 2017 May 23, 15-year-old Naomi Prohaska reached the summit. She was part of a team led by her father. Following the death of former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, a close friend of Trudeau's, proposed renaming the mountain Mount Trudeau. A mountain in British Columbia's Premier Range was named Mount Pierre Elliott Trudeau instead. During the last few days of May 2005, three climbers from the North Shore Search and Rescue team of North Vancouver became stranded on the mountain.
A joint operation by Canadian and American forces rescued the three climbers and took them to Anchorage, Alaska for treatment of frostbite. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Canada List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories List of Ultras in Canada List of elevation extremes by country Irving, R. L. G.. Ten Great Mountains. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. Roper, Steve. Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. San Francisco, CA, USA: Sierra Club Books. Pp. 179–182. ISBN 0-87156-292-8. Scott, Chic. Pushing the Limits, The Story of Canadian Mountaineering. Calgary, Canada: Rocky Mountain Books. ISBN 0-921102-59-3. Retrieved December 27, 2013. Selters, Andy. Ways to the Sky. Golden, CO, USA: American Alpine Club Press. ISBN 0-930410-83-1. Sherman, Paddy. Cloud Walkers - Six Climbs on Major Canadian Peaks. Toronto, Canada: Macmillan of Canada. Lib Congress Cat# 65-25069. Mount Log
Mount Evans is the highest summit of the Chicago Peaks in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The prominent 14,271-foot fourteener is located in the Mount Evans Wilderness, 13.4 miles southwest by south of the City of Idaho Springs in Clear Creek County, United States, on the drainage divide between Arapaho National Forest and Pike National Forest. The peak is one of the characteristic Front Range peaks, dominating the western skyline of the Great Plains along with Pikes Peak, Longs Peak, nearby Mount Bierstadt. Mount Evans can be seen from over 100 miles away to the east, many miles in other directions. Mount Evans dominates rising over 9,000 feet above the area. Mount Evans can be seen from points south of Castle Rock, up to and as far north as Fort Collins, from areas near Limon. In the early days of Colorado tourism, Mount Evans and Denver were in competition with Pikes Peak and Colorado Springs. Mount Evans is the highest peak in a massif known as the Chicago Peaks; the peak is 35 miles west of Denver, "as the crow flies", 51 miles by road, via Idaho Springs.
The other peaks in the massif are: Mount Spalding, 1.1 mi northwest Gray Wolf Mountain, 2.2 mi north-northwest The Sawtooth, 1.2 mi west Mount Bierstadt, 1.5 mi west-southwest Mount Warren, 1.2 mi north-northeast Rogers Peak, 2.33 mi northeast. At least 7 deep glacial cirques cut into the Chicago Range; the cirques around Mount Evans are the deepest cirques in the Colorado Rockies. The bottoms of many of these contain tarns, the most notable being: Summit Lake at the head of Bear Creek, 0.5 miles north the Chicago Lakes at the head of Chicago Creek, 2 miles north Abyss Lake at the head of Lake Fork, 1 mile west-southwestThe Mount Evans Scenic Byway consists of State Highway 103 from Idaho Springs, Colorado on I-70 about 13 miles to Echo Lake, Colorado 5 from Echo Lake 15 miles, ending at a parking area and turnaround just below the summit. The latter is only open in the summer. Colorado 103 continues east from Echo Lake to Squaw Pass, from which it connects, via Clear Creek County Road 103 and Jefferson County Road 66, to Bergen Park from which Colorado 74 leads to Evergreen Colorado.
The Guanella Pass Scenic Byway passes within 4 miles west of Mount Evans, linking Georgetown and I-70 with Grant and US 285, 22 miles to the south. A marked hiking trail parallels the highway from Echo Lake to the summit, a second marked trail links Guanella Pass to Mount Bierstadt. A difficult side route of the latter climbs to the northeastern peak of The Sawtooth, from which an easy ridge leads to the summit of Mount Evans. Most of the Mount Evans massif is now part of the Mount Evans Wilderness area in Arapaho National Forest and Pike National Forest; the exception is a narrow corridor along the highway from Echo Lake, excluded from the wilderness. Summit Lake Park and Echo Lake Park, are part of the historic Denver Mountain Parks system. Mount Evans was known as Mount Rosa or Mount Rosalie. Albert Bierstadt named it for the wife of Fitz Hugh Ludlow, whom he married; the name is a reference to Monte Rosa, the highest peak in Switzerland. Bierstadt and his guide, William Newton Byers, approached the mountain along Chicago Creek from Idaho Springs in 1863, spent several days painting sketches of the mountain from the Chicago Lakes before climbing to Summit Lake and onward to the summit.
Bierstadt's sketch, Mountain Lake portrays the view of Mount Spalding over the Chicago Lakes. His painting, A Storm in the Rocky Mountains, Mt. Rosalie, is based on other sketches. A second claim to be the first to ascend is attributed to Judge Lunt and a friend in 1872. William Henry Jackson, attached to the Hayden Survey, visited the Chicago Lakes in 1873, where he took numerous photographs; the Hayden survey reported that Mount Rosalie was 14,330 feet above sea level, measured by triangulation. In 1895, 30 years after he was forced to resign as governor because of his part in the infamous Sand Creek Massacre and its subsequent cover-up, Colorado's legislature renamed the peak in honor of John Evans, second governor of the Colorado Territory from 1862 to 1865; the history of the Mount Evans Scenic Byway is part of a larger story of the Denver Mountain Parks system. It began when the City and County of Denver initiated the construction of a series of automobile "scenic loops" to allow Denverites to explore the mountains.
One road circuit, Circle G, was to traverse the ridge to Squaw Pass on to Echo Lake, culminate in a climb up Mt. Evans, loop down to Idaho Springs. In order to achieve this goal, Denver Mountain Parks acquired a series of land parcels, including the acquisition of Bergen Park in 1915; the Bear Creek segment from the Genesee saddle to Bergen Park was finished in 1915, while the Denver Mountain Parks committee worked to make Mt. Evans a National Park, going as far as getting support in Congress for the construction of a "cement road" to the mountain; the first mile was paid for by Denver with the understanding that the State Highway Commission would do the rest. The Denver Mountain Parks committee was not without disagreement and setbacks, however. $30,000
Kluane National Park and Reserve
Kluane National Park and Reserve are two units of Canada's national park system in the southwest corner of the territory of Yukon. It is near the Alaskan border. Kluane National Park Reserve was established in 1972; the Reserve includes the highest mountain in Mount Logan of the Saint Elias Mountains. Mountains and glaciers dominate the park's landscape, covering 83% of its area; the rest of the land in the park is forest and tundra—east of the largest mountains and glaciers—where the climate is colder and drier than in the western and southern parts of the park. Trees grow only at the park's lowest elevations; the primary tree species are balsam poplar and trembling aspen. A day-use area with boat launch, picnic facilities and campground is located at Kathleen Lake, is operated from mid-May to mid-September. Hiking is a popular activity on trails such as St. Elias Lake, Mush Lake Road, Shorty Creek, Rock Glacier, King's Throne, Auriol, Dezadeash River Trail, Alsek Trail, Sheep Creek Trail, Bullion Plateau Trail, Slims West or Soldiers Summit.
Rafting on the Alsek River, mountain biking on old mining roads, horseback riding through the Alsek Pass, boating on Kathleen Lake and Mush Lake as well as fishing for lake trout, Arctic grayling, rainbow trout, northern pike and sockeye salmon are among activities available in the park. The park was the subject of a short film in 2011's National Parks Project, directed by Louise Archambault and scored by Graham Van Pelt, Ian D'Sa and Mishka Stein. In August 2013, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. visited the park to see Mount Kennedy. Mammalian species that inhabit this park include northwestern wolf, coyote, lynx, river otter, moose, snowshoe hare, red fox, Dall sheep, wolverine, mountain goat, arctic ground squirrel; this park contains about 120 species of birds, including the rock ptarmigan and the golden and bald eagles. The bi-national Kluane-Wrangell-St. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek park system comprising Kluane, Wrangell-St Elias, Glacier Bay and Tatshenshini-Alsek parks, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979 for the spectacular glacier and icefield landscapes as well as for the importance of grizzly bears and Dall sheep habitat.
In a 2009 census of the Kluane herd, there were 181 northern mountain caribou, a distinct ecotype of caribou. Kluane National Park lies within the traditional territories of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations and Kluane First Nation who have a long history of living in this region. Through their respective Final Agreements with the Canadian Government, they have made into law their rights to harvest in this region. National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada List of Yukon parks List of World Heritage Sites in the Americas Lee, Douglas. "Canada's Icy Wilderness Park — Kluane". National Geographic. Vol. 168 no. 5. Pp. 630–657. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454. Canada website for Kluane NP World Heritage site Kluane — a National Film Board of Canada documentary - Kluane a Pbase Gallery - Champagne and Aishihik First Nations - Kluane First Nation
Iztaccíhuatl, is a 5,230 m dormant volcanic mountain in Mexico located on the border between the State of Mexico and Puebla. It is the nation's third highest, after Popocatépetl 5,426 m; the name "Iztaccíhuatl" is Nahuatl for "White woman", reflecting the four individual snow-capped peaks which depict the head, chest and feet of a sleeping female when seen from east or west. Iztaccíhuatl is to the north of Popocatépetl, to which it is connected by the high altitude Paso de Cortés. Depending on atmospheric conditions Iztaccíhuatl is visible much of the year from Mexico City some 70 km to the northwest; the first recorded ascent was made in 1889, though archaeological evidence suggests the Aztecs and previous cultures climbed it previously. It is the lowest peak containing permanent snow and glaciers in Mexico; the summit ridge of the massive 450 km3 volcano is a series of overlapping cones constructed along a NNW-SSE line to the south of the Pleistocene Llano Grande caldera. There have been andesitic and dacitic Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions from vents at or near the summit.
Areas near the El Pecho summit vent are covered in flows and tuff beds post-dating glaciation 11,000 years ago. The most recent vents are at El Pecho and a depression at 5,100 m along the summit ridge midway between El Pecho and Los Pies. In Aztec mythology, Iztaccíhuatl was a princess who fell in love with one of her father's warriors, Popocatépetl; the emperor sent Popocatépetl to war in Oaxaca, promising him Iztaccíhuatl as his wife when he returned. Iztaccíhuatl was falsely told that Popocatépetl had died in battle, believing the news, she died of grief; when Popocatépetl returned to find his love dead, he took her body to a spot outside Tenochtitlan and kneeled by her grave. The gods changed them into mountains. Iztaccíhuatl's mountain is called "White Woman" because it resembles a woman lying on her back, is covered with snow — the peak is sometimes nicknamed La Mujer Dormida, "The Sleeping Woman". Popocatépetl became an active volcano, raining fire on Earth in blind rage at the loss of his beloved.
Iztaccihuatl is listed at 5,286 m. SRTM data and the Mexican national mapping survey assert that a range of 5,220 to 5,230 m is more accurate; the Global Volcanism Program cites 5,230 m. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Mexico List of volcanoes in Mexico List of Ultras of Mexico Iztaccíhuatl - Volcano World Iztaccíhuatl - Ski Mountaineer Iztaccíhuatl - Peakware World Mountain Encyclopedia Iztaccíhuatl - Stamps Legend of The Sleeping Lady and Smoking Mountain