Lituya Bay is a fjord located on the coast of the Southeast part of the U. S. state of Alaska. It is 3.2 km wide at its widest point. The bay was noted in 1786 by Jean-François de La Pérouse. Twenty-one of his men perished in the tidal current in the bay; the smaller Cascade and Crillon Glaciers and the larger Lituya Glacier all spill into Lituya Bay, a part of Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Cenotaph Island is located in the middle of the bay; the entrance of the bay is 500 m wide, with a narrow navigable channel. The bay is known for its high tides, which have a range of 3 m. Tidal currents in the entrance reach 9.4 km/h. The entrance is considered dangerous to navigation when the tidal currents are running, but the interior of the bay provides good protection to anchored ships. Lituya Bay is famous for four recorded tsunamis, in 1854, 1899, 1936, 1958; the same topography that leads to the heavy tidal currents created the tsunami with the highest runup against a hillside in recorded history.
On July 9, 1958, an earthquake caused a landslide in the Gilbert Inlet at the head of the bay, generating a massive megatsunami which had sufficient energy to run up the hill slope just opposite of the landslide to a height measuring 1,722 feet, taller than the Empire State Building and snap off all the trees. There were three fishing boats anchored near the entrance of Lituya Bay on the day the giant wave occurred. One boat was sank by the wave and debris as it attempted to exit the bay and the two people on board, were killed; the second boat, the "Badger" was carried across the la Chasseuse spit into the ocean, hit by a log carried by the wave in the process and sunk but not before its occupants, the married couple, the Swansons, in spite of injuries managed to board a skiff to be rescued. The third boat, the "Edrie", crewed by father and son the Ulriches, was anchored at the opposite side of the bay entrance; the father, turned the boat to face the wave, which picked her up, snapped her anchor chain, carried her above the trees but washed her back into the bay with no major damage.
William A. Swanson and Howard G. Ulrich provided accounts of. Based on Swanson's description of the length of time it took the wave to reach his boat after overtopping Cenotaph Island near the bay's entrance, the wave may have been traveling 120 mph; when it reached the open sea, however, it dissipated quickly. This incident was the first direct eyewitness report of the existence of megatsunamis. Lituya Mountain Guinness World Records Ltd.. Guinness World Records 2006: 84. Mega-tsunami: Wave of Destruction. Horizon. BBC Two 12 October 2000 E. W. Eickelberg, Lituya Bay, Gulf of Alaska. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey FIELD ENGINEERS BULLETIN no. 10, December 1936 World's Biggest Tsunami: The largest recorded tsunami with a wave 1,720 feet tall in Lituya Bay, Alaska Photos of damage from the 1958 tsunami Eyewitness reports of the tsunami History of Lituya Bay and Laperouse Giant Waves in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
The Fairweather Range is the unofficial name for a mountain range located in the U. S. state of Alaska and the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is the southernmost range of the Saint Elias Mountains; the northernmost section of the range is situated in Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Park while the southernmost section resides in Glacier Bay National Park, in the Hoonah-Angoon Census Area. In between it goes through the southeastern corner of Yakutat Borough. Peaks of this range include Mount Fairweather, the highest point in British Columbia and Mount Quincy Adams 4,150 m. "Fairweather Range". BC Geographical Names
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Mount Hayes is the highest mountain in the eastern Alaska Range. Despite not being a fourteener, it is one of the largest peaks in the United States in terms of rise above local terrain. For example, the Northeast Face rises 8,000 feet in 2 miles. In terms of topographic prominence, Mount Hayes is number 51 in the world. Mount Hayes was first climbed in 1941 by Bradford Washburn, Barbara Washburn, Benjamin Ferris, Sterling Hendricks, Henry Hall, William Shand. Today's standard route is the East Ridge. Mount Hayes is not climbed due to its remoteness and the resulting access difficulties. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of Ultras of the United States Michael Wood and Colby Coombs, Alaska: A Climbing Guide, The Mountaineers, 2001. "Mount Hayes, Alaska" on Peakbagger
Mount Marcus Baker
Mount Marcus Baker is the highest peak of the Chugach Mountains of Alaska. It is located 75 miles east of Anchorage; this peak is prominent because of its proximity to tidewater and is only 12 miles north of the calving face of Harvard Glacier. When ranked by topographic prominence, Mount Marcus Baker is one of the top 75 peaks in the world. Mount Marcus Baker was called "Mount Saint Agnes"; the name was changed to honor a cartographer and geologist named Marcus Baker. The peak was first climbed on June 1938 by a party led by famed explorer Bradford Washburn. Today's standard route is the North Ridge. Despite being much lower in elevation than Denali, Marcus Baker is a serious ascent, due to the remoteness of the peak and the resulting length of the approach and climb. A number of noted climbers have perished or sustained permanent injury in attempting to summit the peak as climbing conditions can change as storms arise. In early 1988, a State of Alaska Fish and Game biologist, 28-year-old Sylvia Jean Lane, succumbed to hypothermia as a two-day storm separated her from the two others in the climbing party attempting to dash to the top in a winter ascent.
List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of Ultras of the United States Alaskan peaks with prominence > 1500m Mount Marcus Baker on bivouac.com
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Mount Chirripó is the highest mountain in Costa Rica with an elevation of 3,821 meters. It is noted for its ecological wealth; the mountain was named "Chirripo," meaning "land of eternal waters", by native Americans because there are many lakes and streams around the mountain. The high peaks in Chirripó National Park and La Amistad International Park host important areas of Talamancan montane forest and Costa Rican Páramo with high endemism and an high biodiversity; the peaks of these mountains constitute sky islands for many species of animals. Snow has not fallen on the peak in the past 100 years or so, according to the University of Costa Rica, but hail is sometimes reported; the great height of Mount Chirripó relative to its surroundings is evidenced by its high topographic prominence of 3,727 m, which makes it the 37th most prominent peak in the world. On clear days it is possible to see across the country from the Pacific Ocean to the Caribbean Sea. Climbing Chirripó is possible by obtaining a permit from the National Park office in San Gerardo de Rivas.
From the trailhead, the summit can be reached via a 19.5-kilometer hike. Temperatures on the peak range from 4˚C–18˚C. Temperatures can drop to below freezing at night. In 1904, Agustin Blessing Presinger made the first ascent to the peak. Since 1953, there have been five major fires in the area; the first official hiking trail was constructed in 1965. Today, the hut has been replaced by a concrete building visited by 7,000 people each year. In 1975, Chirripó National Park was founded and protecting 500 square kilometers of rain forest and mountains around the peak. Forest fires occurred in 1976, in the 1990s, in 2012; the hike starts 1,500 meters above sea level in the village of San Gerardo on the Talamanca Range. From the valley, the path rises through fields and woodlands before ascending through lush rainforest; the forest turns into scrubland. The trail continuously ascends and descends through ridges and valleys until it reaches the final visitors' refuge at 3,392 meters. From the refuge, there is a remaining two hour hike.
Once the last ridge is crossed, there is a remaining 200 meters of steep path. The summit is a 6-meter wide platform of rocks. Mountain peaks of North America List of Ultras of Central America "Chirripó Grande, Costa Rica" on Peakbagger Cerro Chirripó on SummitPost