United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Altitude sickness, the mildest form being acute mountain sickness, is the negative health effect of high altitude, caused by rapid exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high elevation. Symptoms may include headaches, tiredness, trouble sleeping, dizziness. Acute mountain sickness can progress to high altitude pulmonary edema with associated shortness of breath or high altitude cerebral edema with associated confusion. Chronic mountain sickness may occur after long term exposure to high altitude. Altitude sickness occurs only above 2,500 metres, though some are affected at lower altitudes. Risk factors include a prior episode of altitude sickness, a high degree of activity, a rapid increase in elevation. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and is supported in those who have more than a minor reduction in activities, it is recommended that at high-altitude any symptoms of headache, shortness of breath, or vomiting be assumed to be altitude sickness. Prevention is by increasing elevation by no more than 300 metres per day.
Being physically fit does not decrease the risk. Treatment is by descending to a lower altitude and sufficient fluids. Mild cases may be helped by acetazolamide, or dexamethasone. Severe cases may benefit from oxygen therapy and a portable hyperbaric bag may be used if descent is not possible. Treatment efforts, have not been well studied. AMS occurs in about 20% of people after going to 2,500 metres and 40% of people going to 3,000 metres. While AMS and HACE occurs frequently in males and females, HAPE occurs more in males; the earliest description of altitude sickness is attributed to a Chinese text from around 30 BCE which describes "Big Headache Mountains" referring to the Karakoram Mountains around Kilik Pass. People have different susceptibilities to altitude sickness; this is the most frequent type of altitude sickness encountered. Symptoms manifest themselves six to ten hours after ascent and subside in one to two days, but they develop into the more serious conditions. Symptoms include headache, stomach illness and sleep disturbance.
Exertion aggravates the symptoms. Those individuals with the lowest initial partial pressure of end-tidal pCO2 and corresponding high oxygen saturation levels tend to have a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness than those with high end-tidal pCO2 and low oxygen saturation levels. Headaches are the primary symptom used to diagnose altitude sickness, although a headache is a symptom of dehydration. A headache occurring at an altitude above 2,400 metres – a pressure of 76 kilopascals – combined with any one or more of the following symptoms, may indicate altitude sickness: Symptoms that may indicate life-threatening altitude sickness include: Pulmonary edema Symptoms similar to bronchitis Persistent dry cough Fever Shortness of breath when restingCerebral edema Headache that does not respond to analgesics Unsteady gait Gradual loss of consciousness Increased nausea and vomiting Retinal hemorrhageThe most serious symptoms of altitude sickness arise from edema. At high altitude, humans can get either high altitude pulmonary edema, or high altitude cerebral edema.
The physiological cause of altitude-induced edema is not conclusively established. It is believed, that HACE is caused by local vasodilation of cerebral blood vessels in response to hypoxia, resulting in greater blood flow and greater capillary pressures. On the other hand, HAPE may be due to general vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation which, with constant or increased cardiac output leads to increases in capillary pressures. For those suffering HACE, dexamethasone may provide temporary relief from symptoms in order to keep descending under their own power. HAPE can progress and is fatal. Symptoms include fatigue, severe dyspnea at rest, cough, dry but may progress to produce pink, frothy sputum. Descent to lower altitudes alleviates the symptoms of HAPE. HACE is a life-threatening condition that can lead to death. Symptoms include headache, visual impairment, bladder dysfunction, bowel dysfunction, loss of coordination, paralysis on one side of the body, confusion. Descent to lower altitudes may save those afflicted with HACE.
Altitude sickness can first occur at 1,500 metres, with the effects becoming severe at extreme altitudes. Only brief trips above 6,000 metres are possible and supplemental oxygen is needed to avert sickness; as altitude increases, the available amount of oxygen to sustain mental and physical alertness decreases with the overall air pressure, though the relative percentage of oxygen in air, at about 21%, remains unchanged up to 21,000 metres. The RMS velocities of diatomic nitrogen and oxygen are similar and thus no change occurs in the ratio of oxygen to nitrogen until stratospheric heights. Dehydration due to the higher rate of water vapor lost from the lungs at higher altitudes may contribute to the symptoms of altitude sickness; the rate of ascent, altitude attained, amount of physical activity at high altitude, as well as individu
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Mono County, California
Mono County is a county located in the east central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,202. Making it the fifth-least populous county in California; the county seat is Bridgeport. The county is located east of the Sierra Nevada between Nevada; the only incorporated town in the county is Mammoth Lakes, located at the foot of Mammoth Mountain. Other locations, such as June Lake, are famous as skiing and fishing resorts. Located in the middle of the county is Mono Lake, a vital habitat for millions of migratory and nesting birds; the lake is located in a wild natural setting, with pinnacles of tufa arising out of the salty and alkaline lake. Located in Mono County is Bodie, the official state gold rush ghost town, now a California State Historic Park. Mono County was formed in 1861 from parts of Calaveras and Mariposa counties. Parts of the county's territory were given to Inyo County in 1866; the county is named after Mono Lake which, in 1852, was named for a Native American Paiute tribe, the Mono people, who inhabited the Sierra Nevada from north of Mono Lake to Owens Lake.
The tribe's western neighbors, the Yokut, called them monachie, meaning "fly people" because they used fly larvae as their chief food staple and trading article. Archeologists know nothing about the first inhabitants of the county, as little material evidence has been found from them; the Kuzedika, a band of Paiute, had been there many generations by the time the first anglophones arrived. The Kuzedika were hunter-gatherers and their language is a part of the Shoshone language. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,132 square miles, of which 3,049 square miles is land and 83 square miles is water; the highest point in Mono County is White Mountain Peak which, at 14,252 feet, is the third-highest peak in California. Inyo National Forest Toiyabe National Forest Granite Mountain Wilderness The 2010 United States Census reported that Mono County had a population of 14,202; the racial makeup of Mono County was 11,697 White, 47 African American, 302 Native American, 192 Asian, 11 Pacific Islander, 1,539 from other races, 414 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,762 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,853 people, 5,137 households, 3,143 families residing in the county; the population density was 4/sq mi. There were 11,757 housing units at an average density of 4/sq mi; the racial makeup of the county was 84.2% White, 0.5% Black or African American, 2.4% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.5% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. 17.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.4% were of German, 12.6% Irish and 11.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 84.0% spoke English and 15.1% Spanish as their first language. There were 5,137 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 121.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 126.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,992, the median income for a family was $50,487. Males had a median income of $32,600 versus $26,227 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,422. About 6.3% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 1.9% of those age 65 or over. In November 2008, Mono County was one of just three counties in California's interior in which voters rejected Proposition 8 to ban gay marriage; the county's voters rejected Proposition 8 by 55.5 percent to 44.5 percent. The other interior counties in which Proposition 8 failed to receive a majority of votes were neighboring Alpine County and Yolo County.
Mono County is in California's 8th congressional district, represented by Republican Paul Cook. In the state legislature Mono is in the 5th Assembly district, held by Republican Frank Bigelow, the 8th Senate district, held by Republican Tom Berryhill; the following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. U. S. Route 6 U. S. Route 395 State Route 108 State Route 120 State Route 167 State Route 182 State Route 270 Eastern Sierra Transit Authority operates intercity bus service along U. S. 395, as well as local services in Mammoth Lakes. Service extends south to Lancaster and north to Reno, Nevada. Yosemite Area Regional Transit System runs along U. S. 395 from Mammoth Lakes to Lee Vining before entering Yosemite National Park. General aviation airports in Mono County include Bryant Field near Bridgeport, Mammoth Yosemite Airport and Lee Vining Airport. In December 2008, Mammoth Yosemite Airport began commercial air service to Los Angeles International Airport on a seasonal basis.
The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Mono County.† county seat List of sch
Mount Lyell (California)
Mount Lyell is the highest point in Yosemite National Park, at 13,114 feet. It is located at the southeast end of the Cathedral Range, 1.2 miles northwest of Rodgers Peak. The peak as well as nearby Lyell Canyon is named after Charles Lyell, a well-known 19th century geologist; the peak had one of the last remaining glaciers in Lyell Glacier. The Lyell Glacier is considered to be a permanent ice field, not a living glacier. Mount Lyell divides the Tuolumne River watershed to the north, the Merced to the west, the Rush Creek drainage in the Mono Lake Basin to the southeast; the most common approach to Mount Lyell is from Tuolumne Meadows on a traveled section of the John Muir Trail. The round trip is 25 miles and involves 4,500 feet of elevation gain when starting from the Tuolumne Wilderness Office; the hike is easy from Tuolumne Meadows, following the Tuolumne River to the head of the Lyell Canyon, becomes moderate as it approaches Donohue Pass. Before reaching Donahue Pass, the route heads south towards Mount Lyell.
Most summit ascents are done either around the Lyell Glacier. Seasonal and year-to-year variations on the glacier make it necessary to assess current conditions before choosing a route to the summit; the northwest Ridge, from the saddle between Mount Lyell and nearby Mount Maclure, offers class 2 to 3 climbing with high snow levels on the glacier. Low snow levels increases the grade to class 3 to 4 on the exposed granite ledges, in which cases it may be easier to ascend the glacier more directly to the summit; the summit block of Mount Lyell is composed of dark volcanic granite, similar to its neighbors do the southeast, Rodgers Peak, Mount Davis, Banner Peak, Mount Ritter. This rock is loose and unstable for climbing, making the ascent to the summit plateau dangerous when the glacier is low, exposing the lower reaches of the summit block. For this reason, some climbers consider Mount Lyell and nearby Mount Maclure to be geologically part of the Ritter Range; the grade of the East Arete increases with low snow conditions, going from class 3 to class 4.
Other routes exist of greater difficulty and longer approaches. List of highest points in California by county Lyell Canyon Lyell Meadow "Mount Lyell". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Mount Lyell". SummitPost.org. "Mount Lyell". County Highpointers. Retrieved 2009-08-12. "Mount Lyell from Tuolumne Meadows via Lyell Canyon". Yosemite Explorer. Retrieved 2009-08-12. Russell, Carl Parcher. One Hundred Years In Yosemite. Yosemite National Park: Yosemite Association. P. 78. ISBN 0-939666-60-X