University of Tasmania
The University of Tasmania is a public research university located in Tasmania, Australia. Founded in 1890, it was the fourth university to be established in Australia. Christ College, one of the university's residential colleges, was founded in 1846 and is the oldest tertiary institution in the country; the University of Tasmania is a sandstone university and is a member of the international Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning. The university offers various undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of disciplines, has links with 20 specialist research institutes, cooperative research centres and faculty based research centres; the university's Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies have contributed to the university's multiple 5 rating scores for excellence in research awarded by the Australian Research Council. The University delivers tertiary education at the Australian Maritime College, the national centre for maritime education and research.
The university is regarded for its commitment to excellence in teaching. It was ranked in the top 10 research universities in Australia and in the top two per cent of universities worldwide in the Academic Ranking of World Universities; the University of Tasmania was established on 1 January 1890, after the abolition of overseas scholarships freed up funds. It took over the role of the Tasmanian Council for Education. Richard Deodatus Poulett Harris, who had long advocated for the establishment of the university, became its first warden of the senate; the first degrees to graduates admitted ad eundem gradum and diplomas were awarded in June 1890. The university was offered an ornate sandstone building on the Queens Domain in Hobart the High School of Hobart, though it was leased by others until mid-1892; this became known as University House. Three lecturers began teaching 11 students from 22 March 1893, once University House had been renovated. Parliamentarians branding it an unnecessary luxury made the university's early existence precarious.
The institution's encouragement of female students fuelled criticism. James Backhouse Walker, a local lawyer and Vice-Chancellor, mounted a courageous defence. By the First World War there were over 100 students, several Tasmanian graduates were influential in law and politics. According to Chancellor Sir John Morris, from 1918 until 1939 the institution still'limped along'. Distinguished staff had been appointed, such as historian William Jethro Brown and mathematicians Alexander McAulay and his son Alexander Leicester McAulay, classicist RL Dunbabin, philosopher and polymath Edmund Morris Miller. Housed in the former Hobart High School, facilities were outgrown, but the state government was slow to fund a new campus. In 1914 the university petitioned King George V for Letters Patent; the Letters Patent, sometimes called the Royal Charter, granted the university's degrees status as equivalent to the established universities of the United Kingdom, where such equivalents existed. During the Second World War, while the Optical Munitions Annexe assisted the war effort, local graduates, replacing soldier academics, taught a handful of students.
New post-war staff, many with overseas experience, pressed for removal to adequate facilities at Sandy Bay on an old rifle range. Chancellor Sir John Morris Chief Justice, though a dynamic reformer, antagonised academics by his authoritarianism. Vice-Chancellor Torliev Hytten, an eminent economist, saw contention peak while the move to Sandy Bay was delayed. In a passionate open letter to the premier, Philosophy Professor Sydney Orr goaded the government into establishing the 1955 Royal Commission into the university; the commission's report demanded extensive reform of governing council. Staff were delighted. On 10 May 1949, the university awarded its first Doctor of Philosophy to Joan Munro Ford. Ford worked as a research biologist in the University of Tasmania's Department of Physics between 1940 and 1950. In early 1956 Orr was summarily dismissed for his alleged though denied seduction of a student. A ten-year battle involved academics in Australia and overseas. Orr lost an unfair dismissal action in the Supreme Court of Tasmania and the High Court of Australia.
The Tasmanian Chair of Philosophy was boycotted. In 1966 Orr received some financial compensation from the University, which established a cast-iron tenure system; the latter disappeared with the federal reorganisation of higher education in the late 1980s. In the early 1960s The University of Tasmania at last transferred to a purpose-built new campus at Sandy Bay, though many departments were housed in ex-World War II wooden huts, it profited from increasing federal finance following the 1957 Murray Report. Medical and Agricultural Schools were established and the sciences obtained adequate laboratories. Physics achieved world recognition in astronomy, while other departments attracted good scholars and graduates were celebrated in many fields. Student facilities improved remarkably; the 1965 Martin Report established a traditional role for universities, a more practical role for colleges of advanced education. The Tasmanian Government duly created the Tasmanian College of Advanced Education in 1966 sited on Mount Nelson above the university.
It incorporated The School of Art, the Conservatorium of Music and the Hobart Teachers College. In 1971, a Launceston campus of the TCAE was announced; these were fateful de
Mount Geryon is a mountain in the Central Highlands region of the Australian state of Tasmania. The mountain is part of the Du Cane Range and is situated within the Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park. With two peaks, Mount Geryon North has an elevation of 1,516 metres above sea level and is the twelfth-highest mountain in Tasmania. Mount Geryon South, with an elevation of 1,509 metres above sea level, is the state's fifteenth-highest peak; the mountain is a major feature of the national park, is a popular venue with bushwalkers and mountain climbers. It has more than 40 ascent routes for climbers. There is a famous nearby tarn, known as the Pool of Memories. List of highest mountains of Tasmania Parks Tasmania Kiernan, Kevin. "Mountain geomorphology and the Last Glaciation at Lake St Clair". Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania. 126: 47–57. OCLC 271191704. Retrieved 7 June 2015
Ben Lomond (Tasmania)
Ben Lomond is a mountain in the north-east of Tasmania, Australia. The mountain is composed of a central massif with an extensive plateau above 1,200 metres and high outlier peaks projecting from the mountain; the highest feature on the plateau is the unimposing summit of Legges Tor, at 1572 m, on the northern aspect of the plateau. The southern end of the plateau is dominated by Stacks Bluff, 1,527 metres, an imposing feature that drops away to a cliffline 600 metres above the surrounding foothills; the prominent outlier peaks of Ragged Jack, Mensa Moor and Tower Hill surround the plateau. Ben Lomond is east of Launceston in the Ben Lomond National Park. Tasmania's premier Alpine skiing operations are located at Ben Lomond with downhill skiing facilities in the State, its accessibility from Launceston, together with the existence of a ski village on the plateau make Ben Lomond an all year round favourite for tourists and hikers. Access to the village and summit can be made via several walking tracks or via a zig-zag road known as "Jacobs Ladder".
The Tasmanian Aboriginal Palawa name for Ben Lomond was recorded as turbunna. The meaning of this name is uncertain, but the suffix bunna/punna is thought to denote tableland or plateau and linguistic research suggests that the stem tur/tura means bluff or precipitous cliffs. Alternatively,and apocryphally, turbunna is said to mean'Rain Tail'. Modern etymological researchers of the Palawa lexicon assert that, in addition to turbunna, there were several names related to Ben Lomond: parndokenne - the plateau between the Nile River valley and Stacks Bluff tudema tura - a name recorded by John Glover - Taylor asserts that tudema = turbunna and tura = bluff- Stacks Bluff loonder - cf lienta a contraction for the plains to the south of Stacks Bluff - Fingal Valley tritterer - another name for a bluff at Ben Lomond Most of the Aboriginal names for Ben Lomond refer to Stacks Bluff or the southern division of the massif - as the toponym Ben Lomond was applied to the southern half of the mountain in 1800s Tasmania, when these words were recorded.
The lake on the southern aspect of the plateau, now known as Lake Youl, was known to the Aboriginal people as meenamata, the prefix mena/miena being the aboriginal word for lake or lagoon and the suffix mata referring to the surrounding topography. This name survives on modern maps as the toponym for the small lakes on the north-western aspect of the plateau - the Menamatta Tarns. One of the few examples in Tasmania of a land feature retaining its traditional name; the South Esk River, which encircles the plateau on three sides, was known as mangana lienta, from the word mananyer and lienta referring to loonder, that is, the Fingal valley. The river near modern day Nile was known as pleepertoommelarAlthough the mountain was seen by Flinders on his circumnavigation of Tasmania, the modern name was given by Colonel Paterson, who founded the first settlement in northern Tasmania in 1804, is taken from the eponymous Scottish mountain. There is no isolated peak named Ben Lomond but instead the name may refer to the plateau, bioregion or national park in which it is situated.
In colonial times'Ben Lomond' referred to both the southern extremity of the massif and the country around the southern escarpment. The toponym does not appear cartographically in reference to the entire massif until the 1900s. Features on the plateau have accreted names over the last two centuries as the region has opened up to surveyors and official parties; the prominent peaks were renamed promptly by European settlers and most were based on appearance or location, with Stacks Bluff, Ossians Throne, the Buffaloes and Ragged Jack appearing in correspondence in the 1800s. Features on the plateau were predominantly named after surveyors, Government Administrators, local identities or contemporary explorers; the Government Surveyor John Helder Wedge made several visits to the plateau and renamed meenamata'Lake Glover' - after John Glover - and named modern day Tranquil Tarn as'Pigeon's Well'. Wedge records an unknown feature as'Lake Maikai' - the provenance of this name is unknown. Last to be named is Mensa Moor, approved by the state Nomenclature Board in the 1990s.
The basement rocks comprise slates, siltstones and quartzite. These were intruded by granite and by dolerite during the Jurassic Period. Dolerite predominates on the plateau; the only exception is a localised area under Coalmine Crag and around the flanks of the Ben Lomond Plateau. This exposure includes a narrow coal sequence, once worked commercially. During the Pleistocene Ice Age, a small ice-cap existed on Ben Lomond, the only plateau in the north-east to be glaciated; the effects of these glaciers account for much of the contrast between the alpine scenery of Ben Lomond and that of the other mountains in the north-east. The most notable relict periglacial depositional features are the blockfields, which cover over a quarter of the Ben Lomond plateau. Much of the plateau is devoid of soils. Organic soils, including deep peats, are most extensively developed
Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now accepted, considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations, it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution.
Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life. Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science, his five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority, he was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.
Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, his research on plants was published in a series of books, in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Since 2008, a statue of Charles Darwin occupies the place of honour at London's Natural History Museum. Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February 1809, at his family's home, The Mount, he was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin. His grandfathers Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood were both prominent abolitionists.
Both families were Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself a freethinker, had baby Charles baptised in November 1809 in the Anglican St Chad's Church, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother; the eight-year-old Charles had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. That July, his mother died. From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder. Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the University of Edinburgh Medical School with his brother Erasmus in October 1825. Darwin found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so he neglected his studies, he learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest.
In Darwin's second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society, a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science. He assisted Robert Edmond Grant's investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of marine invertebrates in the Firth of Forth, on 27 March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech. One day, Grant praised Lamarck's evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grant's audacity, but had read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus' journals. Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jameson's natural-history course, which covered geology—including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism, he learned the classification of plants, assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time. Darwin's neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge, to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican country parson.
As Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January 1828. He preferred shooting to studying, his cousin William Darwin Fox introduced him to the popular craze for beetle collecting.
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Stacks Bluff is a peak in northeast Tasmania, Australia. The mountain is situated on the Ben Lomond plateau. At 1,527 metres above sea level, it is the ninth highest mountain in Tasmania, is a feature visible throughout the Tasmanian Midlands - prominent due to its extensive promontory cliff-line and exposed dolerite columns; the mountain was occupied by Tasmanian Aboriginal people of the Ben Lomond Nation, who inhabited the plateau in summer and left evidence of campsites and artifacts at Lake Youl 2-kilometre north of the summit block of Stacks Bluff. The clans of the Ben Lomond Nation who occupied this area were the Plangermaireener and Plindermairhemener, who traversed the river valleys and marshes below Stacks Bluff; the Aboriginal names for Stacks Bluff and surrounds are uncertain but modern etymological research has determined this toponymy: tudema tura - name recorded by John Glover for Ben Lomond southern massif - tudema = Ben Lomond massif tura = translates as bluffs/precipitous cliffs i.e. Ben Lomond Bluff tritterrer - alternate name for the peak - ter translates as'bluff' loonder - contraction of name for the South Esk Valley under the peak - to translate as'plains' cf mangana lienta loonder =lienta -'The river of the Fingal Valley plains' troune - name for'Ben Lomond country' - I.e.
The Fingal Valley - literally'long grass' meenamata - mena/miena = lake or lagoon - referring to Lake Youl - the plateau's largest water feature, with evidence of artefact deposits parndokenne name for plateau between Nile valley and Stack's Bluff. Kullewareper - the Ben Lomond Rivulet, under Stacks BluffBoth the ethnographic record and archeological evidence describes their habitation and visitation of the country surrounding the peak and, in particular John Batman, in 1829, describes the'native track' up onto the plateau from the foothills and he remarked at the extensive evidence of summer occupation - with remains of firing seen about the plateau. Batman, whilst prosecuting his commission to round up the Ben Lomond clans in a'roving party' wrote in his diary in 1830: "Made round to the stacks of the mountain, stopped on a spot where the women said would be the most the Blacks would come or pass, that it was the usual beat for them" John Batman was to have been the first European to have visited the area, as he records crossing the plateau to his farm on the Ben Lomond Rivulet in the 1820s.
The artist John Glover ascended the plateau in January 1833 and sketched the northern aspect of Stacks Bluff, as well as the prominent features around the peak. The name Ben Lomond pertained only to the southern part of the Ben Lomond plateau and the southern extremity of Stacks Bluff was named'the Butts' by European colonials and colloquially, as'the Stacks' - on account of the rock columns on the southern aspect of the bluff; the toponym'Stacks Bluff' first appears on maps in 1915. The'uppermost peak' of the Bluff was hitherto known locally as Ernest Crag, although this name no longer appears on modern maps. In 1841 the plateau was surveyed by the Polish Explorer Strzelecki who incorrectly calculated barometrically the summit of the plateau as being Stacks Bluff at 5,002 feet. After a further survey by James Sprent, the peak had a trigonometric survey point and an elaborate summit cairn constructed by convict workers in 1852; the trig station was'89 feet high' and constructed from timber carried up by manual labour from the valley below.
The trigonometric station was called'The Stockade' by locals, on account of the palisade surrounding the central cairn, but by the turn of the 20th century it had disappeared. A full survey of Ben Lomond was conducted from September 1905 to 1912 by Colonel William Vincent Legge, Stacks Bluff was found to be the second highest feature on the plateau at this time. Mining became established in the foothills of Stacks Bluff from the late 1800s to the 1950s. Tin and tungsten were the principal minerals to be obtained here and the townships of Rossarden and Storys Creek arose to support this commercial activity. Coal was found at Buffalo Brook, about half way between Stacks Bluff and Avoca, whereupon the Stanhope Mine was established. Recreational walking on and around the plateau was established from at least the mid 1830s with the purpose of summiting Stacks Bluff but it was not until the 1880s, when the mines had brought large numbers into the area, that walking on the plateau became popular. At this time the principal track to the plateau lay across the Ben Lomond Marshes ascending the western side of Stacks Bluff.
This track led from Avoca, up Castle Cary Rivulet to the Ben Lomond Marshes, thence to the plateau on the western side of Stacks Bluff along the headwaters of the Ben Lomond Rivulet. The track was described as passing up the'Ploughed Fields' and proceeding through a pass between Wilmot Bluff and the western cliff line called by locals'The Gap'. Avoca, being located on the Fingal train line from Launceston, was the staging point for excursions to the mountain, with local guides arranging packhorses, camping equipment and suitable campsites below the plateau. Excursions in the 1880s became popular enough for a landowner to build a two-storey hotel with 12 rooms, a store and stables at the northern end of the Ben Lomond Marshes for the use of excursionists and miners; this was the'Ben Lomond Hotel', built in 1883, was a popular staging point for the walk up to the plateau, but by 1908 the hotel had been abandoned and fallen into disrepair. The Ben Lomond Hotel co
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the