West Coast Range
The West Coast Range is a mountain range located in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. The range lies to the west and north of the main parts of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park; the range has had a significant number of mines utilising the geologically rich zone of Mount Read Volcanics. A number of adjacent ranges lie to the east: the Engineer Range, the Raglan Range, the Eldon Range, the Sticht Range but in most cases these are on a west–east alignment, while the West Coast Range runs in a north–south direction, following the Mount Read volcanic arc; the range has encompassed multiple land uses including the catchment area for Hydro Tasmania dams, transport routes and historical sites. Of the communities that have existed in the range itself, Gormanston, is the last to remain; these are determined by a number of factors - the southerly direction of glaciation in the King River Valley and around the Tyndalls. The following mountains are contained within the West Coast Range, including sub-ranges without a named peak and including subsidiary peaks.
Darwin Crater - a probable meteorite impact crater associated with Darwin glass Gooseneck Hill Henty Glacial Moraine Marble Bluff - adjacent to the confluence of the Eldon and South Eldon rivers and the northern edge of Lake Burbury Teepookana Plateau Thureau Hills - adjacent to the eastern slopes of Mount Owen and Mount Huxley Walford Peak - adjacent to Lake Dora Anthony River on the northern part of the range Bird River at the southern end of the range Eldon River on the eastern side of the range Governor River on the eastern side of the range Henty River on the western side of the range King River starting in the Eldon Range and passing between Mount Huxley and Mount Jukes, dammed by The Hydro Mackintosh River Murchison River Pieman River Queen River runs through Queenstown to join with the King River to the west of Mount Huxley Sophia River South Eldon River Tofft River runs between the Thureau hills and Mount Owen and Mount Huxley Yolande River between Lake Margaret and the Henty River Basin Lake - on the western side of the range Lake Adam - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Barnabas Lake Beatrice - on the eastern edge of Mount Sedgwick Lake Burbury - created by the damming of the King River by The Hydro Lake Dora Lake Dorothy Lake Huntley - on the eastern side of Mount Tyndall Lake Julia - in the area of the range known as'The Tyndalls' Lake Mackintosh - created by damming the Mackintosh River Lake Magdala - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Martha - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Mary, Tasmania - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Margaret on the northern side of Mount Sedgwick Lake Monica - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Murchison - created by the damming of the Murchison River Lake Myra - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Paul - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Peter - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Philip - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Plimsoll Lake Polycarp - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Rolleston - between the Tyndall Range and the Sticht Range Lake Selina - just west of Lake Plimsoll Lake Spicer - just west of Eldon Peak Lake Tyndall - south of Mount Tyndall Lake Westwood - next to Mount Julia Mount Farrell Regional Reserve Mount Murchison Regional Reserve Tyndall Regional Reserve Lake Beatrice Conservation Area Princess River Conservation Area Crotty Conservation Area West Coast Range Regional Reserve The slopes of Mount Owen, Mount Lyell and Mount Sedgwick are covered in stumps of forest trees killed by fires and smelter fumes from the earlier part of the twentieth century.
The devastation of forests close to the mining operations at Queenstown was substantial as early as the 1890s and continued late into the twentieth century. Some Huon Pine on the slopes of Mount Read have been found. Due to fire, mining and a range of human activities the vegetation zones along the West Coast range can be considered to be modified, few pockets of vegetation could be considered unchanged since European presence; the eastern side of the range is on the western boundary of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park, at these points the forests are in better condition. Forestry conservation zones exist along its length in accordance with the Regional Forestry Agreement. In the average winter the "1,000 metre snowline" sees most of the mountains with snow. In previous decades, Lake Margaret was the main long-term weather-reporting location, however the Mount Read automatic weather station now maintains extremes reported on the Bureau of Meteorology website for extreme conditions.
The rainfall records of Lake Margaret were on a par with Tully in Queensland for the highest rainfall in Australia. Approximations for the West Coast Range are made at 2800–3000 mm precipitation per year; the prevailing weather is due to the location of the West Coast. It has no landmass shielding it from the Southern Ocean or Antarctic weather, being in the Roaring Forties cold fronts and extreme weather are regular occurrences on the West Coast; the Cape Sorell Waverider Buoy, initiated by the BOM in 1998 has given good indications of the behaviour of ocean swells to correlate with weather conditions. Earlier weather records were kept for Zeehan. Due to change in population distribution and resources in the west coast, the main weather data is from Strahan Airport and Mount Read; the following BOM recorded locations are relevant to West Coast Range: Early European exploration of the range was made by explorers, by convicts escaping from Macquarie Harb
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is an American national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, in Fresno and Tulare Counties, California. Established in 1890 as General Grant National Park, the park was expanded and renamed to Kings Canyon National Park on March 4, 1940; the park's namesake, Kings Canyon, is a rugged glacier-carved valley more than a mile deep. Other natural features include multiple 14,000-foot peaks, high mountain meadows, swift-flowing rivers, some of the world's largest stands of giant sequoia trees. Kings Canyon is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park, the two are jointly administered by the National Park Service as the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks; the majority of the 461,901-acre park, drained by the Middle and South Forks of the Kings River and many smaller streams, is designated wilderness. Tourist facilities are concentrated in two areas: Grant Grove, home to General Grant and Cedar Grove, located in the heart of Kings Canyon. Overnight hiking is required to access most of the park's backcountry, or high country, which for much of the year is covered in deep snow.
The combined Pacific Crest Trail/John Muir Trail, a backpacking route, traverses the entire length of the park from north to south. General Grant National Park was created to protect a small area of giant sequoias from logging. Although John Muir's visits brought public attention to the huge wilderness area to the east, it took more than fifty years for the rest of Kings Canyon to be designated a national park. Environmental groups, park visitors and many local politicians wanted to see the area preserved. After President Franklin D. Roosevelt expanded the park in 1940, the fight continued until 1965, when the Cedar Grove and Tehipite Valley dam sites were annexed into the park; as visitation rose post–World War II, further debate took place over whether the park should be developed as a tourist resort, or retained as a more natural environment restricted to simpler recreation such as hiking and camping. The preservation lobby prevailed and today, the park has only limited services and lodgings despite its size.
Due to this and the lack of road access to most of the park, Kings Canyon remains the least visited of the major Sierra parks, with just under 700,000 visitors in 2017 compared to 1.3 million visitors at Sequoia and over 4 million at Yosemite. Kings Canyon National Park, located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada to the east of the San Joaquin Valley, is divided into two distinct sections; the smaller and older western section centers around Grant Grove – home of many of the park's sequoias – and has most of the visitor facilities. The larger eastern section, which accounts for the majority of the park's area, is entirely wilderness, contains the deep canyons of the Middle and South Forks of the Kings River. Cedar Grove, located at the bottom of the Kings Canyon, is the only part of the park's vast eastern portion accessible by road. Although most of the park is forested, much of the eastern section consists of alpine regions above the tree line. Snow free only from late June until late October, the high country is accessible via foot and horse trails.
The Sequoia-Kings Canyon Wilderness encompasses over 768,000 acres in Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks, or nearly 90 percent of their combined area. In addition to Sequoia National Park on the south, Kings Canyon is surrounded by multiple national forests and wilderness areas; the Sierra National Forest, Sequoia National Forest and Inyo National Forest border it on the northwest and east, respectively. The John Muir Wilderness wraps around much of the northern half of the park, the Monarch Wilderness preserves much of the area between the park's two sections. Kings Canyon is characterized by some of the steepest vertical relief in North America, with numerous peaks over 14,000 feet on the Sierra Crest along the park's eastern border, falling to 4,500 feet in the valley floor of Cedar Grove just ten miles to the west; the Sierran crest forms the eastern boundary of the park, from Mount Goethe in the north, down to Junction Peak, at the boundary with Sequoia National Park. Several passes cross the crest into the park, including Bishop Pass, Taboose Pass, Sawmill Pass, Kearsarge Pass.
All of these passes are above 11,000 feet in elevation. There are several prominent subranges of the Sierra around the park; the Palisades, along the park's eastern boundary, have four peaks over 14,000 feet including the highest point in the park, 14,248 feet NAVD 88 at the summit of North Palisade. The Great Western Divide extends through the south-central part of the park and has many peaks over 13,000 feet, including Mount Brewer; the Monarch Divide, stretching between the lower Middle and South Forks of the Kings, has some of the most inaccessible terrain in the entire park. In the northwest section of the park are other steep and rugged ranges such as the Goddard Divide, LeConte Divide and Black Divide, all of which are dotted with high mountain lakes and separated by deep chasms. Most of the mountains and canyons, as in other parts of the Sierra Nevada, are formed in igneous intrusive rocks such as granite and monzonite, formed at least 100 million years ago due to subduction along the North American–Pacific Plate boundary.
However, the Sierra itself is a young mountain range, no more than 10 million years old. Huge tectonic forces along the western edge of the Great Basin forced the local crustal block to tilt and uplift, crea
Fresno County, California
Fresno County the County of Fresno, is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of January 1, 2018, the population was 1,007,229; the county seat is the fifth-largest city in California. Fresno County comprises the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is located in north of Bakersfield. The area now known as Fresno County was the traditional homeland of Yokuts and Mono peoples, was settled by Spaniards during a search for suitable mission sites. In 1846, this area became part of the United States as a result of the Mexican War. Fresno County was formed in 1856 from parts of Mariposa and Tulare counties. Fresno is Spanish for "ash tree" and it was in recognition of the abundance of the shrubby local Ash, Fraxinus dipetala, growing along the San Joaquin River that it received its name. Parts of Fresno County's territory were given to Mono County in 1861 and to Madera County in 1893; the original county seat was along the San Joaquin River in Millerton, but was moved to the growing town of Fresno on the newly built Southern Pacific Railroad line after a flood destroyed much of the town.
The settling of Fresno County was not without its conflicts, land disputes, other natural disasters. Floods caused immeasurable damage elsewhere and fires plagued the settlers of Fresno County. In 1882, the greatest of the early day fires wiped out an entire block of the city of Fresno, was followed by another devastating blaze in 1883. At the same time residents brought irrigation and extensive agriculture to the area. Moses Church developed the first canals, called "Church Ditches," for irrigation; these canals allowed extensive cultivation of wheat. Francis Eisen, leader of the wine industry in Fresno County began the raisin industry in 1875, when he accidentally let some of his grapes dry on the vine. A. Y. Easterby and Clovis Cole developed extensive grain and cattle ranches; these and other citizens laid the groundwork for the cultivation of Fresno County – now one of the nation's leading agricultural regions. In more recent times cotton became a major crop in Fresno and the southern San Joaquin Valley, but recent drought and lower demand have lessened cotton's importance to the local economy.
The discovery of oil in the western part of the county, near the town of Coalinga at the foot of the Coast Ranges, brought about an economic boom in the 1900s though the field itself was known at least as early as the 1860s. By 1910, Coalinga Oil Field, the largest field in Fresno County, was the most richly productive oil field in California; the Coalinga field continues to produce oil, is the eighth-largest field in the state. More than thirty structures in Fresno County are on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Fresno Water Tower, which once held over 250,000 US gallons of water for the city of Fresno, the Meux Home, Kearney Mansion Museum. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,011 square miles, of which 5,958 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water. Major watercourses are the San Joaquin River, Kings River, Delta-Mendota Canal, Big Creek, Friant Kern Canal, Helm Canal and Madera Canal, it is bordered on the west on the east by the Sierra Nevada.
It is the center of a large agricultural area, known as the most agriculturally rich county in the United States. The county withdrew 3.7 billion US gallons of fresh water per day in 2000, more than any other county in the United States. Fresno County is part of the Madera AVA wine region. Fresno was named after two particular ash trees that grew near the town of Minkler on the Kings River, one of, still alive and standing. Giant Sequoia National Monument Kings Canyon National Park Sequoia National Forest Sierra National Forest A number of minerals have been discovered in the county, including macdonaldite, walstromite, verplanckite, muirite and kampfite; the 2010 United States Census reported that Fresno County had a population of 930,450. The racial makeup of Fresno County was 515,145 White, 49,523 African American, 15,649 Native American, 89,357 Asian, 1,405 Pacific Islander, 217,085 from other races, 42,286 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 468,070 persons. 46.0% of Fresno County's population is of Mexican descent.
As of the census of 2000, there were 799,407 people, 252,940 households, 186,669 families residing in the county. The population density was 134 people per square mile. There were 270,767 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 54.3% White, 5.3% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 8.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 25.9% from other races, 4.7% from two or more races. 44.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 7.5% were of German ancestry according to Census 2000. 59.3% spoke English, 31.5% Spanish and 3.1% Hmong as their first language. There were 252,940 households ou
Mount Darwin (Andes)
Mount Darwin is a peak in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego forming part of the Cordillera Darwin, the southernmost range of the Andes, just to the north of the Beagle Channel. It has massive glaciers down its steep southern slopes. Monte Darwin was for a long time considered as the highest peak in Tierra del Fuego, but that distinction corresponds to a mountain unofficially named Monte Shipton, about 2,580 m high and is located at 54°39′33″S 69°35′54″W. Both peaks are best climbed in late December, January and March. Monte Shipton was first climbed in 1962 by Eric Shipton, E. Garcia, F. Vivanco and C. Marangunic. Mount Darwin was given its name during the voyage of the Beagle by HMS Beagle's captain Robert FitzRoy to celebrate Charles Darwin's 25th birthday on 12 February 1834. A year earlier FitzRoy had named an expanse of water to the southwest of the mountain the Darwin Sound to commemorate Darwin's quick wit and courage in saving them from being marooned when waves from a mass of ice splitting off a glacier threatened their boats.
The mountain is part of Alberto de Agostini National Park. Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin. ISBN 0-7181-3430-3 Mount Darwin, a climbers challenge and the highest peak in Tierra del Fuego
Sierra Peaks Section
The Sierra Peaks Section is a mountaineering society within the Angeles Chapter of the Sierra Club that serves to provide mountaineering activities for Sierra Club members in the Sierra Nevada, to honor mountaineers who have summited Sierra Nevada peaks. The Sierra Peaks Section was established in 1955; the Section maintains historic summit registers at Bancroft Library on the University of California, Berkeley campus. To become a member of the SPS, one must be a Sierra Club member and have climbed at least six peaks on the SPS List. For verification purposes, two of those ascents must be done on an official SPS trip. Accomplished members are award with emblems, with the following grades: Third List Completion Second List Completion First List Completion Master Emblem Senior Emblem EmblemUpon receiving one of the normal emblems, members may be recognized with one of the following additional emblems, which are not ranked: Geographic Emblem Explorer Emblem To the general public, they are most known for their peak bagging list, created in 1955, a product of the Sierra Club's long legacy of promoting climbing in the Sierra Nevada.
Completing the list is prestigious in American mountaineering circles, climbers who complete the list are cited as having done so. The list is divided into three levels of importance; the Emblem peaks are considered the most iconic peaks of the Sierra Nevada, to summit all of them is the goal of many peak baggers and alpinists. Mountaineers peaks are less notable peaks known for presenting mountaineering challenges. There are the numerous general peaks of lesser note; the list is an example of a subjective "decision by committee" list with the peaks on the list being determined by the Sierra Club. Peaks are added or removed from the list due to a variety of factors, such as accessibility and interest; the list is followed by thousands of hikers and has been noted in numerous books and guides on the Sierra Nevada. There are 15 Emblem peaks, 35 Mountaineers peaks, 197 general peaks, for a total of 247 peaks; the number of peaks is traditionally set at 248, the original number of peaks listed in 1955.
The elevations listed below are those described on the list, may not be the actual elevations of those peaks, although they are accurate to within 50 feet. Other peak bagging lists: New England Fifty Finest Adirondack High Peaks Secor, R. J.. The High Sierra: peaks, trail. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers Books. ISBN 978-0-89886-971-2. Official web site
John Muir Wilderness
The John Muir Wilderness is a wilderness area that extends along the crest of the Sierra Nevada of California for 90 miles, in the Inyo and Sierra National Forests. Established in 1964 by the Wilderness Act and named for naturalist John Muir, it contains 581,000 acres; the wilderness lies along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra from near Mammoth Lakes and Devils Postpile National Monument in the north, to Cottonwood Pass near Mount Whitney in the south. The wilderness area spans the Sierra crest north of Kings Canyon National Park, extends on the west side of the park down to the Monarch Wilderness; the wilderness contains some of the most spectacular and highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada, with 57 peaks over 13,000 feet in elevation. The peaks are made of granite from the Sierra Nevada Batholith, are shaped by glacial action; the southernmost glacier in the United States, the Palisade Glacier, is contained within the wilderness area. Notable eastside glaciated canyons are drained by Rock, McGee, Bishop Creeks.
The eastern escarpment in the wilderness rises from 6,000 to 8,000 feet from base to peak, in 5 to 6 miles. The Sierra crest contains peaks from 12,000 to 14,000 feet in elevation, including Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the continental United States. Other notable mountains in the wilderness area include the Mount Humphreys. Mount Muir is located 2 miles south of Mount Whitney. Mount Williamson is the second-highest peak in the wilderness, at 14,375 feet: it rises in one continuous sweep of granite from the floor of the Owens Valley to a peak just east of the main range; the John Muir Wilderness contains the largest contiguous area above 10,000 feet in the continental United States. It contains large areas of subalpine meadows and fellfields above 10,800 feet, containing stands of whitebark and foxtail pine. From 9,000 feet to 10,800 feet, the wilderness is dominated by lodgepole pines. Below the lodgepole forest is forest dominated by Jeffrey pine. Common animals in the wilderness include yellow-bellied marmots, golden-mantled ground squirrels, Clark's nutcrackers, golden trout, black bears.
The wilderness area includes California bighorn sheep zoological areas, which are set aside for the protection of the species. The wilderness contains 589.5 miles of hiking trails, including the John Muir Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail, which run through the wilderness from north to south. The John Muir Wilderness is the second most-visited wilderness in the United States, quota are required for overnight use on all trailheads. Duck Lake Lake Virginia Squaw Lake Bibliography of the Sierra Nevada, for further reading Wilderness.net TopoQuest map
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl