Forbes State Forest
Forbes State Forest is a Pennsylvania state forest in Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry District #4. The main offices are located in Laughlintown in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania in the United States. Mount Davis, the highest peak in Pennsylvania, is located in the forest; the forest was named in honor of General John Forbes. It includes 20 separate tracts of land and covers over 50,000 acres that stretch across Fayette and Westmoreland Counties; the designated forest tracts follow one of the area's dominant terrain features, Laurel Ridge, part of the Laurel Highlands. Forbes State Forest was formed as a direct result of the depletion of the forests of Pennsylvania that took place during the mid-to-late 19th century. Conservationists like Dr. Joseph Rothrock became concerned that the forests would not regrow if they were not managed properly. Lumber and iron companies had harvested the old-growth forests for various reasons, they dried tree tops and rotting stumps. The sparks of passing steam locomotives of the Pittsburgh and Somerset Railroad ignited wildfires that prevented the formation of second growth forests.
The conservationists feared that the forest would never regrow if there was not a change in the philosophy of forest management. They called for the state to purchase land from the lumber and iron companies and the lumber and iron companies were more than willing to sell their land since that had depleted the natural resources of the forests; the changes began to take place in 1895 when Dr. Rothrock was appointed the first commissioner of the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, the forerunner of today's Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources; the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed a piece of legislation in 1897 that authorized the purchase of "unseated lands for forest reservations." This was the beginning of the State Forest system. In order to accommodate visitors, the state has allowed the development of 9 areas within Forbes; this includes 6 State Parks and 3 State Forest Picnic Areas. The remainder of the area is undeveloped except for hiking trails maintained by the state.
These are closed to vehicles but open to hiking, cross-country skiing and fishing. Several portions of what is now designated as part of the Forbes State Forest had been either developed or commercially exploited through logging through the early-to-mid-20th century; these areas have been allowed, sometimes "encouraged", to return to their natural state. The U. S. states of Maryland and West Virginia are to the south and west Clear Creek State Forest Gallitzin State Forest Buchanan State Forest Kooser State Park Laurel Hill State Park Laurel Mountain State Park Laurel Ridge State Park Laurel Summit State Park Linn Run State Park Ohiopyle State Park Forbes State Forest lies within the Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests ecoregion. It includes a number of important natural features and points of interest: This tract of 3,070 acres was acquired by the State of Pennsylvania in 1975. After previous development and logging, this portion of the west slope of Laurel Ridge is undergoing reforestation.
It is compromised of second and third growth mixed mesophytic forest. Roaring Run feeds into Indian Creek, a tributary of the Youghiogheny River. Mt. Davis is the highest point in Pennsylvania; the area drains into the Casselman River, a part of the Mississippi River watershed. One of the natural attractions of the area is the presence of small concentric stone rings which result from frost heaving in small patches of earth which are softer than the ground surrounding them. Frost causing the patches to be pushed up higher than their surroundings is followed by the effects of natural erosion which results in stones sliding to the bottom of the protrusion and forming ring-like patterns at the base; this Wildlife Management Area covers 305 acres, with a focal point on the 28 acres of the Spruce Flats Bog which formed in a natural depression atop Laurel Ridge. The area had passed through the successional sequence from open water to forest; this process was reversed in the early part of the 20th century by a combination of clear-cutting the forest, fires which burned away much of the forest floor.
This resulted in a return to the swamp or bog stage of development, the area is now proceeding back into the forest stage. The bog hosts a large community of cranberry, pitcher plant and cotton grass. "Forbes State Forest". Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2006-07-12. Note: As of July 2006, this web page has not been updated to reflect the Pennsylvania State Forest Districts realignment. "State Forest Districts". Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 2006-05-15. Retrieved 2006-07-12. Note: Map showing districts after the July 1, 2005 realignment www.stateparks.com: Forbes State Forest
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Fauna is all of the animal life present in a particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora. Flora and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the "Sonoran Desert fauna" or the "Burgess Shale fauna". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages, a series of rocks all containing similar fossils; the study of animals of a particular region is called faunistics. Fauna comes from the name Fauna, a Roman goddess of earth and fertility, the Roman god Faunus, the related forest spirits called Fauns. All three words are cognates of the name of the Greek god Pan, panis is the Greek equivalent of fauna. Fauna is the word for a book that catalogues the animals in such a manner; the term was first used by Carl Linnaeus from Sweden in the title of his 1745 work Fauna Suecica. Cryofauna refers to the animals that live in, or close to, cold areas.
Cryptofauna are the fauna. Infauna are benthic organisms that live within the bottom substratum of a water body within the bottom-most oceanic sediments, rather than on its surface. Bacteria and microalgae may live in the interstices of bottom sediments. In general, infaunal animals become progressively smaller and less abundant with increasing water depth and distance from shore, whereas bacteria show more constancy in abundance, tending toward one million cells per milliliter of interstitial seawater. Epifauna called epibenthos, are aquatic animals that live on the bottom substratum as opposed to within it, that is, the benthic fauna that live on top of the sediment surface at the seafloor. Macrofauna are soil organisms which are retained on a 0.5 mm sieve. Studies in the deep sea define macrofauna as animals retained on a 0.3 mm sieve to account for the small size of many of the taxa. Megafauna are large animals of any particular time. For example, Australian megafauna. Meiofauna are small benthic invertebrates that live in both freshwater environments.
The term meiofauna loosely defines a group of organisms by their size, larger than microfauna but smaller than macrofauna, rather than a taxonomic grouping. One environment for meiofauna is between grains of damp sand. In practice these are metazoan animals that can pass unharmed through a 0.5 – 1 mm mesh but will be retained by a 30–45 μm mesh, but the exact dimensions will vary from researcher to researcher. Whether an organism passes through a 1 mm mesh depends upon whether it is alive or dead at the time of sorting. Mesofauna are macroscopic soil animals such as nematodes. Mesofauna are diverse. Microfauna are microscopic or small animals. Other terms include avifauna, which means "bird fauna" and piscifauna, which means "fish fauna". Linnaeus, Carolus. Fauna Suecica. 1746 "Biodiversity of Collembola and their functional role in the ecosystem"
North Mountain (Pennsylvania)
North Mountain is a 2,584-foot ridge located in Davidson Township of Sullivan County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. Its summit is the 10th highest among the state's 67 counties. Portions extend into neighboring Lycoming and Wyoming counties; the mountain has a topographic isolation of 57.99 miles. U. S. Route 220 passes near the mountain; the mountain once had a prolific population of animals, including grouse and bears. Historic industries on and around North Mountain include ice cutting. Pennsylvania Route 487 goes over North Mountain; the mountain is home to a fire tower known as the North Mountain Fire Tower. North Mountain extends over portions of three counties. However, its highest point is in Sullivan County; the mountain is part of the Endless Mountains, although it is removed from the main body of these mountains. It is on the eastern edge of the Allegheny Mountains. A 1920 book called the mountain the "monarch of hills"; the same book stated that it resembled Notre Dame. The Loyalsock Valley is close to North Mountain.
The mountain has an area of 250 square miles. Its average elevation is 2,000 feet. An extension of North Mountain in Davidson Township contains a plateau, situated on the south side of Lopez Creek. An area consisting of one third of North Mountain is known as Dutch Mountain; the bedrock under the summit of North Mountain belongs to the Pocono Formation. When the first settlers arrived in Davison Township, Sullivan County, they encountered a fertile plain at the base of the mountain. A small coal bed is located on a cliff near Ganoga Lake, it is less than 6 inches thick in places. The North Mountain plateau has anticlinal and synclinal axes that run north 75° east to south 75° west. There is a nearby geological structure known as the Ganoga Basin, which runs between Spring Creek and North Mountain; the rock of the basin slopes northwards and southwards. At one point, the mountain rises 1,200 feet above the surrounding area. At that point, the horizontal distance is from the surrounding area to the peak is 2,640 feet, giving the mountain a slope of 0.46.
North Mountain is situated in the watershed of the Susquehanna River. Sub-watersheds that waters from the mountain drain into include West Branch Susquehanna River. Fishing Creek and its tributaries have their headwaters on the mountain; the tributaries of Fishing Creek in North Mountain have gorges. The area around North Mountain was controlled by the Senecas. However, the last Indian village in the vicinity of North Mountain was destroyed in 1784 by a group of rangers led by Nigel Gray, Colonel of the Rangers, they captured and wounded Skanando, a scalp hunter of the region. A trail blazed to facilitate communication between the frontier of upper Fishing Creek and North Mountain and forts on the Susquehanna River once lead from the community of Buckhorn to North Mountain. A tract of land purchased by William Hess by 1792 included parts of the mountain. However, the first person to settle in the Sullivan County portion of North Mountain was Griffith Phillips, who settled there in 1812; the Northumberland Road was built by settlers living near North Mountain in 1806 and 1808.
It most ran from North Mountain into Columbia County, part of Northumberland County at the time. However, it may have run as far north as Shrewsbury Township. North Mountain was surveyed by Jonathan Hastie. During the events of the Fishing Creek Confederacy, there were rumors that a fort with cannons had been built on North Mountain by deserters and draft evaders. 1000 Union soldiers searched for the fort on the mountain in late August 1864, but were unable to find it. However, in 2007, a 20 feet cabin used by hiding draft evaders during the American Civil War was discovered on North Mountain. However, at the time of the Fishing Creek Confederacy, locals in Benton Township, Fishing Creek Township and neighboring communities did discuss the idea that a fort on the mountain would enable an army of 100 men to defeat an army of 1000 men. Between 1890 and 1910, North Mountain was the location of the last major lumbering industry in its region. Several communities in the vicinity of the mountain had this as their main industry.
From 1887 to 1912, the community of Alderston was a lumbering town. Lopez was a lumbering town from 1887 to 1905, Jamison City was a lumbering town from 1889 to 1912, Ricketts was a lumbering town from 1890 to 1912; the Lehigh Valley Railroad purchased 13,000 acres of forest on the mountain in 1876. Ice cutting was another industry, practiced in the vicinity of North Mountain; the community of Mountain Springs was where the industry was practiced on the mountain. It was done here from 1891 to 1948, it was practiced near Lake Ganoga between 1896 and 1915. Arthur Lewis Stull was a prominent figure in both the lumbering and the ice cutting industries on the mountain. In the late 1880s, R. Bruce Ricketts owned portions of the forests on North Mountain. There were no railroads through the area of North Mountain until 1893, when a rail line between Wilkes-Barre and Towanda opened, passing by the mountain. However, the prospect of a railroad past the mountain was considered by the Lehigh Valley Railroad, the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Delaware and Western Railroad, although no action was taken at the time.
The Wilkes-Barre and Harvey’s Lake Railroad was created as another link between R. Bruce Ricketts' land on the mountain and Wilkes-Barre. A large number of spur lines were created in the fore
Wills Mountain is a quartzite-capped ridge in the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania and Maryland, United States, extending from near Bedford, Pennsylvania, to near Cumberland, Maryland. It is the northernmost of several mountain ridges included within the Wills Mountain Anticline; the Pennsylvania part of Wills Mountain is in Bedford County. Although there are mountains in Pennsylvania's Appalachian Plateau that are higher, Wills Mountain is the highest in its Ridge and Valley physiographic province. Wills Mountain may have the highest prominence in Pennsylvania; the mountain ridge begins abruptly near the Juniata River just north of 2,560-foot Kinton Knob, west of Bedford, just south of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. The valley to the south of Kinton Knob is known as Milligans Cove, an excellent geological example of a breached anticline. Portions of Wills Mountain, including the summit, are located in Pennsylvania State Game Lands No. 48, where access to the mountain is limited, with only jeep trails and a gravel road on the ridge.
The summit, like Martin Hill to the east, has no transmitters. However, access to the summit is difficult, requiring a hike of more than 1,800 ft; the Maryland part of Wills Mountain is located in Allegany County, where the mountain rises steeply from the Cumberland Narrows, a water gap west of Cumberland, half a mile west of the mouth of Warrior Run. From there, the mountain extends northeasterly into Pennsylvania. Haystack Mountain is on the south side of the Narrows. Geologically, the two mountains are equivalent, both being central ridges of the Wills Mountain Anticline; the Cumberland Narrows was carved into these quartzite-capped mountain ridges by Wills Creek, a Potomac River tributary, over millions of years. The Cumberland Narrows serves as a western gateway from Cumberland to the Appalachian Plateau and the Ohio River Valley beyond; the Old National Road, now Alternate U. S. 40, passes through the Narrows, along with the former Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's main line between Baltimore/Washington and Pittsburgh, now part of the CSX system, a former line of the Western Maryland Railroad, now used by the steam- and diesel-powered excursion trains of the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad and the Great Allegheny Passage bike trail.
A prominent rocky outcropping at the south end of Wills Mountain in the Cumberland Narrows is known as Lover's Leap. Wills Mountain is capped by the erosion-resistant Silurian Tuscarora quartzite; the mountain stands in the center of the Wills Mountain Anticline, a geological structure that extends from southern Pennsylvania through Maryland and West Virginia into Virginia. In this anticline, the Tuscarora and various other rock strata are bent upward, with the erosion-resistant Tuscarora capping the mountain's ridgetop, more eroded Silurian limestones and shales on the mountain's slopes. Wills Mountain State Park "Wills Mountain, Pennsylvania". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2008-08-22
Kinton Knob is a peak in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. Kinton Knob marks the north end of Wills Mountain where it abruptly ends just southwest of the town of Bedford; the mountain has an array of communication towers on its summit. Limited views are available from the top in the winter season, of Blue Knob to the north and the Allegheny Front to the west. "Latitude and Longitude from TopoQuest". TopoQuest.com
The Endless Mountains are a geographical and cultural region in Northeastern Pennsylvania, United States. The Endless Mountains region includes Bradford, Sullivan and Wyoming counties; the highest peak in the region is the North Knob of Elk Mountain at 2693 feet. Part of the Appalachian Mountains chain, the region does not consist of true mountains, geologically speaking, but instead a dissected plateau, part of the Allegheny Plateau; the Catskill Mountains are the highest expression of the plateau, located to the east of the Endless Mountains, separated from them by the Delaware River. The current geography was modified during the last ice age by the Wisconsin Glacier about 15,000 years ago. Glacial striations can be found on the rocks of some of the high ridges, but the area was at the margin of the ice sheet, the impact was much less than in New York just to the north; the "mountains" are made up of sedimentary rocks that were part of a lowland that collected sediments eroded from mountains to the southeast in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian geologic time.
The area lowered several times. The highest points are all nearly the same elevation, establishing that the area had once been eroded into a nearly level peneplane, which has since been uplifted; the present Susquehanna River established its meandering course during that time, when it was a mature stream on a topography of low relief. When the area was uplifted, the river's bends were preserved as incised meanders; the large river cut a deep valley and established a low baseline for its tributaries, which cut the plateau into the rugged hills of the present day. Several Native American bands settled the area in prehistoric times. By the early colonial period, Munsee-Lenape and Iroquois peoples were the principal occupants of the region; the majority of the local place names were derived from the Munsee-Lenape, places like Lock-ah Hanna, Tunk Hanna Unk, Why-ohm Ing, Min Nees Unk, Toe-be Hanna, Mesh-op Ing, Why-ah-loose Ing, Schick-shin Ing, Mawsch Unk, are examples. The Munsee and other native peoples like the Shawnee, Nanticoke and Tutelo were evicted by the terms of the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, between the Iroquois League and the British Crown.
After 1768, hundreds of British and German families flooded in from New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania to occupy lands purchased from the Susquehanna and Connecticut Land companies of Connecticut. These settlements led to armed conflict with the Penn proprietors, who claimed the land.. During the American Revolution in 1778, a combined British, Iroquois and Lenape force attacked the Wyoming Valley settlers on the eastern edge of this region, killed many of the settlers. Washington sent Major General John Sullivan on a campaign to destroy the Iroquois threat by a "scorched earth" drive up the Susquehanna and Chemung Rivers into central and western New York; the region's economy was based on mining and industry but is now agricultural with forestry and tourism contributing to the economic base. Much of the land is steep. Quarrying remains an important local industry with the region's high quality blue stone being valuable; the area is on the edge of Pennsylvania's Coal Region, with some minor veins of coal extending into the area.
Songwriter Stephen Foster lived in the area for a while, Bradford County's Camptown is immortalized in his song Camptown Races. Elk Mountain Ski Area Tourism website History and information