Saanichton, British Columbia is a village, in the municipality of Central Saanich, located between Victoria and the BC Ferry Terminal, west of the Pat Bay Highway, at the junction of Mount Newton Cross Road and East Saanich Road. Saanichton hosts the Saanich Pioneer Museum dedicated to the history of settlement of the Saanich Peninsula
Gordon Head is a seaside neighbourhood in the Greater Victoria municipality of Saanich. Gordon Head lies east of the Blenkinsop Valley; the University of Victoria is located within Gordon Head along the southeast boundary. Finnerty Road separates Gordon Head from the adjacent neighbourhood of Cadboro Bay; the local area is dominated physically by Mt. Douglas, a coastline along Haro Strait, the central plateau. For 4,000 years the Songhees people inhabited the lands between Sooke and the Saanich Peninsula, which includes Gordon Head. In 1852, with the signing of the Douglas Treaties, farmers began settling the hitherto densely forested Gordon Head area. By 1860, 13 men, including Michael Finnerty and John Work, owned all of the land; the region would become famous for its strawberries and its daffodils. City water service was introduced in 1921, leading to a proliferation of greenhouses and vegetable farming. Agriculture dominated the landscape until about the 1950s, when Gordon Head began developing into a residential neighbourhood.
During World War II, a Special Wireless Station was established at Gordon Head in June 1940. It played a significant role in the Royal Canadian Navy's radio intelligence operation against the Japanese. Messages were intercepted here and bearings on enemy transmissions were provided using direction finding techniques; the station closed in 1946. Today, many homes in Gordon Head have secondary suites in order to both improve housing affordability and meet the housing demands of the local student population; the neighbourhood shares its name with the small strip of land that juts out into Haro Strait, east of Margaret Bay, in the community's north-east corner. Gordon Head is named after Admiral John Gordon, who in 1845 commanded HMS America in the North Pacific. Gordon Head has 27 parks ranging in size from the minuscule Balmacarra Park to the magnificent Mount Douglas Park, the largest park in Saanich. Several parks offer beach access; the half-rocky, half-sandy beach located between Arbutus Cove Park and Hollydene Park is Gordon Head's most frequented beach.
Six schools belonging to the Greater Victoria School District call the community home: Elementary Hillcrest TorquayMiddle Arbutus Gordon HeadSecondary Lambrick Park Mount DouglasMaria Montessori Academy is the only independent school in Gordon Head. GHRC is centrally located and features a pool, steamroom, weightroom and fitness studio, as well as a skateboard/rollerblade park. Recent eco-friendly updates to the centre include UV pool filtration and solar-powered showers. Torquay Village Tuscany Village University Heights Shopping Centre Sprinkled across the community are dozens of pedestrian shortcuts. A map showing the shortcuts is available on OpenStreetMap. OpenStreetMap - Gordon Head Saanich Parks & Trails - Gordon Head Gordon Head Recreation Centre Gordon Head Residents Association Saanich Fusion FC Gordon Head Baseball Association Gordon Head Home Businesses
Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudson's Bay Company is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trading business for much of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada, the United States, parts of Europe including Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany; the company's namesake business division is Hudson's Bay referred to as The Bay. Other divisions include Home Outfitters, Lord & Taylor and Saks Fifth Avenue. HBC's head office is located in Brampton, Ontario; the company is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol "HBC". After incorporation by English royal charter in 1670, the company functioned as the de facto government in parts of North America for nearly 200 years until the HBC sold the land it owned to Canada in 1869 as part of The Deed of Surrender. During its peak, the company controlled the fur trade throughout much of the English- and British-controlled North America. By the mid-19th century, the company evolved into a mercantile business selling a wide variety of products from furs to fine homeware in a small number of sales shops across Canada.
These shops were the first step towards the department stores. In 2008, HBC was acquired by NRDC Equity Partners, which owns the upmarket American department store Lord & Taylor. From 2008 to 2012, the HBC was run through a holding company of NRDC, Hudson's Bay Trading Company, dissolved in early 2012. Since 2012, the HBC directly oversees its Canadian subsidiaries Hudson's Bay and Home Outfitters, in addition to the operations of Lord & Taylor in the United States; the Hudson's Bay Company bought Saks, Inc. in 2013, German department store chain Galeria Kaufhof in 2015, online shopping site Gilt Groupe in 2015, 20 former Vroom & Dreesmann sites in the Netherlands in 2015. Gilt Groupe was sold to online fashion store Rue La La in 2018. In the 17th century the French had a de facto monopoly on the Canadian fur trade with their colony of New France. Two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, Radisson's brother-in-law, learned from the Cree that the best fur country lay north and west of Lake Superior, that there was a "frozen sea" still further north.
Assuming this was Hudson Bay, they sought French backing for a plan to set up a trading post on the Bay, to reduce the cost of moving furs overland. According to Peter C. Newman, "concerned that exploration of the Hudson Bay route might shift the focus of the fur trade away from the St. Lawrence River, the French governor", Marquis d'Argenson, "refused to grant the coureurs de bois permission to scout the distant territory". Despite this refusal, in 1659 Radisson and Groseilliers set out for the upper Great Lakes basin. A year they returned with premium furs, evidence of the potential of the Hudson Bay region. Subsequently, they were arrested for trading without a licence and fined, their furs were confiscated by the government. Determined to establish trade in the Hudson Bay and Groseilliers approached a group of English colonial businessmen in Boston, Massachusetts to help finance their explorations; the Bostonians agreed on the plan's merits but their speculative voyage in 1663 failed when their ship ran into pack ice in Hudson Strait.
Boston-based English commissioner Colonel George Cartwright learned of the expedition and brought the two to England to raise financing. Radisson and Groseilliers arrived in London in 1665 at the height of the Great Plague; the two met and gained the sponsorship of Prince Rupert. Prince Rupert introduced the two to his cousin, King Charles II. In 1668 the English expedition acquired two ships, the Nonsuch and the Eaglet, to explore possible trade into Hudson Bay. Groseilliers sailed on the Nonsuch, commanded by Captain Zachariah Gillam, while the Eaglet was commanded by Captain William Stannard and accompanied by Radisson. On 5 June 1668, both ships left port at Deptford, but the Eaglet was forced to turn back off the coast of Ireland; the Nonsuch continued to James Bay, the southern portion of Hudson Bay, where its explorers founded, in 1668, the first fort on Hudson Bay, Charles Fort at the mouth of the Rupert River. Both the fort and the river were named after the sponsor of the expedition, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, one of the major investors and soon to be the new company's first governor.
After a successful trading expedition over the winter of 1668–69, Nonsuch returned to England on 9 October 1669 with the first cargo of fur resulting from trade in Hudson Bay. The bulk of the fur – worth £1,233 – was sold to Thomas Glover, one of London's most prominent furriers; this and subsequent purchases by Glover made. The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson's Bay was incorporated on 2 May 1670, with a royal charter from King Charles II; the charter granted the company a monopoly over the region drained by all rivers and streams flowing into Hudson Bay in northern Canada. The area was named "Rupert's Land" after Prince Rupert, the first governor of the company appointed by the King; this drainage basin of Hudson Bay constitutes 1.5 million square miles, comprising over one-third of the area of modern-day Canada and stretches into the present-day north-central United States. The specific boundaries were unknown at the time. Rupert's Land would become Canada's largest land "purchase" in the 19th century.
The HBC established six posts between 1668 and 171
Swartz Bay, British Columbia
Swartz Bay, located on the north end of the Saanich Peninsula on Vancouver Island, is known for being the location of one of BC Ferries' main terminals, the Swartz Bay Ferry Terminal. Swartz Bay was named after John Aaron Swart, purchaser in 1876 - i.e. it was meant to be Swart's Bay, but was incorrectly spelled when it was adopted by the Government. "Swartz Bay". BC Geographical Names
Langford, British Columbia
Langford is a city on southern Vancouver Island in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Langford is one of the 13 component municipalities of Greater Victoria and is within the Capital Regional District. Langford has a population of over 35,000 people, its municipal neighbours are Colwood to the southeast, Highlands to the north, Metchosin to the southwest, View Royal to the northeast. The City of Langford was incorporated on December 8, 1992. Langford's history of European settlement dates back to 1851, when Captain Edward Langford established one of the four Hudson's Bay Company farms in the Victoria area. In the early 1860s, the region of Langford experienced a short-lived gold rush in what is now Goldstream Provincial Park; the area was once a favourite recreation destination for thousands of Victorians in the late 1800s: day-trippers travelled via railway to the popular country resort Goldstream House Hotel. The region has become the fastest growing little city on Vancouver Island, with big retail stores and new residential developments, the expanding suburban town of Langford became a city in 2003.
The motto of Langford is "Golden in setting, determined in Spirit" containing a reference to the natural beauty of the City of Langford Goldstream Provincial Park, a comment on the community's drive to enhance Langford's special character and future. Langford is the fastest growing community in British Columbia attracting new residents from all over Greater Victoria, the Lower Mainland, Alberta due to new housing developments. Although the pace of development and some planning decisions have attracted criticism - some would argue the city is expanding too at the expense of natural surroundings and existing infrastructure, city council is too pro-development - the community continues to grow and attract residents, it is the largest municipality in the Western Communities, third-largest in the Capital Regional District after Saanich and Victoria. Activities in Langford include shopping at the many retail stores at Millstream Village and Westshore Town Centre with its 55 stores and services including major department and retail chain stores as well as a seven-screen Cineplex movie theatre.
Many city parks are attractions in Langford including City Centre Park, with a family-friendly entertainment zone including a Family Fun Park, Veterans Memorial Park located in the heart of downtown, at the center a cenotaph commemorating the men and women of the Canadian Forces who have given their lives in the line of duty and where Langford holds its yearly Remembrance Day ceremony. Community events include many parades, seasonal Goldstream farmer's market, the Summer Festival, Luxton Fair. Rugby Canada has its headquarters in Langford practicing at Westhills Stadium. A new $30 million YMCA/YWCA Aquatic Centre opened in May 2016, acclaimed by the mayor to be the "biggest project in the history of Langford", features multiple pools, recreation facilities and a new library. Visitors can participate in go-karting and mini-golfing, watch stock-car racing and demolition derby at Western Speedway. Langford is home to world-class golf courses including Bear Mountain Resort on Skirt Mountain; the large community resort offers a system of mountain bike trails as the training centre for the Canadian National Mountain Bike Team and is planning the development of clay tennis courts for the national team and a professional disc golf course.
There are many lakes in the area for fishing and non-motorized boating including Langford and Florence Lake. Langford is known for the many nature parks and network of trails popular with hikers and walkers alike including Mill Hill Park, Mount Wells, Thetis Lake Regional Park and the challenging high-elevation Mount Finlayson. Cyclists enjoy the picturesque multi-use Galloping Goose Trail a railway line, that moves through urban and rural parts of Langford and is used as a commuter trail to downtown Victoria taking only 45 minutes on bicycle starting at Goldstream Village using the Wale Road connector. Goldstream Provincial Park is a large 477 ha nature reserve home to old-growth trees, estuaries and an education visitor centre Nature House offering many visitor activities such as camping, picnicking and wildlife watching like eagle viewing during the annual salmon run. Events and news of the region are reported by West Shore Voice News. Langford is the urban core of the five suburban municipalities comprising the region of West Shore for a combined population of about 75,000.
Notable physical features of Langford include the three prominent lakes and the Humpback Reservoir, several peaks such as Mount Finlayson and Mount Wells, the notable Goldstream Provincial Park. The Malahat drive, part of the Trans-Canada Highway, begins in Langford, the Galloping Goose Regional Trail and the E and N Railway go through the city. Langford enjoys a temperate climate with distinct dry and rainy seasons. Most built-up areas in Langford are on basalt bedrock, while lower-lying regions of the Langford Plain from Langford Lake to Royal Bay are glacial till, Happy Valley and Goldstream River valley
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of 85,792, while the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria has a population of 367,770, making it the 15th most populous Canadian metropolitan area. Victoria is the 7th most densely populated city in Canada with 4,405.8 people per square kilometre, a greater population density than Toronto. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, is about 100 kilometres from British Columbia's largest city of Vancouver on the mainland; the city is about 100 km from Seattle by airplane, ferry, or the Victoria Clipper passenger-only ferry which operates daily, year round between Seattle and Victoria, 40 kilometres from Port Angeles, Washington, by ferry Coho across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843.
The city has retained a large number of its historic buildings, in particular its two most famous landmarks, Parliament Buildings and the Empress hotel. The city's Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Francisco's; the region's Coast Salish First Nations peoples established communities in the area long before non-native settlement several thousand years earlier, which had large populations at the time of European exploration. Known as "The Garden City", Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is according to Numbeo; the city has a large non-local student population, who come to attend the University of Victoria, Camosun College, Royal Roads University, the Victoria College of Art, the Canadian College of Performing Arts, high school programs run by the region's three school districts. Victoria is popular with boaters with its rugged beaches.
Victoria is popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate and snow-free climate of the area as well as the relaxed pace of the city. Prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees; the Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774, of James Cook in 1778. Although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790, 1791, 1792. In 1841 James Douglas was charged with the duty of setting up a trading post on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, upon the recommendation by George Simpson a new more northerly post be built in case Fort Vancouver fell into American hands. Douglas founded Fort Victoria on the site of present-day Victoria in anticipation of the outcome of the Oregon Treaty in 1846, extending the British North America/United States border along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the Strait of Georgia.
Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site called Camosun known as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in November 1843, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort; the Songhees' village was moved north of Esquimalt. The crown colony was established in 1849. Between the years 1850-1854 a series of treaty agreements known as the Douglas Treaties were made with indigenous communities to purchase certain plots of land in exchange for goods; these agreements contributed to a town being laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony, though controversy has followed about the ethical negotiation and upholding of rights by the colonial government. The superintendent of the fort, Chief Factor James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony, would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864; when news of the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland reached San Francisco in 1858, Victoria became the port, supply base, outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 within a few days.
Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy was established in Esquimalt and today is Canada's Pacific coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster – an unpopular move on the Mainland – and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North America's largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America. Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865 the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import and sale; the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet, Victoria's position as the commercial centre of British Columbia was irrevocably lost to the city of Vancouver, British Columbia.
The city subsequently began culti
Greater Victoria is located in British Columbia, Canada, on the southern tip of Vancouver Island. It is a cultural rather than political entity defined as the thirteen easternmost municipalities of the Capital Regional District on Vancouver Island as well as some adjacent areas and nearby islands; the Capital Regional District administers some aspects of public administration for the whole metro region. Greater Victoria consists of all land and nearby islands east of a line drawn from the southern end of Finlayson Arm to the eastern shore of Sooke Harbour, along with some lands on the northern shore of Sooke Harbour. Many places and institutions associated with Victoria such as the University of Victoria, Victoria International Airport, the Swartz Bay Ferry Terminal, are outside the City of Victoria itself, which has an area of just 19.5 square kilometres on the southern tip of Greater Victoria. Victoria is the locality indicated in the mailing addresses of several CRD municipalities and localities adjacent to Victoria.
The central city of Victoria lends its name and cultural influence to many places and organizations in the metro region. There are 13 cities and district municipalities in Greater Victoria. "Core" municipalitiesThe City of Victoria, the District Municipalities of Saanich and Oak Bay, which are all adjacent to it. West ShoreThe cities of Colwood and Langford, the town of View Royal, the District Municipalities of Highlands and Sooke, which lie west of Esquimalt Harbour and Portage Inlet. Saanich PeninsulaThe District Municipalities of Central Saanich, North Saanich, parts of Saanich, the town of Sidney, which lie to the north of Victoria; this breakdown is mirrored by the three school districts in Greater Victoria. Greater Victoria School District #61 - Sooke School District #62 - Saanich School District #63 - Greater Victoria is the southernmost urban area in Western Canada; this list is similar to, but not identical with, that used by the Greater Victoria real estate sales industry. Neighbourhoods with official status are italicized.
Others may have no official definition, hence other lists of neighbourhoods in the Victoria area may differ. Other sources may give different boundaries as well; the Greater Victoria region has a combined population of 367,770 according to the 2016 Canadian census. The region comprises two of the fifteen most populous municipalities in British Columbia; the Canadian Census ranks Greater Victoria as the 15th largest metropolitan area in Canada, by population. The combined population of the cities, unincorporated areas and Indian Reserves in the region are as follows: Saanich 114,148 Victoria 85,792 Langford 35,342 Oak Bay 18,094 Esquimalt 17,655 Colwood 16,859 Central Saanich 16,814 Sooke 13,001 Sidney 11,672 North Saanich 11,249 View Royal 10,408 Indian Reserves 6,150 Metchosin 4,708 Juan de Fuca Electoral Area 4,860 Highlands 2,225 In comparison to the Lower Mainland, the region does not have a great deal of racial diversity. Most of the population is of European descent. A substantial community of those of Chinese descent has existed in Greater Victoria since the Fraser Gold Rush of 1858-60, which saw the first significant influx, arriving first via San Francisco directly from China.
There is a substantial First Nations population whose ancestors have lived in the area for thousands of years. Numerous First Nations reserves, forming distinct communities, exist in the region — on the Saanich Peninsula, in Esquimalt, in the Western Communities — although the majority of the First Nations population live off-reserve; the largest ethnic groups in Greater Victoria, according to the 2016 census, are: English - 140,510 Scottish - 98,475 Canadian - 86,000 Irish - 73,170 German - 50,440 French - 38,775 Ukrainian - 19,410 Chinese - 17,825 Dutch - 17,790 First Nations - 15,430 Welsh - 14,140 Polish - 13,610 Norwegian - 12,130 Italian - 11,665 Swedish - 9,380 East Indian - 9,180 Russian - 8,565 American - 8,485 Metis - 7,135 Filipino - 6,650The same information, although grouped more geographically, is below. The largest sub-grouping is included. Many Victoria Region municipalities have their own fairs: Oak Bay's Tea Party, Esquimalt's Buccaneer Days, Sidney's Sidney Days, Sooke's Sooke Days, Western Communities' Luxton Rodeo, Central Saanich's Saanich Fair.
The Saanich Fair is the largest of all the Greater Victoria local fair venues. The Saanich Fair has the largest number of attendees of all. There is a wide variety of entertainment and recreational activities; the mild coastal climate ensures less extreme weather changes. Outdoor and indoor recreational areas are abundant throughout the region; the Rifflandia Music Festival takes place downtown in mid to late September. The Luminara Lantern Festival is a regionally popular cultural/artistic outdoor activity that draws thousands of visitors to Beacon Hill Park; the Victoria Tall Ships Festival showcase sailing vessels and the sailing life. The Victoria Symphony performs over 100 concerts a year, including the renowned Symphony Splash, an annual free concert in the Inner Harbour on the August Sunday preceding B. C Day; the orchestra is on a barge playing to an audie