A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Mono County, California
Mono County is a county located in the east central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,202. Making it the fifth-least populous county in California; the county seat is Bridgeport. The county is located east of the Sierra Nevada between Nevada; the only incorporated town in the county is Mammoth Lakes, located at the foot of Mammoth Mountain. Other locations, such as June Lake, are famous as skiing and fishing resorts. Located in the middle of the county is Mono Lake, a vital habitat for millions of migratory and nesting birds; the lake is located in a wild natural setting, with pinnacles of tufa arising out of the salty and alkaline lake. Located in Mono County is Bodie, the official state gold rush ghost town, now a California State Historic Park. Mono County was formed in 1861 from parts of Calaveras and Mariposa counties. Parts of the county's territory were given to Inyo County in 1866; the county is named after Mono Lake which, in 1852, was named for a Native American Paiute tribe, the Mono people, who inhabited the Sierra Nevada from north of Mono Lake to Owens Lake.
The tribe's western neighbors, the Yokut, called them monachie, meaning "fly people" because they used fly larvae as their chief food staple and trading article. Archeologists know nothing about the first inhabitants of the county, as little material evidence has been found from them; the Kuzedika, a band of Paiute, had been there many generations by the time the first anglophones arrived. The Kuzedika were hunter-gatherers and their language is a part of the Shoshone language. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,132 square miles, of which 3,049 square miles is land and 83 square miles is water; the highest point in Mono County is White Mountain Peak which, at 14,252 feet, is the third-highest peak in California. Inyo National Forest Toiyabe National Forest Granite Mountain Wilderness The 2010 United States Census reported that Mono County had a population of 14,202; the racial makeup of Mono County was 11,697 White, 47 African American, 302 Native American, 192 Asian, 11 Pacific Islander, 1,539 from other races, 414 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,762 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,853 people, 5,137 households, 3,143 families residing in the county; the population density was 4/sq mi. There were 11,757 housing units at an average density of 4/sq mi; the racial makeup of the county was 84.2% White, 0.5% Black or African American, 2.4% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.5% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. 17.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.4% were of German, 12.6% Irish and 11.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 84.0% spoke English and 15.1% Spanish as their first language. There were 5,137 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 121.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 126.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,992, the median income for a family was $50,487. Males had a median income of $32,600 versus $26,227 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,422. About 6.3% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 1.9% of those age 65 or over. In November 2008, Mono County was one of just three counties in California's interior in which voters rejected Proposition 8 to ban gay marriage; the county's voters rejected Proposition 8 by 55.5 percent to 44.5 percent. The other interior counties in which Proposition 8 failed to receive a majority of votes were neighboring Alpine County and Yolo County.
Mono County is in California's 8th congressional district, represented by Republican Paul Cook. In the state legislature Mono is in the 5th Assembly district, held by Republican Frank Bigelow, the 8th Senate district, held by Republican Tom Berryhill; the following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. U. S. Route 6 U. S. Route 395 State Route 108 State Route 120 State Route 167 State Route 182 State Route 270 Eastern Sierra Transit Authority operates intercity bus service along U. S. 395, as well as local services in Mammoth Lakes. Service extends south to Lancaster and north to Reno, Nevada. Yosemite Area Regional Transit System runs along U. S. 395 from Mammoth Lakes to Lee Vining before entering Yosemite National Park. General aviation airports in Mono County include Bryant Field near Bridgeport, Mammoth Yosemite Airport and Lee Vining Airport. In December 2008, Mammoth Yosemite Airport began commercial air service to Los Angeles International Airport on a seasonal basis.
The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Mono County.† county seat List of sch
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Inyo National Forest
Inyo National Forest is a United States National Forest covering parts of the eastern Sierra Nevada of California and the White Mountains of California and Nevada. The forest hosts several superlatives, including Mount Whitney, the highest point in the contiguous United States; the forest, encompassing much of Owens Valley, was established by Theodore Roosevelt as a way of sectioning off land to accommodate the Los Angeles Aqueduct project in 1907, making the Inyo National Forest one of the least wooded forests in the United States' system. The forest covers 1,903,381 acres and includes nine designated wilderness areas which protect over 800,000 acres. Most of the forest is in California, it stretches from the eastern side of Yosemite to south of Sequoia National Park. Geographically it is split in one on each side of the Long Valley Caldera and Owens Valley; the John Muir Wilderness is a part of the Inyo National Forest and abuts Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park along the crest of the Sierra.
The northern part of the Inyo National Forest is preserved as a part of the Ansel Adams Wilderness area, which borders Yosemite National Park. Together, the wilderness areas and parks form one contiguous area of protected wilderness of more than 1.5 million acres. The Inyo National Forest was named after Inyo County, California, in which much of the forest resides; the name "Inyo" comes from a Native American word meaning "dwelling place of the great spirit". The forest spans parts of Inyo, Tulare and Madera counties in California, Esmeralda and Mineral counties in Nevada; the forest's headquarters are in Bishop, with ranger district offices in Bishop, Lee Vining, Lone Pine, Mammoth Lakes. The forest was established on May 25, 1907. On July 1, 1945 land from the former Mono National Forest was added. There are nine wilderness areas lying within Inyo NF that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; some of these extend into other National Forests, as indicated: Ansel Adams Wilderness Boundary Peak Wilderness Golden Trout Wilderness Hoover Wilderness Inyo Mountains Wilderness John Muir Wilderness Owens River Headwaters Wilderness South Sierra Wilderness White Mountains Wilderness The Inyo National Forest contains the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, which protects specimens of Great Basin bristlecone pines.
One of these bristlecone pines is "Methuselah", the second oldest known non-clonal living tree on earth at more than 4,839 years old. The forest harbors an estimated 238,000 acres of old-growth forests; the most abundant trees in these forests are Jeffrey pine. Inyo National Forest was the site for Ride the High Country starring Randolph Scott and Joel McCrea, Nevada Smith starring Steve McQueen, Will Penny starring Charlton Heston, Joe Kidd and High Plains Drifter starring Clint Eastwood, as well as the sci-fi film Star Trek: Insurrection. Inyo National Forest served as the filming location for the second half of the second episode in the BBC's Walking with Monsters documentary series, set in early Permian Germany. Popular within Inyo National Forest are: Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest Convict Lake June Lake Lake Sabrina Lone Pine Mammoth Lakes Mono Lake Mono-Inyo Craters Mount Whitney Tioga Lake Tioga Pass Westgard Pass Devils Postpile National Monument Mono Lake Owens Valley Sierra Nevada White Mountains Inyo National Forest - U.
S. Forest Service Inyo National Forest map - U. S. Forest Service
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
White Mountains (California)
The White Mountains of California and Nevada are a triangular fault-block mountain range facing the Sierra Nevada across the upper Owens Valley. They extend for 60 mi as a elevated plateau about 20 mi wide on the south, narrowing to a point at the north, with elevations increasing south to north; the range's broad southern end is near the community of Big Pine, where Westgard Pass and Deep Springs Valley separate it from the Inyo Mountains. The narrow northern end is at Montgomery Pass, where U. S. Route 6 crosses; the Fish Lake Valley lies east of the range. The range lies within the eastern section of the Inyo National Forest. Ecologically, the White Mountains are like the other ranges in the Range Province. Middle slopes from 6,500 to 8,200 ft have somewhat denser stands of Utah juniper; these upper and lower conifer zones are separated by a zone of mountain mahogany brush. Various subspecies of sagebrush extend from surrounding valleys to the lower alpine zone. A bristlecone pine in the southern part of the range is the oldest known living tree in the world, at 5063 years old.
Pine nuts from piñon pine stands were harvested as a winter staple food by Paiute Indians whose descendants still live in adjacent valleys. The White Mountains have small remnant groves of lodgepole pine, Jeffrey pine, ponderosa pine, Sierra juniper and aspen including an unusual dwarf variety; these species are common in the nearby and wetter Sierra Nevada range west of the Owens Valley and must have been more widespread in the White Mountains until Holocene droughts extirpated them in most of this drier range. A number of plant species are endemic to the White Mountains, including the White Mountains horkelia, Horkelia hispidula. Fauna include two herds of bighorn sheep, mule deer and feral horses. Permanent streams have no native fish, but there are naturalized populations of trout including rare Paiute cutthroat trout, protected from angling. Birds include Clark's nutcracker and other Corvidae which cache pine nuts. Cattle from ranches in surrounding valleys are still grazed under permit as high as the alpine zone.
Sheep were grazed in large numbers, introducing diseases from which the native Bighorn Sheep populations are still recovering. Before European colonization of surrounding valleys in the mid 19th century, Paiute Indians occupied summer hunting camps up to about 13,100 ft, leaving ruins of archeological interest; the highest point in the range is White Mountain Peak, which at 14,252 ft is the third-highest summit in California. This peak is an extinct volcano rising about 1,600 ft above the plateau surface; the summit is composed of Mesozoic metavolcanic rock – lava lifted and melted by rising granite. The volcano itself is long since gone; the White Mountains are the highest range inside the Great Basin, although the adjacent Sierra Nevada Range along the basin's western edge has two higher summits. The entire range is within the Inyo National Forest. A four-wheel drive road reaches the summit of White Mountain Peak from the south to service the summit laboratory of the White Mountain Research Station.
The road is gated seven miles from the summit at an elevation of 11,680 ft, making this California's easiest 14,000 ft summit. North of White Mountain Peak, two sharp arêtes alternate along the crest with the broad "whalebacks" plateau of Pellisier Flats with about six more summits over 13,000 ft. Pellisier Flats is a wide sloping bench at the 13000 foot level with rocky fields and short alpine vegetation; the bench includes Mt. Hogue at 12,743 ft. and further north Mt. Dubois at 13,559 ft. the high point on the plateau. Pellisier Flats is the broad spine of the White Mountains; the crest crosses the California–Nevada state line just south of a final high summit Boundary Peak 13,147 ft, Nevada's high point. Boundary Peak is the "prow" of the triangular fault block, it has views directly down into valleys to the west and east that are hidden by the increasing width of the high plateau to the south. North of Boundary Peak the range loses altitude and ends at Montgomery Pass; the west face of the White Mountains rises steeply out of Owens Valley.
Climbing to any summit from this direction is a scramble with about 8,000 ft elevation gain. Eastern slopes are somewhat gentler and have numerous cirques left by Pleistocene glaciers and a few snowfields persisting through most summers. Most of these cirques are entered or approached by jeep roads and offer scenic yet non-technical routes to the crest. Peakbagger info about the range White Mountain Peak climbing info White Mountain Research Station homepage Traverse of White Mountains crest Another traverse Proposed wilderness area under Boxer-Solis California Wild Heritage Act of 2006
White Mountains Wilderness
The White Mountains Wilderness is a wilderness area in the White Mountains of California, United States. It was established by Congress in 2009 with a total of 228,454 acres; the wilderness is managed by the Inyo National Forest, with 24,162 acres managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The wilderness covers the White Mountains along the eastern boundary of California, from Boundary Peak in the north, south to Bishop; the wilderness excludes the roads to the south of the peak. Signs placed at the entrance of the wilderness near the trail to White Mountain Peak were misspelled "White Mountain Wilderness", the name of another wilderness area in New Mexico