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Hōraku ware

Hōraku ware is a type of Japanese pottery from Nagoya, Owari Province, central Japan. The first character 豊, which means "abundant", can be compounded and pronounced as "Hō" or "Toyo", therefore it is known as Toyoraku ware. Production started in the Edo period when it was founded by Rikei Katō, a ceramist who lived in the Owari domain, his successor, continued the style under that name. Some source state he worked in the central Ōsu area of Nagoya, south of the temple Banshō-ji, however that conflicts with the family memoir which states that he lived in Fujimigahara, that the third generation moved in 1753 from Fujimigahara to central Nagoya, confirmed by a reference in the sen-cha text called "Sencha Soshinan", published in 1779. Toyoraku's third generation Daiki Toyosuke took up the family name Daiki, to remain, he served as a master of his craft in the Owari domain. In addition to Unge ware, aka-e, shimitsu and fukai, etc. he used natural mottling on earthenware to produce a marbleized effect.

The 1801 tea handbook Sencha Hayashinan mentions Toyosuke as an expert of teaware, with the following words of praise: "Except for kibisho teapots, it is unnecessary to go seek for masters in the capital." The seals were "Toyaka" and "Toyosuke". The fourth generation Toyosuke worked in Kamimaezu in today's Naka-ku, he produced ceramic ware in the Owari domain. He specialised in making eloborate ceramic pieces by applying makie-e, that made them look as if they are complete lacquerware or made out of wood; some of his works were done in the Raku ware style. The fifth generation Toyosuke died in 1885; the sixth generation Toyosuke lived from 1848-1917. He made tea wares and sculptural pieces made to the order of Emperor Meiji in 1876, exhibited domestically and abroad, winning a prize at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. From 1896 he began exporting wares to the United States. In his late years, he turned his attention to the workshop specialty of Raku-type ware, his son died prematurely from illness.

Therefore his second son became the eighth and last generation head of the workshop in Taishō 3. During the time of the production Ofukei ware and Sasashima ware were made for tea utensils. Other pottery from Nagoya and the wider Owari region: Kawana ware Tokoname ware Inuyama ware Media related to Toyoraku ware at Wikimedia Commons

Subdivisions of Congress Poland

Congress Poland was subdivided several times from its creation in 1815 until its dissolution in 1918. Congress Poland was divided into departments, a relic from the times of the French-dominated Duchy of Warsaw. In 1816 the administrative divisions were changed to forms that were more traditionally Polish: voivodeships, obwóds and powiats. Following the November Uprising, the subdivisions were again changed in 1837 to bring the subdivisions closer to the structure of the Russian Empire when guberniyas were introduced. In this way, Congress Poland was transformed into the "Vistulan Country". Over the next several decades, various smaller reforms were carried out, either changing the smaller administrative units or merging/splitting various guberniyas. Today all of the subdivisions of Congress Poland may be found, in similar territorial areas, in modern Poland. A few in the northern panhandle of Congress Poland, are to be found in modern Lithuania, they are: In Marijampolė County: Kalvarija Municipality, Marijampolė Municipality, Šakiai District Municipality, Vilkaviškis District Municipality, the town of Kybartai In Alytus County: Alytus District Municipality, Lazdijai District Municipality, Merkinė, a town near the Dzūkija National Park On January 16, 1816, the areas of administrative jurisdiction were reformed from the departments of the Duchy of Warsaw into the more traditionally Polish voivodeships, obwóds and powiats.

Eight voivodeships were created: Augustów Voivodeship Kalisz Voivodeship Kraków Voivodeship. Lublin Voivodeship Mazowsze Voivodeship Płock Voivodeship Podlasie Voivodeship Sandomierz Voivodeship On 7 March 1837 the voivodeships were reorganised as eight guberniyas: Augustów Governorate Kalish Governorate Krakov Governorate Lublin Governorate Masovia Governorate Plotsk Governorate Podlyase Governorate Sandomir Governorate In 1842 the Polish powiats were renamed to okręgs and the Polish obwóds were renamed powiats. In 1844 several governorates were merged with others, some others renamed. Five governorates remained: The 1867 reform, initiated after the failure of the January Uprising, was designed to tie Congress Poland more to the administration structure of the Russian Empire, it divided larger governorates into smaller ones. A new lower level entity, was introduced; this time ten governorates were formed: A minor reform of 1893 transferred some territory from the Plotsk and Lomzha Governorates to the Warsaw Governorate.

The 1912 reform created a new governorate – Kholm Governorate – from parts of the Sedlets and Lublin Governorates. However this was split off from the Vistulan Country and made part of the Southwestern Krai of the Russian Empire. What is the history of the gubernias of Poland? Zygmunt Gloger, Geografia historyczna ziem dawnej Polski, Rodział 15: W wieku XIX

Queen Margot (1954 film)

Queen Margot is a 1954 French-Italian historical drama film directed by Jean Dréville, scripted by Abel Gance from the novel La Reine Margot by Alexandre Dumas. It stars Armando Francioli and Françoise Rosay; the film is known under the alternative title A Woman of Evil. It was made as a co-production between the Italian branches of Lux Film; the film's sets were designed by the art director Maurice Colasson. It was shot in Eastmancolor. Jeanne Moreau as Margaret of Valois Armando Francioli as Joseph Boniface de La Môle Henri Génès as Hannibal de Coconas Robert Porte as Charles IX André Versini as Henri de Navarre Françoise Rosay as Catherine de' Medici Vittorio Sanipoli as Maurevel Fiorella Mari as Henriette de Nevers Patrizia Lari as Charlotte de Sauve Daniel Ceccaldi as Henri d'Anjou Louis de Funès as René Bianchi Jacques Eyser as Caboche Guy Kerner as duc Henri de Guise Louis Arbessier as Admiral Gaspard de Coligny Nicole Riche as Gilonne Jean Temerson as aubergiste de La Belle Étoile Robert Moor as procureur Olivier Mathot as Pierre La Reine Margot Klossner, Michael.

The Europe of 1500-1815 on Film and Television: A Worldwide Filmography of Over 2550 Works, 1895 Through 2000. McFarland & Company, 2002. La Reine Margot on IMDb La Reine Margot at the Films de France


Berazino, or Berezino known as Biarezan, is a town on the Berezina River in Minsk Region of Belarus. The population is 13,300. Although there are no documented points to determine the original founding date of the settlement on the territory of the present Berazino, it is believed that it originated as a trading post on the River Berezina, part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks of the Kievan Rus; the first chronicles of a settlement date from 1501, believed to be the present date of its founding. During the middle of the 16th century, the city belonged to one of the mightiest dynasties of the Great Duchy of Lithuania - the Sapieha Family, who controlled many other territories in Central Belarus. In 1641 the Duke Kazimierz Leon Sapieha built a wooden Catholic Church which became one of the central attractions of the town. In the course of the Russo-Polish War the city was captured by Russian-Cossack forces in 1655, but was taken away from them and in 1661 became part of the Minsk Voivodeship.

During the Northern War in 1708, upon Charles XII's attempt to storm into the Rzecz Pospolita, releasing the Russian/Rzecz Pospolita blockade in neighbouring Barysaw, the Swedish king used Berazino to cross the Berezina River instead, however the conquest ended with the Battle of Poltava further south. In 1793 the town was annexed by the Russian Empire in the course of the Second Partition of Poland. There are different versions of; the most logical version by is that Sapieha owned the town until partition took place in 1793, Berezino was granted by Empress Ekaterina II to Count Ludwik Tyszkiewicz. From him, the Berezino estate went to his daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz Anna Tyszkiewicz-Potocka-Wasowicz should be remembered in Berezino well since she resuscitated the Roman Catholic Church in 1803, built the Palace well before 1850, she tried to revive the Berezino region economically by starting a carpet factory in Horenichi village, but the investment didn't survive for long. The town was under French/Polish command in 1812 during Napoleon's Eastern Campaign, where his failed advance on Moscow was defeated by the forces of General Barclay de Tolly in early 1813.

The town was in Potocki family possession well until June 1920, when the Bolshevik Red Army attacked Poland and subsequent peace treaty changed the Soviet-Polish borders as the place become part of Soviet territory. Last owner of Berezino was Count Antoni-Ludwik Potocki. During the latter half of the 19th century, the town profited from its geographical position and in 1897 was noted to have 4871 residents, of which 3377 were Jews. By the start of World War I, it became a large river port which loaded goods and shipped them down the river to the Baltic Ports; the liquor and alcohol industry began to be developed, including the Potocki's Vodka Distillery. It is considered the brilliant investment by Potocki family---to date, the most profitable enterprise, supplying much of the town budget and tax revenues. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the town changed hands several times, including German and Polish armies during the Russian Civil War and the Polish-Bolshevik War. On June 7, 1920, Berazino became part of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.

From June 17, 1924, as a separate raion centre in the Barysaw District and in June 1927 - Minsk District. The town grew, on 15 February 1938 became part of the Mogilev Province. During that time, mass industrialisation took place, the position of the river port allowed a development of shipbuilding, wheel and liquor factories, as well as smaller workshops for automobiles and wood fabrics; the population rose from 2,968 in 1930 to 4,800 in 1939. During World War II, Byerazino was occupied by Nazi Germany from 3 July 1941 until 3 July 1944. During this time, like the rest of the eastern part of Belarus, was under the direct military administration of the Wehrmacht, unlike central and southern Belarus, which were under German civilian administration. During the German occupation, the entire Jewish population of Byerazino was killed. Byerazino was liberated by the 2nd Byelorussian Front on 3 July 1944 during operation "Bagration". In September 1944, Byearazino became part of the Berazino District of Minsk Region, on July 7, 1968 became a city.

Presently, the town occupies an area of 1.9 square kilometres and its population is 13.3 thousand people. All of Berazino's products are sold abroad and in Belarus. Including mineral water bottling, several bakeries and smaller local fabrics; the city has three schools. In addition there is what is known as a Centre of intellectual development, formally a school specializing in Physics and Mathematics: the centre focuses on developing youth talent, helps guide the youth towards the correct institute for higher education in main urban centres of Belarus; the central house of culture is the main point which groups 22 rural points, altogether comprising 32 libraries and music schools. The town is the birthplace of personages such as the physicist Alexandr Borisovich and the Israeli

Pulsating xenid

The pulsating xenid is a species of soft coral in the family Xeniidae. The polyps of Heteroxenia fuscescens grow to form large clumping colonies up to 60 centimetres across, its polyp stalks are 5 centimetres long, each stalk ending in a ring of large feathery pinnate tentacles, eight per polyp, as is typical of octocorals Polyps pulsate rhythmically around 40 times/ minute, moving their tentacles in a "pumping" or "pulsating" fashion. The function of this pulsing is not understood; some hypotheses include creating a current to assist feeding and helping to dispose of waste and detritus. It contains zooxanthellae, draws most of its energy from these symbiotes; these corals live on hard bottoms of lagoons and bays, slopes with little current, occurs from the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean. This species, along with most other xeniids, are prized in the aquarium hobby for the rhythmic "pumping" of the polyps, the ease of reproduction; however they tend to grow like weeds in the right environment and can cover a tank.

In some captive environments they may stop pulsing for long periods of time with no other signs of stress and start pulsing again on as if there was never a problem. This may be due to instability in water conditions; some hobbyists claim that the addition of iodide may help this species but there is only circumstantial evidence to suggest that. Heteroxenia are closely related to other xenia species and take an expert eye to identify. Heteroxenia grow smaller tentacles between the larger tentacles in mature specimen. Heteroxenia fuscescens, video