Mount Meager massif
The Mount Meager massif is a group of volcanic peaks in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Part of the Cascade Volcanic Arc of western North America, it is located 150 km north of Vancouver at the northern end of the Pemberton Valley and reaches a maximum elevation of 2,680 m; the massif is capped by several eroded volcanic edifices, including lava domes, volcanic plugs and overlapping piles of lava flows. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt has a long history of eruptions and poses a threat to the surrounding region. Any volcanic hazard ranging from landslides to eruptions could pose a significant risk to humans and wildlife. Although the massif has not erupted for more than 2,000 years, it could produce a major eruption. Teams such as the Interagency Volcanic Event Notification Plan are prepared to notify people threatened by volcanic eruptions in Canada; the Mount Meager massif produced the largest volcanic eruption in Canada in the last 10,000 years.
About 2,400 years ago, an explosive eruption formed a volcanic crater on its northeastern flank and sent avalanches of hot ash, rock fragments and volcanic gases down the northern flank of the volcano. Evidence for more recent volcanic activity has been documented at the volcano, such as hot springs and earthquakes; the Mount Meager massif has been the source of several large landslides in the past, including a massive debris flow in 2010 that swept down Meager Creek and the Lillooet River. The Mount Meager massif lies in the Coast Mountains, which extend from Vancouver to the Alaskan Panhandle for 1,600 km, it is about 300 cut by fjords, narrow inlets with steep cliffs created by glacial erosion. The Coast Mountains have a profound effect on British Columbia's climate. Lying just east of the Pacific Ocean, they shear off moisture-laden air coming off the ocean, causing heavy rainfall on their western slopes; this precipitation is among the most extreme in North America, feeding lush forests on the mountain range's western slopes.
Valleys surrounding the massif contain old-growth forests. The area features wetland habitats, plants of the cottonwood-willow-thimbleberry association and glaucous willowherbs. Wildlife such as wolves, moose, black-tailed deer, mountain goats and waterfowl inhabit the area as well as grizzly and black bears; the Mount Meager massif is part of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, the northernmost segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc. This volcanic belt includes cinder cones, calderas and subglacial volcanoes that have been active in the last 10,000 years; the latest explosive eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt occurred at a crater on the northeastern slope of the massif about 2,400 years ago, which forms a defined depression. The GVB extends north from the Watts Point volcano to at least as far as the Meager massif; because little is known about the volcanoes north of the massif, such as the Silverthrone and Franklin Glacier volcanic complexes, experts disagree about their nature. Some scientists regard the Silverthrone Caldera as the northernmost volcano of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, while others contend that the geology of the massif more matches that of the GVB.
It is unclear whether the Milbanke Sound Cones are part of the Garibaldi Belt or formed by different tectonic processes. However, there is evidence the Silverthrone and Franklin Glacier complexes are related to activity at the Cascadia subduction zone. Geologically these two volcanoes contain the same rock types as those found elsewhere in the Cascade Arc, including rhyolites, dacites and basaltic andesites; such rock types are produced by subduction zone volcanism indicating volcanism at Silverthrone and Franklin Glacier is related to subduction. If these two volcanoes are true Cascade Arc volcanoes, the Mount Meager massif is not the northernmost volcano of the Garibaldi Belt or the Cascade Arc. Volcanism in the Cascade Volcanic Arc is caused by subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate at the Cascadia subduction zone; this is a 1,094 km long fault zone lying 80 km off the Pacific Northwest from Northern California to southwestern British Columbia. The plates move at a relative rate of more than 10 mm per year at an oblique angle to the subduction zone.
Because of the huge fault area, the Cascadia subduction zone can produce large earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 or greater. The interface between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates remains locked for periods of 500 years. During these periods, stress builds up on the interface between the plates and causes tectonic uplift of the North American margin; when the plate slips, it releases 500 years of stored energy in a massive earthquake. Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, there is no deep oceanic trench present along the continental margin in Cascadia; the mouth of the Columbia River empties directly into the subduction zone and deposits silt at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, burying this large depression, or area of sunken land. Massive floods from prehistoric Glacial Lake Missoula during the Late Pleistocene deposited large amounts of sediment into the trench. However, as with other subduction zones the outer margin is being compressed like a giant spring; when the stored energy is released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create enormous earthquakes such as the magnitude 9.0 Cascadia earthquake on January 26, 1700.
However earthquakes along the Cascadia
Pemberton Volcanic Belt
The Pemberton Volcanic Belt is an eroded Oligocene-Miocene volcanic belt at a low angle near the Mount Meager massif, British Columbia, Canada. The Garibaldi and Pemberton volcanic belts appear to merge into a single belt, although the Pemberton is older than the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt; the Pemberton Volcanic Belt is one of the geological formations comprising the Canadian Cascade Arc. It formed as a result of subduction of the former Farallon Plate. Features within the Pemberton Belt include: Mount Barr Plutonic Complex Mount Barr Chilliwack batholith Slesse Mountain Chipmunk Mountain 50°34′49.87″N 122°55′56.47″W Coquihalla Mountain 49°31′30.0″N 121°03′36.0″W Crevasse Crag Franklin Glacier Complex Salal Creek Pluton Silverthrone Caldera Garibaldi Volcanic Belt Geology of the Pacific Northwest Cascade Volcanoes Volcanism of Canada Volcanism of Western Canada Canada Volcanoes and Volcanics USGS
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
North Shore Mountains
The North Shore Mountains are a mountain range overlooking Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada. Their southernmost peaks are visible from most areas in Vancouver and form a distinctive backdrop for the city; the steep southern slopes of the North Shore Mountains limit the extent to which the mainland municipalities of Greater Vancouver's North Shore can grow. In many places on the North Shore, residential neighbourhoods abruptly end and rugged forested slopes begin; these forested slopes are crisscrossed by a large network of trails including the Baden-Powell Trail, the Howe Sound Crest Trail, the Binkert/Lions Trail and a wide variety of mountain biking trails. The North Shore Mountains are a small subrange of the Pacific Ranges, the southernmost grouping of the vast Coast Mountains, they are bounded on the south by Burrard Inlet, on the west and north-west by Howe Sound, on the north and north-east by the Garibaldi Ranges. To the east the bounds are defined by Indian Arm; the ridge running north from Mount Seymour has its own name, the Fannin Range, while the bulk of the range and most of the Howe Sound-flanking portion of it is known as the Britannia Range.
Although not high, these mountains are rugged and should not be underestimated. Severe weather conditions in the North Shore Mountains contrast with mild conditions in nearby Vancouver; this is true in winter, but in summer, large precipices are hidden close to popular hiking trails and it is easy to get lost, despite being in sight of the city. Those who venture into the North Shore Mountains for whatever reason should be well prepared at any time of year. Three deep valleys divide the North Shore Mountains; these are, in order from west to east: Capilano River valley The Lynn Headwaters Lynn Valley Seymour River valleyThe Capilano and Seymour rivers emanate from the massive GVRD watershed area. The watershed extends deep into the North Shore Mountains region, but is off-limits to all unauthorized human activities; the Lynn Headwaters, a deep cirque valley drained by Lynn Creek, is no longer part of the GVRD watershed and is now a popular Regional Park. There are two Provincial Parks in the area, Cypress Provincial Park and Mount Seymour Provincial Park.
Both feature reliable road access, downhill ski areas, extensive trail networks. Nearby Grouse Mountain features a downhill ski area and tourist attractions which are accessible by the Skyride, an aerial tramway. A popular hiking trail, the Grouse Grind, climbs up the steep flanks of Grouse Mountain from the tramway parking lot. Before the Grouse Mountain Skyride was built, a chairlift operated from Skyline Drive at the head of North Vancouver's Lonsdale Avenue, the ski area itself could be accessed via Mountain Highway, which now has a gate at its upper end in the Lynn Valley neighbourhood. In the Seymour valley, a paved access road called the Seymour Trailway winds for many kilometres into the mountains, it is used for recreation, for TV and film productions such as Stargate SG-1. There are dozens of individual mountains in the North Shore Mountains; the list below is incomplete. Sky Pilot Mountain Mount Hanover Deeks Peak Black Mountain – A forested summit overlooking Horseshoe Bay. Ski runs on the northern slopes are managed by Cypress Mountain Resort.
Hollyburn Mountain – A popular hiking destination. Known as Hollyburn Ridge and the location of an old alpine recreation community dating back to the early years of the 20th Century, it is the site of the only groomed cross-country ski trails in the Lower Mainland. Mount Strachan – Ski runs on the southern slopes are managed by Cypress Mountain Resort. Mount Fromme – A large forested summit dome seen but visited; this mountain is noted for the mountain biking trails on its south slopes. Grouse Mountain – Site of a popular ski area, the popular hiking trail Grouse Grind. Dam Mountain – Located directly west of Grouse Mountain with the hike from the Grouse lodge referred to as the "Snowshoe Grind". Goat Mountain – Another popular alpine hiking destination conveniently located near the top of the Grouse Mountain aerial tramway. Crown Mountain – An exposed granite pyramid ringed by sheer cliffs. Lynn Peak – A small forested mountain a popular hiking destination due to ease of access; the Needles – An isolated series of ridge-top summits north of Lynn Peak.
Coliseum Mountain – A remote alpine area consisting of a series of gentle granite exposures. Mount Burwell – A remote granite dome located at the limit of legal backcountry access. Cathedral Mountain – Among the tallest and most prominent of the North Shore Mountains, but off-limits due to its location within the Greater Vancouver watershed. Mount Seymour – Good trails and convenient access by road make Seymour a local classic hiking area. Downhill ski area in winter. Mount Elsay – A remote backcountry peak located beyond Seymour. Mount Bishop – A climbed peak in the remote northern region of Mt. Seymour Provincial Park; the Lions – Probably the most famous peaks in the North Shore Mountains. These mountains, a pair of twin granite domes, are visually distinctive and can be seen from much of the Greater Vancouver area. Mount Harvey – An isolated alpine peak located near the Lions. Brunswick Mountain – The highest of the North Shore Mountains, located north of Mount Harvey. Capilano Mountain – east of the headwaters of the Capilano River Britannia Range Fannin Range Geography
Mount Silverthrone named Silverthrone Mountain, is a mountain in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains of British Columbia, located over 320 km northwest of the city of Vancouver and about 50 km west of Mount Waddington, British Columbia, Canada. It is the highest peak in the Ha-Iltzuk Icefield, the largest icefield in the Coast Mountains south of the Alaska Panhandle. Mount Silverthrone is an eroded lava dome on the northeast edge of a large caldera complex called the Silverthrone Caldera, it lies within the Coast Plutonic Complex, the single largest contiguous granite outcropping in the world. The plutonic and metamorphic rocks extend 1,800 kilometers on the coast of British Columbia, southwestern Yukon and southeastern Alaska. In addition, Meager and Silverthrone areas are of recent volcanic origin; the volcanic terrain in the Silverthrone area is similar to the Mount Meager massif further south. However, there is much more ice. Mount Silverthrone is one of the most glaciated volcanic peaks in southwestern British Columbia.
It has a topographic prominence of 975 m, greater than any other volcano in southwestern British Columbia. The extensive icefields around Mount Silverthrone are receding and are small compared to their former extent, but they are an impressive indication of how much of British Columbia looked 10,000 years or more ago. Silverthrone contains one of the few calderas buried beneath the ice caps of western Canada, another example being Mount Edziza in far northwestern British Columbia; the first mountaineering visit at Mount Silverthrone was by the famous pioneering climbing group of Don and Phyllis Munday in 1936 by walking up the Klinaklini Glacier from the head of Knight Inlet. Because Silverthrone is glaciated, Don Munday called the mountain "home of the snows". Skiing on Mount Silverthrone includes skiing on the largest ice field in the southern Coast Mountains, the Ha-Iltzuk Icefield, it is skiable over 1,500 m over 2,700 m down to the Pacific Ocean. The easiest access to Mount Silverthrone is by air travel, starting from the rural community of Tatla Lake, landing on the major part of the Ha-Iltzuk Icefield.
Air travels can be made into logging camps at Owikeno Lake to the west or at the start of Knight Inlet to the southwest, followed by long hiking and skiing methods. Cascade Volcanoes Garibaldi Volcanic Belt Pemberton Volcanic Belt Cascade Range Ha-Iltzuk Icefield List of volcanoes in Canada Volcanism of Canada Volcanism of Western Canada Volcanoes of Canada Garibaldi Volcanic Belt Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes - Silverthrone Caldera Silverthrone Mountain in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List