An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to cost-effective reasons, they are useful within larger stations where local and express services for the same direction of travel can be provided from opposite sides of the same platform thereby simplifying transfers between the two tracks. An alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks; the historical use of island platforms depends upon the location. In the United Kingdom the use of island platforms is common when the railway line is in a cutting or raised on an embankment, as this makes it easier to provide access to the platform without walking across the tracks. Island platforms are necessary for any station with many through platforms. Building small two-track stations with a single island platform instead of two side platforms does have advantages.
Island platforms allow facilities such as shops and waiting rooms to be shared between both tracks rather than being duplicated or present only on one side. An island platform makes it easier for wheelchair users and other people with physical limitations to change services between tracks or access facilities. If the tracks are above or below the entrance level, an island platform layout requires only one staircase and one elevator be built to access the platforms. Building the tracks and entrance at the same level creates a disadvantage. If an island platform is not wide enough to cope with passenger numbers, overcrowding can be a problem. Examples of stations where a narrow island platform has caused safety issues include Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground. An island platform requires the tracks to diverge around the center platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station on high-speed lines. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are 3 to 5 meters.
If the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks must slew out by the same distance. While this requirement is not a problem on a new line under construction, it makes building a new station on an existing line impossible without altering the tracks. A single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, with slower trains diverging from the main line so that the main line tracks remain straight. High-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms; this arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where slow trains can be passed by faster trains. A variation at some stations is to have the slow and fast pairs of tracks each served by island platforms A rarer layout, present at Mets-Willets Point on the IRT Flushing Line, 34th Street – Penn Station on the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and 34th Street – Penn Station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, uses two side platforms for local services with an island in between for express services.
The purpose of this atypical design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Since the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and IND Eighth Avenue Line have adjacent express stations at 42nd Street, passengers can make their transfers from local to express trains there, leaving more space available for passengers utilizing intercity rail at Pennsylvania Station; the Willets Point Boulevard station was renovated to accommodate the high volume of passengers coming to the 1939 World's Fair. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form; this was. If this happened, the lines would need to be compatible with continental loading gauge, this would mean it would be easy to change the line to a larger gauge, by moving the track away from the platform to allow the wider bodied continental rolling stock to pass while leaving the platform area untouched. Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. All railway stations in India consist of island platforms.
In Toronto, 29 subway stations use island platforms. In Sydney, on the Eastern Suburbs Railway and the Epping Chatswood Railway, the twin tunnels are spaced and the tracks can remain at a constant track centres while still leaving room for the island platforms. A slight disadvantage is. In Edmonton, all 18 LRT stations on the Capital Line and Metro Line use island platforms; the Valley Line under construction, utilizes the new low-floor LRT technology, but will only use island platforms on one of the twelve stops along the line. In southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 s
Strathclyde Partnership for Transport
The Strathclyde Partnership for Transport is a passenger transport executive responsible for planning and coordinating regional transport the public transport system, in the Strathclyde area of western Scotland. This includes responsibility for operating the third oldest in the world; the principal predecessor to SPT was the Greater Glasgow Passenger Transport Executive set up in 1972 to take over the Glasgow Corporation's public transport functions and to co-ordinate public transport in the Clyde Valley. In the 1980s it was replaced by the Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive, under the overall direction of Strathclyde Regional Council. Section 40 of the Local Government etc. Act 1994 created a new statutory corporation, the Strathclyde Passenger Transport Authority, which took over "all of the functions, property, rights and obligations of Strathclyde Regional Council as Passenger Transport Authority" on 1 April 1996; the Executive was reincorporated as a body consisting of councillors drawn from the 12 Council Areas which succeeded Strathclyde Region:- Argyll and Bute West Dunbartonshire East Dunbartonshire North Lanarkshire South Lanarkshire City of Glasgow South Ayrshire East Ayrshire North Ayrshire Inverclyde Renfrewshire East Renfrewshireand nine transport experts appointed by the Scottish Executive: On 1 April 2006 - following the passing of the Transport Act 2005 - Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive, along with the WESTRANS voluntary regional transport partnership, were replaced by the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport.
The new national agency Transport Scotland was created at the same time. At this latest reorganisation SPT gained responsibility for planning for all regional transport though it lost a number of specific powers relating to rail franchising and concessionary fares. There will be no change in its major operational functions. SPT has the following main responsibilities: Developing a regional transport strategy for west central Scotland Planning of public transport investment Operation of the Glasgow Subway Operation and maintenance of bus stations, bus stops, travel centres and other support infrastructure Provision of some subsidised bus services, where no commercial services exists Provision of dial-a-bus and ring'n'ride services Issuing ZoneCard tickets, dividing the revenue between participating transport providers Until 1986 SPT was directly responsible for running the municipal bus services in Glasgow, owned both the buses and the necessary supporting infrastructure; the Transport Act 1985 deregulated the bus industry and SPT was subsequently forced to sell off its bus operations.
The main bus operator in Glasgow is now First Glasgow, although SPT owns the city's Buchanan Bus Station, the largest bus station in Scotland. The Greater Glasgow Passenger Transport Executive, the forerunner of SPTE, started operations in 1973, taking over the entire municipal owned and operated bus, Underground railway, services of Glasgow Corporation Transport, in existence from 1894 to 1973, they used a new livery, a variation of the previous GCT colours of green and cream. The new livery had Verona green on the lower panels, yellow between decks, white was used for window surrounds, the roof. A stylised "GG" logo was applied to the forward yellow side panels. At bus stops, pennents had GG branding along with Scottish Bus Group branding on bus stops that were used by the SBG; the orange and black colour scheme used on in the 1980s to 1990s was a special livery for a small fleet of cut down single deck Leyland Atlanteans that operated the Glasgow Central to Queen Street rail link service.
As GCT had done, the GGPTE continued to buy large numbers of Leyland Atlantean double-decker buses, they were by far the most numerous type of bus in service, but GGPTE introduced new bus types such as the Scania-MCW Metropolitan, the front-engined, Scottish-built, Volvo Ailsa. At the start of the 1980s GGPTE was replaced by SPTE. Revised liveries were introduced, with the green and yellow replacing most of the white on some buses, matt black lower deck window surrounds applied to many others, the latter became the livery applied to new buses. Logos changed, stylised "Trans-Clyde" lettering was displayed below the "GG" logo, which SPTE was using on rail services and the Underground at the time; the "GG" logo was discontinued, "Trans-Clyde" was used alone although a Volvo Citybus prototype was branded in the same livery with "Strathclyde" instead. Bus Stop pennents was replaced with "Trans-Clyde" branding. In the "Trans-Clyde" era Coach & Tour stock was painted white with a two tone brown stripe pattern and single deck buses was painted white with a verona green skirt and yellow painted above the green.
In 1983 SPTE changed their colours to orange and black, the "Trans-Clyde" name was dropped and replaced with "Strathclyde Transport" branding with the Strathclyde Regional Council Scotland map logo, the typeface used on the former "Trans-Clyde" brand name was used. Bus stop pennents were given "Strathclyde Transport" branding by having a sticker placed on top of the old "Trans-Clyde" name; the name lasted until 1986 due to deregulation of the bus industry, The orange and black colour scheme was kept and "Strathclyde's Buses" branding was used. New bus stop pennents were given with Strathclyde Transport branding but without Scottish Bus Group branding; the Regional Council logo was retained on "Strathclyde's Buses" was used alone. In May 1992 a f
The Caledonian Railway was a major Scottish railway company. It was formed in the early 19th century with the objective of forming a link between English railways and Glasgow, it progressively extended its network and reached Edinburgh and Aberdeen, with a dense network of branch lines in the area surrounding Glasgow. It was absorbed into the London and Scottish Railway in 1923. Many of its principal routes are still used, the original main line between Carlisle and Glasgow is in use as part of the West Coast Main Line railway. In the mid-1830s railways in England evolved from local concerns to longer routes that connected cities, became networks. In Scotland it was clear that this was the way forward, there was a desire to connect the central belt to the incipient English network. There was controversy over the route that such a line might take, but the Caledonian Railway was formed on 31 July 1845 and it opened its main line between Glasgow and Carlisle in 1848, making an alliance with the English London and North Western Railway.
In the obituary of the engineer Richard Price-Williams written in 1916 the contractor of the Caledonian Railway is stated to be Thomas Brassey and the civil engineer George Heald. Although the company was supported by Scottish investors, more than half of its shares were held in England. Establishing itself as an inter-city railway, the Caledonian set about securing territory by leasing other authorised or newly built lines, fierce competition developed with other, larger Scottish railways the North British Railway and the Glasgow and South Western Railway; the company remained less than successful in others. A considerable passenger traffic developed on the Firth of Clyde serving island resorts, fast boat trains were run from Glasgow to steamer piers. In 1923 the railways of Great Britain were "grouped" under the Railways Act 1921 and the Caledonian Railway was a constituent of the newly formed London Midland and Scottish Railway, it extended from Aberdeen to Portpatrick, from Oban to Carlisle, running express passenger services and a heavy mineral traffic.
In the closing years of the 18th century, the pressing need to bring coal cheaply to Glasgow from the plentiful Monklands coalfield had been met by the construction of the Monkland Canal, opened throughout in 1794. This encouraged development of the coalfield but dissatisfaction at the monopoly prices said to be exacted by the canal led to the construction of the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, Scotland's first public railway. Development of the use of blackband ironstone by David Mushet, the invention of the hot blast process of iron smelting by James Beaumont Neilson in 1828 led to a huge and rapid increase in iron production and demand for the ore and for coal in the Coatbridge area; the industrial development led to the construction of other railways contiguous with the M&KR, in particular the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway and the Wishaw and Coltness Railway. These two lines worked in harmony, merging to form the Glasgow and Coatbridge Railway in 1841, competing with the M&KR and its allies.
All these lines used the local track gauge of 4 ft 6 in, they were referred to as the coal lines. During this period, the first long-distance railways were opened in England, it was followed by the London and Birmingham Railway in 1838 and the Grand Junction Railway in 1837, the North Union Railway reaching Preston in 1838, so that London was linked with the Lancashire and West Midlands centres of industry. It was desirable to connect central Scotland into the emerging network. At first it was assumed that only one route from Scotland to England would be feasible, there was considerable controversy over the possible route. A major difficulty was the terrain of the Southern Uplands: a route running through the hilly lands would involve steep and lengthy gradients that were challenging for the engine power of the time. Many competing schemes were put forward, not all of them well thought out, two successive Government commissions examined them. However, they did not have mandatory force, after considerable rivalry, the Caledonian Railway obtained an authorising Act of Parliament on 31 July 1845, for lines from Glasgow and Edinburgh to Carlisle.
The share capital was to be £1,800,000. The Glasgow and Edinburgh lines combined at Carstairs in Clydesdale, the route crossed over Beattock summit and continued on through Annandale; the promoters had engaged in a frenzy of provisional acquisitions of other lines being put forward or being constructed, as they considered it was vital to secure territory to their own control and to exclude competing concerns as far as possible. However, if they hoped to operate the only Anglo-Scottish route, they were disappointed; the North British Railway opened between Edinburgh and Berwick-upon-Tweed on 22 June 1846, forming part of what has become the East Coast Main Line
Mount Florida is an area in the southeastern corner of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. The Glasgow district of Mount Florida originated on the "Lands of Mount Floridon" which were described in detail when offered for sale at auction on 21 September 1814; the notice in the city's Herald newspaper described the estate as consisting of upwards of 15 acres, with a mansion house containing 2 dwellings and gardens well stocked with fruit trees. Contemporary maps from the 1850s show the old house renamed as "Mount Florida,", it was entered from Prospecthill Road and consisted of two semi-detached dwellings and surrounding gardens. Much of the present suburb is situated in the area to the south of the old house; this ground was part of the "Lands of Clincart", which were put up for sale by auction on 28 June 1836. A farmhouse and 95 acres of land were offered for potential residential development. Mount Florida is served by the Mount Florida railway station which lies upon the Cathcart Circle railway line.
The area is home to Langside College and the newly developed NHS Victoria hospital on the fringe of Queen's Park, which opened in 2009. A residential area, Mount Florida's housing stock comprises traditional tenemental buildings with the addition of two of Glasgow's high rise structures which dominated much of the 1960s housing regeneration in the city; the main road through the area is a major route through Glasgow's south side. Scotland's National Stadium, Hampden Park, is located off Cathcart Road in the heart of Mount Florida; the 51,866 seater stadium is home to the Scottish Football Association, Scottish Football League Third Division club team Queen's Park. The stadium has played host to numerous large music events and was the track events stadium for the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. Mount Florida is home to numerous lawn bowling clubs, including Glasgow's Indoor Centre; the local green area of Cathkin Park was home of Third Lanark. Mount Florida is in the Langside ward for Glasgow City Council and since May 2012 is represented by Councillors Archie Graham, Susan Aitken and Liam Hainey.
Mount Florida lies within the Glasgow Cathcart Scottish Parliamentary constituency. The sitting MSP is James Dornan. Mount Florida is in the Glasgow South UK Parliament constituency, the sitting MP is Stewart McDonald; as part of the system of local democratic representation there is an active community council. Creation Records founder Alan McGee and Primal Scream vocalist Bobby Gillespie both grew up in Mount Florida and attended Kings Park Secondary School in nearby Simshill. Mount Florida has produced a Glasgow musical group by the same title, who were signed to Matador Records and named themselves after the area, they have to date one album by the title'Arrived Phoenix', released 30/01/2001. The Glasgow-based novelist, J. David Simons, grew up in the nearby Kings Park district and attended Mount Florida Primary School in the late 1950s. Glasgow tower blocks Mount Florida - Illustrated Guide Mount Florida Community Council
Newton railway station
Newton railway station is a railway station located between the neighbourhoods of Drumsagard, Halfway and Westburn in the town of Cambuslang, Scotland. The station is managed by Abellio ScotRail on the Cathcart Circle Lines; the original Newton station was opened as part of the Clydesdale Junction Railway on 1 June 1849. The station served the Hamilton Branch of the Caledonian Railway, it closed on 19 December 1873 and a new station was opened 662 yards due west on the same day. The station served trains to and from the Glasgow Central Railway and the Lanarkshire and Ayrshire Railway, though neither route survived beyond the mid 1960s - the GCR route via Carmyle closed on 5 October 1964, whilst the L&AR ceased to carry passenger traffic through to the coast as long ago as 1932, with complete closure beyond Neilston following in December 1964; the remainder still forms part of the Cathcart Circle Lines, but there are no longer any through services from here to stations between Muirend & Neilston - passengers must change at Mount Florida.
Newton station forms part of the Argyle Line 6 miles south east of Glasgow Central and is a terminus for the Cathcart Circle 10 miles south east of Glasgow Central. Newton is the location of a junction between the West Coast Main Line and the Argyle/Cathcart Circle routes; this junction was the location of the Newton rail crash in 1991 when four people were killed and 22 injured. The extant platforms are located on the former slow lines through the station; the fast line platforms were removed at the time of the Cathcart Circle electrification. To the west of the station the lines from the Cathcart Circle are joined by a link line from the WCML. To the east of the station the line splits with one line heading southeast on the Hamilton circle, link line heading towards Uddingston on the WCML; this link line contains a turnback siding. At the time of its opening, all Argyle Line trains towards Uddingston and Bellshill stopped at Newton. Since the 1990/91 remodelling Argyle Line trains toward Bellshill no longer stop at the station.
Shotts Line services via Uddingston and Intercity services pass the station on the main lines. The 2010/11 service had most Larkhall trains passing through the station without stopping. Improvements at Newton station made around 2013 include the installation of a passenger footbridge with lifts and the expansion of the car park which now contains 250 places. There is a small cairn located at the drop-off zone of the station car park erected by Pride Of Place community environmental programme in memory of the workers of the large Hallside Steelworks, located to the south of the station. Another similar memorial cairn organised by Pride Of Place is on Gilbertfield Road, commemorating the soldiers from the area who marched the route to Newton station in order to go off to war. British Railways undertook major railway electrification in the Greater Glasgow Area in the 1960s, continued by British Rail with the West Coast Main Line into the 1970s; the Slow line platforms were electrified as part of the 1962 Cathcart Circle scheme through to Motherwell via the West Coast Main Line.
The fast line platforms were taken out of use at this time. The next electrification work was part of the 1974 West Coast Main Line electrication project when the Hamilton Circle was electrified; this layout was retained when the Argyle Line opened in 1979. Following the closure of adjacent steel works and East Coast Main Line electrification, the junction layout was revised in 1990/91 to allow Fast Line trains to pass through at higher speeds, it was as a result of these revisions that single lead junctions from the Kirkhill and Cambuslang directions were installed, that contributed to the Newton rail crash. After several months a double line link was reinstated from Kirkhill. Following the opening of the Argyle Line there were three Hamilton circle trains in each way per hour and four trains per hour via Kirkhill to Glasgow Central (two via Langside and two via Mount Florida. Lanark trains ran non-stop on the adjacent Fast lines. On the Argyle Line, there are two Motherwell via Hamilton Central-bound services an hour: one an hour terminating in Motherwell and one continuing to Lanark.
There are two per hour towards Glasgow Milngavie. On the Cathcart Circle, a half-hourly service operates from Newton every day. One journey per hour goes via the other via Langside; the service on the Hamilton Circle line remains the same, with trains heading southbound to Motherwell every half-hour and northbound to Milngavie. A limited number of peak trains run to/from Coatbridge Central via Whifflet. Services on the Larkhall line do not call here, save for a few peak period trains. On Sundays the Balloch to Motherwell via Hamilton trains call half-hourly. Services on the Cathcart Circle line start & terminate here, with trains running every half-hour to/from Central High Level alternately via Mount Florida & via Maxwell Park. Additional services run during weekday peak periods; the December 2014 timetable change has seen significant alterations to Argyle Line services through the station. Trains to Motherwell still run every half-hour via Hamilton, but alternate services now continue to Cumbernauld via Whifflet rather than Lanark.
All Larkhall branch trains now call in each direction, giving four departures per hour northbound - these all now run to Dalmuir (alternately via
A cross-platform interchange is a type of interchange between different lines at a metro station. The term originates with the London Underground. In the United States, it is referred to as a "cross-platform transfer"; this configuration occurs at a station with island platforms, with a single platform in between the tracks allocated to two directions of travel, or two side platforms between the tracks, connected by level corridors. The benefit of this design is that passengers do not need to use stairs to another platform level for transfer, thus increasing the convenience of users. A cross-platform interchange arrangement may be costly due to the complexity of rail alignment if the railway designers arrange the track with flyovers. A common two-directions cross-platform interchange configuration consists of two directions of two different lines sharing an island platform, the respective return directions of both lines sharing a different island platform in the same station complex. Common cross-platform interchanges allow passengers to change trains without changing to another platform.
This applies at places where trains of different directions meet in minor and major hubs, but this arrangement is only found at some interchange stations in metro and other rail networks worldwide. Some railway lines in more congested areas offer cross-platform interchanges between different categories of trains, for example between express and stopping trains. For instance, this kind of interchange is used at many European railway minor hubs to connect fast trains to local feeder services, as well as surface sections of suburban lines like the RER E in Paris or the Metro North Hudson Line in New York State. However, local–express interchanges are found in only a few metro networks, such as Chicago, London, New York City, Philadelphia; the New York City Subway system has numerous stations facilitating cross-platform transfers between local and express trains using pairs of island platforms, each serving express trains on one side, local trains on the other side, with both alternatives headed in the same direction.
As express and stopping trains head for different directions, cross-platform interchange between different train categories is combined with cross-platform interchanges between different lines. In some, but not all, the trains are coordinated in the timetable. In the case, the cross-platform infrastructure offers the possibility of changing trains, independently from the waiting time for the second train. In metro systems with short headways, waiting time is small, but such an noncoordinated approach could reduce the advantages of stairless cross-platform interchange in railway networks with less dense train traffic. A more advanced approach involves the coordination of the lines' timetables to reduce the scheduled changing time, either from one line to the other, or, bidirectionally, between both trains at the same time; this concept is used in Dutch and Swiss railway networks, where trains of different lines meet at the same platforms in numerous hubs all over the country. Most advanced are coordinated cross-platform interchanges wherein interconnected trains wait for each other to'guarantee' scheduled interchanges in the event of modest delays.
In order to still ensure on-time running across the network, additional waiting time for trains is limited to a certain period of time depending on general network performance, further connections to be guaranteed, train category, train line, a balanced consideration of other factors. In practice, most railways coordinating cross-platform interchanges define a certain waiting time window for each'guaranteed' interchange; some railway operators will delay train departure signals to allow imminently arriving passengers time to interchange. For example, the Vienna U-Bahn metro signals train drivers to wait by operating a special white light signal triggered by the approach of an interchange train on another track. In most cases, only cross-platform interchanges used for both directions of travel are listed, with some exceptions. Amsterdam metro network includes cross-platform interchanges at Van der Madeweg station between metro lines 50 and 53 and in the future at Amsterdam South station between metro lines 50 and 52.
Further, cross-platform connections are offered at Amstel station between metro lines 51, 53, 54 and suburban services of Netherlands Railways. At Newmarket Station, there are three lines serving two island platforms. Western Line services use the centre line allowing cross-platform interchange with Southern Line services which use the outer lines. By 2011, Barcelona metro only offers one cross-platform interchange between metro lines L4 and L11 at Trinitat Nova station where both lines terminate on one track each side of the shared island platform. Guogongzhuang station offers cross-platform interchange between Fangshan Line. National Library Station offers cross-platform interchange between Lines 9 and 4. In addition Nanluoguxiang station, Zhuxinzhuang Station, Beijing West Railway Station, Yancun East offer cross-platform interchange; the Berlin suburban rail network includes cross-platform transfers at Berlin East and at Baumschulenweg / Schöneweide, Bornholmer Straße, Treptower Park and Wannsee suburban railway stations.
Berlin metro services offer cross-platform connections at Mehringdamm, Nollendo