Charles Snead Houston
Charles Snead Houston was an American physician, high-altitude investigator, author, film-maker, former Peace Corps administrator. He made two celebrated attempts to climb the mountain K2 in the Karakoram Range. Houston grew up in Great Neck on Long Island, he was educated at The Hotchkiss School and Harvard University, he earned a Doctor of Medicine from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Houston began climbing in the Alps with his father where they met Scottish mountaineer T. Graham Brown, he gained experience on several expeditions to Canada and America making the second ascent of Mount Foraker in 1934, with T. Graham Brown and Chychele Waterston. In 1936, Houston was a member of the British–American Himalayan Expedition led by the British climber H. W. Tilman to the top of Nanda Devi in India, the highest mountain climbed at that time. In 1938, he was the leader of the first American Karakoram expedition to K2. Although he did not reach the summit, his party mapped a route to the top, used by the Italian team that first summited the mountain in 1954.
In 1950 Houston and Tilman led a trekking expedition to the Khumbu Glacier, just west of Mount Everest. They were the first Westerners to get there, they examined the Khumbu Icefall to see whether it provided a means of climbing Everest and were the first observers of the higher parts of Everest from Khumbu - the route subsequently taken by Sir Edmund Hillary in Everest's first successful ascent. He attempted K2 again in 1953. A member of the team, Art Gilkey, became ill; the team tried to carry Gilkey down. However, he was lost in a disastrous cascade of events precipitated by a fall where upon multiple ropes became entangled, resulting in most of the team sliding out of control roped together down the mountain; when the last roped man, Pete Schoening, was about to be plucked off by the accelerating climbers, he was remarkably able to arrest the fall of all six climbers using an ice axe belay. "The Belay" was one of the most famous events in mountaineering history. After the 1953 K2 expedition, Houston never participated on any further technical climbs.
Houston practiced internal medicine in New Hampshire and Aspen, Colorado. He joined the faculty at the University of Vermont as Professor of Medicine, he retired from the faculty in 1979. Houston began his study of the effects of high altitude as a naval flight surgeon in World War II, he was in charge of Operation Everest in which four subjects were taken to a simulated altitude of 8850 m over 34 days in a compression chamber. These studies demonstrated that careful acclimatization would allow pilots to fly unpressurized planes to altitudes of 15,000 feet and higher; this capacity afforded the US Army Air Force an important tactical advantage. He was among the first to study High Altitude Pulmonary Edema, High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage, he authored numerous articles about mountain medicine. Starting in 1975, he organized the International Hypoxia Symposia in the Canadian Rockies. In 1996 he was awarded the King Albert Medal of Merit to honor his "singular achievements" in the mountain world. Houston was involved with early attempts to construct an artificial heart.
Although not successful, his design was influential in developments, including the Jarvik-7 model, used with some success. From 1962 to 1965, Houston served as the first Country Director of the Peace Corps for India. During his tenure, the volunteers in India grew from 6 to 250, he was instrumental in developing a doctors' division within the Corps. Robert H. Bates. Five Miles High. New York, NY: The Lyons Press. Charles S. Houston. K2, The Savage Mountain. New York, NY: The Lyons Press. Charles S. Houston. Going high, the story of man and altitude. American Alpine Club. Charles S. Houston. High Altitude Physiology Study: Collected Papers. Arctic Institute of North America. John R. Sutton, Charles S. Houston, Geoffrey Coates. Hypoxia and cold. New York: Praeger. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Charles Houston. High altitude: illness and wellness. Merrillville, IN: ICS Books. Charles Houston. Going Higher: Oxygen Man and Mountains. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers Books.
Bernadette McDonald. Brotherhood of the Rope: The biography of Charles Houston. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers Books. Charles Houston Papers MSS 716. Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego Library. Dr Charles Houston - Daily Telegraph obituary Doctor Charles Houston Independent obituary, 1 October 2009
Denali Borough, Alaska
The Denali Borough is a borough located in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census the population of the borough was 1,826; the borough seat is Healy, its only incorporated place is Anderson. The borough was incorporated in 1990; the area was a part of the Unorganized Borough, with the Upper Railbelt School District serving as the region's rural education attendance area. The borough has a total area of 12,777 square miles, of which 12,751 square miles is land and 26 square miles is water; the borough contains North America's highest point: Denali, from which it derives its name, at 6190.5 m. Denali National Park and Preserve Denali Wilderness Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area - west/north Fairbanks North Star Borough - northeast Southeast Fairbanks Census Area - east Matanuska-Susitna Borough - south As of the census of 2000, there were 1,893 people, 785 households, 452 families residing in the borough; the population density was 0.148 people per square mile. There were 1,351 housing units at an average density of 0.106 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the borough was 85.74% White, 1.43% Black or African American, 4.75% Native American, 1.53% Asian, 0.37% Pacific Islander, 0.95% from other races, 5.23% from two or more races. 2.48% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 785 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.40% were married couples living together, 4.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.30% were non-families. 35.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 3.03. In the borough the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 36.80% from 25 to 44, 29.70% from 45 to 64, 3.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 139.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 147.10 males. Denali Borough is the 63rd highest-income county in the United States, highest-income county in Alaska, by personal per capita income as of 2009.
Anderson Clear Clear AFS Cantwell Denali Park Ferry Healy Kantishna Suntrana Usibelli Diamond In the Twilight Saga by Stephenie Meyer, the Denali vampire coven lives in Denali because of the lack of sunlight. List of airports in the Denali Borough National Register of Historic Places listings in Denali Borough, Alaska Media related to Denali Borough, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons Official website
George Lowe (American alpinist)
George Henry Lowe III is an American rock climber and alpinist, noted for his history of alpine-style mountaineering on difficult and infrequently repeated routes and his development of traditional climbing routes in the Western United States. He pioneered winter ascents in the North American Rockies along with cousins Jeff Lowe, Mike Lowe, Greg Lowe, he is known for his technically difficult ascents of mixed climbing faces in the Himalayas including the unclimbed North Ridge of Latok I and the first ascent of the East Face of Mt. Everest, where the Lowe Buttress bears his name. Lowe is a resident of Colorado, he was raised in Ogden and began climbing in 1962 while attending Harvey Mudd College. He finished his undergraduate degree at the University of Utah where he received a PhD in Physics in 1973. Lowe was the 1990 recipient of the American Alpine Club's Miriam Underhill Award; the award is given "annually to a person who, in the opinion of the selection committee, has demonstrated the highest level of skill in the mountaineering arts and who, through the application of this skill and perseverance, has achieved outstanding success in the various fields of mountaineering endeavor".
He is an Honorary Member of the American Alpine Club which represents "the highest award the AAC has to offer. It is given to those individuals who have had a lasting and significant impact on the advancement of the climbing craft". Lowe was president of the Piolet d’Or 2014 International Jury which included Catherine Destivelle and was responsible for selecting the award-winners from the nominees; the Piolet d'Or is an award for mountaineering created by the magazine Montagnes and The Groupe de Haute Montagne 1965 Dorsal Fin - First Ascent -, Little Cottonwood Canyon, United States with Mark McQuarrie, climbed in a pair of tight hiking boots. Graded 5.9 1965 Mount Owen - First Winter Ascent, Grand Teton National Park with Mike Lowe 1968 North Face of the Grand Teton - First Winter Ascent, Grand Teton National Park with Rick Horn and Mike Lowe 1971 North Face, Piramide de Garcilaso - Second Ascent with Mike Lowe and North Face, Huandoy Norte - First Ascent of new route with Perutah Expedition members.
Both Cordillera Blanca, Peru. 1972 West Face of the Grand Teton - First Winter Ascent, Grand Teton National Park with Jeff Lowe 1972 North Face, Mount Alberta - First Ascent, Canadian Rockies, Canada with Jock Glidden. 1973 South Face, Devils Thumb - First Ascent, Coast Mountains, Alaska with Chris Jones and Lito Tejada-Flores. 1974 North Face, North Twin Peak - First Ascent, Canadian Rockies, with Chris Jones regarded as some of the best alpinism of the era. 1977 Infinite Spur, First Ascent on the south face of Mount Foraker, Alaska Range with Michael Kennedy. Ascent time 6 days. 1978 North Ridge, Latok I, Karakorum Range, Pakistan. Attempt with Michael Kennedy, Jim Donini and Jeff Lowe, highest attempt to within 100m of summit until 2018. 1983 Kangshung Face, First Ascent. Summited on same day as Jay Cassell, Dan Reid following the summits of Carlos Buhler, Kim Momb and Louis Reichardt the prior day. Expedition focused on limiting risk to Sherpas. At the time, considered the most difficult route up Everest.
1990 Northeast Ridge, Dhaulagiri I, First American Solo Ascent, part of international expedition with Carlos Buhler, lt:Dainius Makauskas of Lithuania, Nuru Sherpa of Nepal. 2015 West Face Couloir, Mount Huntington, Alaska summited with Joe Terravecchia and Mark Richey, Lowe was 70 years old on this trip
The Susitna River is a 313-mile long river in the Southcentral Alaska. It is the 15th largest river in the United States, ranked by average discharge volume at its mouth; the river stretches from the Susitna Glacier to Cook Inlet's Knik Arm. Dena'ina Indian name meaning "sandy river" published by the Russian Hydrog. Dept. as "R Sushitna," meaning Sushitna River, on Chart 1378 dated 1847. The Susitna River appears to have been first explored in 1834, by a "Creole named Malakov", the name may have been obtained by the Russians at that time; the present spelling of the name has evolved due to euphemistic reasons. The Susitna River heads at Susitna Glacier, in Alaska Range, flows southwest to Cook Inlet, 24 miles west of Anchorage, Alaska Cook Inlet Low. There are several rivers flowing into the Susitna River including East Fork Susitna River and West Fork Susitna River; the Little Susitna River is a separate river system which flows into the Cook Inlet on the other side of Susitna Flats. The Susitna along with the Matanuska River, drains the broad Matanuska-Susitna Valley south of the Alaska Range.
It rises in the Susitna Glacier on Mount Hayes in the Alaska Range near 63°30′N 147°15′W. It flows in winding course southwest to Curry south, along the west side of the Talkeetna Mountains, past Talkeetna, Chulitna River, Susitna, drains into Cook Inlet 25 miles west of Anchorage, it receives the Yentna River from the northwest 5 miles north of Susitna. It is navigable to 85 mile upstream from its mouth to Talkeetna. Valdez Creek, notable for its 1903 gold mining, is one of the small headwater tributaries of Susitna River; the Susitna River is one of Southcentral Alaska's premier sport fishing streams, with significant runs of Chinook and Coho salmon, along with resident grayling and rainbow trout. Located within a roadless area, access to the river is difficult and is made by power boat or by floatplane. Matanuska-Susitna Borough owns much of the land along the Deshka Rivers; the impacts of summer recreational use and tourists have caused loss of riparian vegetation and bank erosion along the Deshka River's lower reaches, remedied through a restoration project in the summer of 2002.
However, the borough lacks either regulations to prevent further damage or the means to enforce such regulations. Susitna River was named by the Dena’ina Alaska Native people meaning "sandy river"; the Dena'ina language name is Susitnu. The Susitna appears to have been first explored by outsiders in 1834 by a Creole Indian named Malakor; the 1890 census reported that Susitna Village on the east bank of the river had 146 Kenai Natives and 27 houses. Susitna River is on the North side of Cook Inlet 22 miles North-East of North Foreland. Mount Susitna, a prominent landmark along the upper part of the inlet, is about 6 miles West of the Susitna River at a point 13 miles above the mouth; the channels across the flats at the mouth of Susitna River have depths of 2 feet or less at low water and change during the winter and spring because of ice and freshet action. The channels above the mouth are said to change in the spring and early summer. Launches navigate Susitna River to Yentna River, about 20 miles above Cook Inlet, thence run up the Yentna River to the forks about 65 miles from the Susitna River.
The tides are not felt more than 7 miles from the inlet, above this the current is swift. Overhead power cables with a least clearance of 37 feet cross the Susitna River about 5 miles above its mouth. Alexander, Alaska is a small settlement on the west side of Susitna River 10 miles above the mouth. Susitna, Alaska is on the East side 18 miles above the mouth and just below the mouth of the Yentna River. Mail is delivered to both settlements twice monthly by airplane from Alaska. Susitna Flats lie to the East of the latter. Susitna Flats Light 61°15′10″N 150°29′17″W, 19 feet above the water, is shown from a skeleton tower and is equipped with a racon. Little Susitna River, 9 miles West of Point MacKenzie, is said to be navigable for landing craft and skiffs at high water for about 8 miles. Caution: the depths offshore and in the approach to Little Susitna River are subject to drastic and continual change; the Susitna River Bridge is a railroad bridge of the Alaska Railroad in south-central Alaska.
It spans the Susitna River on the eastern edge of Denali State Park near Gold Creek. The bridge is on the National Register of Historic Places. Construction of the bridge took place from October 1920 to February 1921; the span is 503 ft. with a height of 71 ft. in the center. The location was chosen, just downstream of a curve, after observing the pattern of ice jams through the preceding three years. Between October 19 and November 14 the Susitna River ices or freezes over for the winter. Between April 12 and May 10 the ice breaks-up for the summer. East Fork Susitna River West Fork Susitna River Yentna River Deshka River Talkeetna River Chulitna River Oshetna River Tyone River Maclaren River List of rivers of Alaska National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration "Cook Inlet - Northern part 1:194,154 nautical chart 16660". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Cook Inlet-Approaches to Anchorage, Alaska. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Co
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com